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Open AccessArticle

Compositional Characterization of Different Industrial White and Red Grape Pomaces in Virginia and the Potential Valorization of the Major Components

1
Department of Food Science and Technology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1230 Washington St. SW, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
2
Department of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences, North Carolina State University, 600 Laureate Way, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA
3
Department of Sustainable Biomaterials, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 230 Cheatham Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
4
White Hall Vineyards, 5282 Sugar Ridge Road, Crozet, VA 22932, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(12), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120667
Received: 20 November 2019 / Revised: 8 December 2019 / Accepted: 10 December 2019 / Published: 11 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Food Security and Sustainability)
To better evaluate potential uses for grape pomace (GP) waste, a comprehensive chemical composition analysis of GP in Virginia was conducted. Eight commercial white and red pomace samples (cv. Viognier, Vidal Blanc, Niagara, Petit Manseng, Petit Verdot, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, and Chambourcin) obtained from different wineries in Virginia, USA were used. For extractives, GPs contained 2.89%–4.66% titratable acids, 4.32%–6.60% ash, 4.62%–12.5% lipids with linoleic acid being the predominant (59.0%–70.9%) fatty acid, 10.4–64.8 g total phenolic content (gallic acid equivalents)/kg GP, 2.09–53.3 g glucose/kg GP, 3.79–52.9 g fructose/kg GP, and trace sucrose. As for non-extractives, GPs contained 25.2%–44.5% lignin, 8.04%–12.7% glucan, 4.42%–7.05% xylan, and trace amounts of galactan, arabinan, and mannan (less than 3% in total). Potential usages of these components were further examined to provide information on better valorization of GP. Considering the valuable extractives (e.g., polyphenols and oil) and non-extractives (e.g., lignin), designing a biorefinery process aiming at fully recover and/or utilize these components is of future significance. View Full-Text
Keywords: grape pomace; chemical composition; fatty acids; polyphenols; carbohydrates; lignin grape pomace; chemical composition; fatty acids; polyphenols; carbohydrates; lignin
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Jin, Q.; O’Hair, J.; Stewart, A.C.; O’Keefe, S.F.; Neilson, A.P.; Kim, Y.-T.; McGuire, M.; Lee, A.; Wilder, G.; Huang, H. Compositional Characterization of Different Industrial White and Red Grape Pomaces in Virginia and the Potential Valorization of the Major Components. Foods 2019, 8, 667.

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