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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Thermal Treatment on the Physical Properties of Edible Calcium Alginate Gel Beads: Response Surface Methodological Approach

Department of Food Science and Technology, Institute of Seafood Science, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513, Korea
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Foods 2019, 8(11), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110578
Received: 15 October 2019 / Revised: 12 November 2019 / Accepted: 13 November 2019 / Published: 15 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
Calcium alginate gel (CAG) has been widely investigated for the development of artificial foods; however, there are few studies on its thermal stability. This study aimed to monitor changes in the physical properties of CAG beads during heat treatment using response surface methodology. Heating temperature (X1, 40–100 °C) and heating time (X2, 5–60 min) were chosen as independent variables. The dependent variables were rupture strength (Y1, kPa), size (Y2, μm), and sphericity (Y3, %). The heating temperature (X1) was the independent variable that had a significant effect on the rupture strength (Y1) and size (Y2). Rupture strength (Y1) increased as the heating temperature (X1) increased; at the same time, the CAG beads size (Y2) decreased. With all conditions, the values of sphericity (Y3) were over 94%. SEM images revealed that increase in the rupture strength of the CAG beads by heat treatment resulted from their porous structures. Loss of moisture by syneresis, occurring with heat treatment, was judged to create a dense porous structure of CAG beads. Our findings offer useful information for cooking or sterilizing food products utilizing CAG beads. In addition, thermal treatment could be applied to produce hard CAG beads with a high rupture strength. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium alginate gel; bead; thermal treatment; physical property; response surface methodology calcium alginate gel; bead; thermal treatment; physical property; response surface methodology
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Kim, S.; Jeong, C.; Cho, S.; Kim, S.-B. Effects of Thermal Treatment on the Physical Properties of Edible Calcium Alginate Gel Beads: Response Surface Methodological Approach. Foods 2019, 8, 578.

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