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Phytosterols Suppress Phagocytosis and Inhibit Inflammatory Mediators via ERK Pathway on LPS-Triggered Inflammatory Responses in RAW264.7 Macrophages and the Correlation with Their Structure

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047, China
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Foods 2019, 8(11), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110582
Received: 29 August 2019 / Revised: 8 October 2019 / Accepted: 13 November 2019 / Published: 16 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemicals in Food and Health)
Phytosterols, found in many commonly consumed foods, exhibit a broad range of physiological activities including anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of ergosterol, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, and ergosterol acetate were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 macrophages. Results showed that all phytosterol compounds alleviated the inflammatory reaction in LPS-induced macrophage models; cell phagocytosis, nitric oxide (NO) production, release of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and expression and activity of pro-inflammatory mediator cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (p-ERK) were all inhibited. The anti-inflammatory activity of β-sitosterol was higher than stigmasterol and campesterol, which suggests that phytosterols without a double bond on C-22 and with ethyl on C-24 were more effective. However, inconsistent results were observed upon comparison of ergosterol and ergosterol acetate (hydroxy or ester group on C-3), which suggest that additional research is still needed to ascertain the contribution of structure to their anti-inflammatory effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: phytosterols; anti-inflammatory; structure–activity relationship; pro-inflammatory mediators; phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase; RAW264.7 macrophages phytosterols; anti-inflammatory; structure–activity relationship; pro-inflammatory mediators; phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase; RAW264.7 macrophages
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Yuan, L.; Zhang, F.; Shen, M.; Jia, S.; Xie, J. Phytosterols Suppress Phagocytosis and Inhibit Inflammatory Mediators via ERK Pathway on LPS-Triggered Inflammatory Responses in RAW264.7 Macrophages and the Correlation with Their Structure. Foods 2019, 8, 582.

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