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Open AccessArticle

Lebanese Population Exposure to Trace Elements via White Bread Consumption

1
Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute LARI, Heavy metals Department, Beirut PO Box 90-1965, Lebanon
2
Lebanese University, Faculty of Science II, Laboratoire d’Analyse Chimique (LAC), Fanar PO Box 90656, Lebanon
3
AgroSup Dijon, Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Biogéosciences UMR 6282, F-21000 Dijon, France
4
Service d’Appui à la recherche, AgroSup Dijon, F-21000 Dijon, France
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AgroSup Dijon, Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, PAM UMR A 02.102, Procédés Alimentaires et Microbiologiques, F-21000 Dijon, France
6
Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, INSERM U1231, NUTOX, Derttech “Packtox”, AgroSup Dijon, F-21000 Dijon, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(11), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110574
Received: 17 October 2019 / Revised: 1 November 2019 / Accepted: 9 November 2019 / Published: 14 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
The objective of this study was to assess Lebanese population exposure to trace elements (TEs) via white pita consumption. A survey of white pita consumption was achieved among one thousand Lebanese individuals, grouped into adults (above 15 years old, men, and women) and young people (6–9 and 10–14 years old). The most consumed pita brands, labeled B1, B2, and B3, were selected. Levels of TEs (i.e., As, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni, and Pb) in B1, B2, B3 pitas were measured. The highest contents of TEs in pitas were: Ni (1292 µg/kg) and Co (91 µg/kg) in B1; As (400 µg/kg) and Cd (< 15 µg/kg) in B2; Cr (363 µg/kg), Pb (260 µg/kg), and Hg (0.89 µg/kg) in B3. The pita brand B3 was the source of the highest TEs exposure, except for Ni for which it was B1. Daily exposures to TEs due to the fact of pita consumption were compared to safety levels. There were no safety concerns for Hg, Cd, Cr or Co (except the 95th percentile of 6–9 years old). An excess of the Ni tolerable daily intake was observed for the most exposed populations. The very low margins of exposure for As and Pb suggest a worrying risk for the Lebanese population. View Full-Text
Keywords: survey; trace elements analysis; Lebanese pita; human exposure; risk characterization survey; trace elements analysis; Lebanese pita; human exposure; risk characterization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lebbos, N.; Daou, C.; Ouaini, R.; Chebib, H.; Afram, M.; Curmi, P.; Dujourdy, L.; Bou-Maroun, E.; Chagnon, M.-C. Lebanese Population Exposure to Trace Elements via White Bread Consumption. Foods 2019, 8, 574.

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