Use of Essential Oils and Volatile Compounds as Biological Control Agents

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Quality and Safety".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2020) | Viewed by 64143

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Guest Editor
Integrated and Urban Plant Pathology Research Laboratory, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liège, Belgium
Interests: biocontrol; essential oils; VOCs; urban agriculture; plant pathology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Agriculture Is Life, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liège, Belgium
Interests: VOCs; biocontrol; mode of action; essential oils

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Essential oils (EOs) and microbial/plant-based volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are being used in an increasing number of sectors such as health, cosmetics, the food industry and, more recently, agronomy. In agronomy, they are employed as bio-herbicides and bio-pesticides due to their their insecticidal, antifungal, and bactericidal effects. Several EO-based bio-pesticides are already registered.

Essential oils and other VOCs are 100% bio-based and present numerous additional advantages. They contain a great number of structurally diverse compounds that frequently act in synergy; they are thus less subject to resistance. As highly volatile compounds are found in EOs and VOCs, they typically cause no residue problems in food products or in soils.

Indeed, the supply of EOs can be really challenging because they are frequently produced in restricted areas of the world with prices and chemical composition fluctuations. Besides, while the high volatility of EOs and VOCs is interesting for some specific applications, it can be a problem when developing a bio-pesticide with long lasting effects. Finally, EOs are frequently phytotoxic, which is perfect for herbicide formulations, but not for other applications. In both cases, the development of a proper formulation is essential.

Owing to the current attraction for natural products, a better understanding of their modes of biological action is of importance for the development of new and optimal applications.

Prof. Marie-Laure Fauconnier
Prof. Mohamed Haïssam Jijakli
Dr. Caroline de Clerck
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Volatile organic compounds
  • VOCs
  • Bio-pesticide
  • Mode of action
  • Formulation

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 179 KiB  
Editorial
Use of Essential Oils and Volatile Compounds as Biological Control Agents
by Caroline De Clerck, Manon Genva, M. Haissam Jijakli and Marie-Laure Fauconnier
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1062; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10051062 - 12 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1899
Abstract
Plants containing essential oils have been used for centuries as spices, remedies or for their pleasant odor [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

15 pages, 3239 KiB  
Article
Mulberry Protection through Flowering-Stage Essential Oil of Artemisia annua against the Lesser Mulberry Pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker
by Marziyeh Oftadeh, Jalal Jalali Sendi, Asgar Ebadollahi, William N. Setzer and Patcharin Krutmuang
Foods 2021, 10(2), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020210 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2879
Abstract
In the present study, the toxicity and physiological disorders of the essential oil isolated from Artemisia annua flowers were assessed against one of the main insect pests of mulberry, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker, announcing one of the safe and effective alternatives to synthetic pesticides. [...] Read more.
In the present study, the toxicity and physiological disorders of the essential oil isolated from Artemisia annua flowers were assessed against one of the main insect pests of mulberry, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker, announcing one of the safe and effective alternatives to synthetic pesticides. The LC50 (lethal concentration to kill 50% of tested insects) values of the oral and fumigant bioassays of A. annua essential oil were 1.204 % W/V and 3.343 μL/L air, respectively. The A. annua essential oil, rich in camphor, artemisia ketone, β-selinene, pinocarvone, 1,8-cineole, and α-pinene, caused a significant reduction in digestive and detoxifying enzyme activity of G. pyloalis larvae. The contents of protein, glucose, and triglyceride were also reduced in the treated larvae by oral and fumigant treatments. The immune system in treated larvae was weakened after both oral and fumigation applications compared to the control groups. Histological studies on the midgut and ovaries showed that A. annua essential oil caused an obvious change in the distribution of the principal cells of tissues and reduction in yolk spheres in oocytes. Therefore, it is suggested that the essential oil from A. annua flowers, with wide-range bio-effects on G. pyloalis, be used as an available, safe, effective insecticide in the protection of mulberry. Full article
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15 pages, 6787 KiB  
Article
Use of New Glycerol-Based Dendrimers for Essential Oils Encapsulation: Optimization of Stirring Time and Rate Using a Plackett—Burman Design and a Surface Response Methodology
by Chloë Maes, Yves Brostaux, Sandrine Bouquillon and Marie-Laure Fauconnier
Foods 2021, 10(2), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020207 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2117
Abstract
Essential oils are used in an increasing number of applications including biopesticides. Their volatility minimizes the risk of residue but can also be a constraint if the release is rapid and uncontrolled. Solutions allowing the encapsulation of essential oils are therefore strongly researched. [...] Read more.
Essential oils are used in an increasing number of applications including biopesticides. Their volatility minimizes the risk of residue but can also be a constraint if the release is rapid and uncontrolled. Solutions allowing the encapsulation of essential oils are therefore strongly researched. In this study, essential oils encapsulation was carried out within dendrimers to control their volatility. Indeed, a spontaneous complexation occurs in a solution of dendrimers with essential oils which maintains it longer. Six parameters (temperature, stirring rate, relative concentration, solvent volume, stirring time, and pH) of this reaction has been optimized by two steps: first a screening of the parameters that influence the encapsulation with a Plackett–Burmann design the most followed by an optimization of those ones by a surface response methodology. In this study, two essential oils with herbicide properties were used: the essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume and Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt; and four biosourced dendrimers: glycerodendrimers derived from polypropylenimine and polyamidoamine, a glyceroclikdendrimer, and a glyceroladendrimer. Meta-analysis of all Plackett–Burman assays determined that rate and stirring time were effective on the retention rate thereby these parameters were used for the surface response methodology part. Each combination gives a different optimum depending on the structure of these molecules. Full article
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13 pages, 750 KiB  
Article
Insecticidal Activity of 25 Essential Oils on the Stored Product Pest, Sitophilus granarius
by Sébastien Demeter, Olivier Lebbe, Florence Hecq, Stamatios C. Nicolis, Tierry Kenne Kemene, Henri Martin, Marie-Laure Fauconnier and Thierry Hance
Foods 2021, 10(2), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020200 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 4214
Abstract
The granary weevil Sitophilus granarius is a stored product pest found worldwide. Environmental damages, human health issues and the emergence of resistance are driving scientists to seeks alternatives to synthetic insecticides for its control. With low mammal toxicity and low persistence, essential oils [...] Read more.
The granary weevil Sitophilus granarius is a stored product pest found worldwide. Environmental damages, human health issues and the emergence of resistance are driving scientists to seeks alternatives to synthetic insecticides for its control. With low mammal toxicity and low persistence, essential oils are more and more being considered a potential alternative. In this study, we compare the toxicity of 25 essential oils, representing a large array of chemical compositions, on adult granary weevils. Bioassays indicated that Allium sativum was the most toxic essential oil, with the lowest calculated lethal concentration 90 (LC90) both after 24 h and 7 days. Gaultheria procumbens, Mentha arvensis and Eucalyptus dives oils appeared to have a good potential in terms of toxicity/cost ratio for further development of a plant-derived biocide. Low influence of exposure time was observed for most of essential oils. The methodology developed here offers the possibility to test a large array of essential oils in the same experimental bioassay and in a standardized way. It is a first step to the development of new biocide for alternative management strategies of stored product pests. Full article
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11 pages, 2706 KiB  
Article
Screening of Antifungal and Antibacterial Activity of 90 Commercial Essential Oils against 10 Pathogens of Agronomical Importance
by Caroline De Clerck, Simon Dal Maso, Olivier Parisi, Frédéric Dresen, Abdesselam Zhiri and M. Haissam Jijakli
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1418; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101418 - 7 Oct 2020
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 3875
Abstract
Nowadays, the demand for a reduction of chemical pesticides use is growing. In parallel, the development of alternative methods to protect crops from pathogens and pests is also increasing. Essential oil (EO) properties against plant pathogens are well known, and they are recognized [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the demand for a reduction of chemical pesticides use is growing. In parallel, the development of alternative methods to protect crops from pathogens and pests is also increasing. Essential oil (EO) properties against plant pathogens are well known, and they are recognized as having an interesting potential as alternative plant protection products. In this study, 90 commercially available essential oils have been screened in vitro for antifungal and antibacterial activity against 10 plant pathogens of agronomical importance. EOs have been tested at 500 and 1000 ppm, and measures have been made at three time points for fungi (24, 72 and 120 h of contact) and every two hours for 12 h for bacteria, using Elisa microplates. Among the EOs tested, the ones from Allium sativum, Corydothymus capitatus, Cinnamomum cassia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Eugenia caryophyllus, and Litsea citrata were particularly efficient and showed activity on a large panel of pathogens. Among the pathogens tested, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, and Fusarium graminearum were the most sensitive, while Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and Phytophthora infestans were the less sensitive. Some EOs, such as the ones from A. sativum, C. capitatus, C. cassia, C. zeylanicum, C. citratus, C. flexuosus, E. caryophyllus, and L. citrata, have a generalist effect, and are active on several pathogens (7 to 10). These oils are rich in phenols, phenylpropanoids, organosulfur compounds, and/or aldehydes. Others, such as EOs from Citrus sinensis, Melaleucacajputii, and Vanilla fragrans, seem more specific, and are only active on one to three pathogens. These oils are rich in terpenes and aldehydes. Full article
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21 pages, 1885 KiB  
Article
Use of Essential Oils to Increase the Safety and the Quality of Marinated Pork Loin
by Lorenzo Siroli, Giulia Baldi, Francesca Soglia, Danka Bukvicki, Francesca Patrignani, Massimiliano Petracci and Rosalba Lanciotti
Foods 2020, 9(8), 987; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9080987 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3952
Abstract
This study aimed at evaluating the effects of the addition of an oil/beer/lemon marinade solution with or without the inclusion of oregano, rosemary and juniper essential oils on the quality, the technological properties as well as the shelf-life and safety of vacuum-packed pork [...] Read more.
This study aimed at evaluating the effects of the addition of an oil/beer/lemon marinade solution with or without the inclusion of oregano, rosemary and juniper essential oils on the quality, the technological properties as well as the shelf-life and safety of vacuum-packed pork loin meat. The results obtained suggested that, aside from the addition of essential oils, the marination process allowed to reduce meat pH, thus improving its water holding capacity. Instrumental and sensorial tests showed that the marination also enhanced the tenderness of meat samples, with those marinated with essential oils being the most positively perceived by the panelists. In addition, microbiological data indicated that the marinated samples showed a lower microbial load of the main spoiling microorganisms compared to the control samples, from the 6th to the 13th day of storage, regardless of the addition of essential oils. Marination also allowed to inhibit the pathogens Salmonella enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, thus increasing the microbiological safety of the product. Overall outcomes suggest that the oil/beer/lemon marinade solution added with essential oils might represent a promising strategy to improve both qualitative and sensory characteristics as well as the safety of meat products. Full article
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8 pages, 237 KiB  
Communication
Composition of the Essential Oil and Insecticidal Activity of Launaea taraxacifolia (Willd.) Amin ex C. Jeffrey Growing in Nigeria
by Moses S. Owolabi, Akintayo L. Ogundajo, Azeezat O. Alafia, Kafayat O. Ajelara and William N. Setzer
Foods 2020, 9(7), 914; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070914 - 11 Jul 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2636
Abstract
The rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae) is a pest of stored grain products such as rice, wheat, and corn. Essential oils represent a green environmentally-friendly alternative to synthetic pesticides for controlling stored-product insect pests. Launaea taraxacifolia is a leafy vegetable plant found [...] Read more.
The rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae) is a pest of stored grain products such as rice, wheat, and corn. Essential oils represent a green environmentally-friendly alternative to synthetic pesticides for controlling stored-product insect pests. Launaea taraxacifolia is a leafy vegetable plant found in several parts of Nigeria. The leaves are eaten either fresh as a salad or cooked as a sauce. The essential oil obtained from fresh leaves of L. taraxacifolia was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-nine compounds were identified, accounting for 100% of the oil composition. The major component classes were monoterpene hydrocarbons (78.1%), followed by oxygenated monoterpenoids (16.2%), sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (2.1%), oxygenated sesquiterpenoids (0.3%), and non-terpenoid derivatives (3.3%). The leaf essential oil was dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons including limonene (48.8%), sabinene (18.8%), and (E)-β-ocimene (4.6%), along with the monoterpenoid aldehyde citronellal (11.0%). The contact insecticidal activity of L. taraxacifolia essential oil against Sitophilus oryzae was carried out; median lethal concentration (LC50) values of topical exposure of L. taraxacifolia essential oil were assessed over a 120-h period. The LC50 values ranged from 54.38 μL/mL (24 h) to 10.10 µL/mL (120 h). The insecticidal activity of the L. taraxacifolia essential oil can be attributed to major components limonene (48.8%), sabinene (18.8%), and citronellal (11.0%), as well as potential synergistic action of the essential oil components. This result showed L. taraxacifolia essential oil may be considered as a useful alternative to synthetic insecticides. Full article
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16 pages, 2109 KiB  
Article
Thyme Antimicrobial Effect in Edible Films with High Pressure Thermally Treated Whey Protein Concentrate
by Iulia Bleoancă, Elena Enachi and Daniela Borda
Foods 2020, 9(7), 855; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070855 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2954
Abstract
Application of high pressure-thermal treatment (600 MPa and 70 °C, 20 min) for obtaining edible films functionalized with thyme extracts have been studied in order to evaluate the antimicrobial capacity of films structure to retain and release the bioactive compounds. The high pressure-thermally [...] Read more.
Application of high pressure-thermal treatment (600 MPa and 70 °C, 20 min) for obtaining edible films functionalized with thyme extracts have been studied in order to evaluate the antimicrobial capacity of films structure to retain and release the bioactive compounds. The high pressure-thermally treated films (HPT) were compared with the thermally treated (TT) ones (80 ± 0.5 °C, 35 min). The film structures were analyzed and the sorption isotherms, water vapor permeability, antimicrobial activity and the volatile fingerprints by GC/MS were performed. The HPT film presented more binding sites for water chemi-sorption than TT films and displayed significantly lower WVP than TT films (p < 0.05). TT films displayed slightly, but significant higher, antimicrobial activity (p < 0.05) against Geotrichum candidum in the first day and against Bacillus subtilis in the 10th day of storage. The HPT film structure had ~1.5-fold higher capacity to retain volatiles after drying compared to TT films. From the HPT films higher amount of p-cymene and α-terpinene was volatilized during 10 days of storage at 25 °C, 50% RH while from the TT films higher amount of caryophyllene and carvacrol were released. During storage HPT films had a 2-fold lower capacity to retain monoterpenes compared to TT films. Full article
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12 pages, 684 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Toxicity of Satureja intermedia C. A. Mey Essential Oil to Storage and Greenhouse Insect Pests and a Predator Ladybird
by Asgar Ebadollahi and William N. Setzer
Foods 2020, 9(6), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060712 - 2 Jun 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2862
Abstract
The use of chemical insecticides has had several side-effects, such as environmental contamination, foodborne residues, and human health threats. The utilization of plant-derived essential oils as efficient bio-rational agents has been acknowledged in pest management strategies. In the present study, the fumigant toxicity [...] Read more.
The use of chemical insecticides has had several side-effects, such as environmental contamination, foodborne residues, and human health threats. The utilization of plant-derived essential oils as efficient bio-rational agents has been acknowledged in pest management strategies. In the present study, the fumigant toxicity of essential oil isolated from Satureja intermedia was assessed against cosmopolitan stored-product insect pests: Trogoderma granarium Everts (khapra beetle), Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius) (lesser grain borer), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (red flour beetle), and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (saw-toothed grain beetle). The essential oil had significant fumigant toxicity against tested insects, which positively depended on essential oil concentrations and the exposure times. Comparative contact toxicity of S. intermedia essential oil was measured against Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe (oleander aphid) and its predator Coccinella septempunctata L. (seven-spot ladybird). Adult females of A. nerii were more susceptible to the contact toxicity than the C. septempunctata adults. The dominant compounds in the essential oil of S. intermedia were thymol (48.1%), carvacrol (11.8%), p-cymene (8.1%), and γ-terpinene (8.1%). The high fumigant toxicity against four major stored-product insect pests, the significant aphidicidal effect on A. nerii, and relative safety to the general predator C. septempunctata make terpene-rich S. intermedia essential oil a potential candidate for use as a plant-based alternative to the detrimental synthetic insecticides. Full article
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16 pages, 1182 KiB  
Article
Common Plant-Derived Terpenoids Present Increased Anti-Biofilm Potential against Staphylococcus Bacteria Compared to a Quaternary Ammonium Biocide
by Dimitra Kostoglou, Ioannis Protopappas and Efstathios Giaouris
Foods 2020, 9(6), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060697 - 1 Jun 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3273
Abstract
The antimicrobial actions of three common plant-derived terpenoids (i.e., carvacrol, thymol and eugenol) were compared to those of a typical quaternary ammonium biocide (i.e., benzalkonium chloride; BAC), against both planktonic and biofilm cells of two widespread Staphylococcus species (i.e., S. aureus and S. [...] Read more.
The antimicrobial actions of three common plant-derived terpenoids (i.e., carvacrol, thymol and eugenol) were compared to those of a typical quaternary ammonium biocide (i.e., benzalkonium chloride; BAC), against both planktonic and biofilm cells of two widespread Staphylococcus species (i.e., S. aureus and S. epidermidis). The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MICs, MBCs) of each compound against the planktonic cells of each species were initially determined, together with their minimum biofilm eradication concentrations (MBECs). Various concentrations of each compound were subsequently applied, for 6 min, against each type of cell, and survivors were enumerated by agar plating to calculate log reductions and determine the resistance coefficients (Rc) for each compound, as anti-biofilm effectiveness indicators. Sessile communities were always more resistant than planktonic ones, depending on the biocide and species. Although lower BAC concentrations were always needed to kill a specified population of either cell type compared to the terpenoids, for the latter, the required increases in their concentrations, to be equally effective against the biofilm cells with respect to the planktonic ones, were not as intense as those observed in the case of BAC, presenting thus significantly lower Rc. This indicates their significant anti-biofilm potential and advocate for their further promising use as anti-biofilm agents. Full article
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26 pages, 1707 KiB  
Article
Seasonal Effect on the Chemical Composition, Insecticidal Properties and Other Biological Activities of Zanthoxylum leprieurii Guill. & Perr. Essential Oils
by Evelyne Amenan Tanoh, Guy Blanchard Boué, Fatimata Nea, Manon Genva, Esse Leon Wognin, Allison Ledoux, Henri Martin, Zanahi Felix Tonzibo, Michel Frederich and Marie-Laure Fauconnier
Foods 2020, 9(5), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050550 - 1 May 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3604
Abstract
This study focused, for the first time, on the evaluation of the seasonal effect on the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils hydrodistillated from leaves, trunk bark and fruits of Zanthoxylum leprieurii (Z. leprieurii), a traditional medicinal wild plant [...] Read more.
This study focused, for the first time, on the evaluation of the seasonal effect on the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils hydrodistillated from leaves, trunk bark and fruits of Zanthoxylum leprieurii (Z. leprieurii), a traditional medicinal wild plant growing in Côte d’Ivoire. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation from fresh organs of Z. leprieurii growing on the same site over several months using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Leaf essential oils were dominated by tridecan-2-one (9.00 ± 0.02–36.80 ± 0.06%), (E)-β-ocimene (1.30 ± 0.50–23.57 ± 0.47%), β-caryophyllene (7.00 ± 1.02–19.85 ± 0.48%), dendrolasin (1.79 ± 0.08–16.40 ± 0.85%) and undecan-2-one (1.20 ± 0.03–8.51 ± 0.35%). Fruit essential oils were rich in β-myrcene (16.40 ± 0.91–48.27 ± 0.26%), citronellol (1.90 ± 0.02–28.24 ± 0.10%) and geranial (5.30 ± 0.53–12.50 ± 0.47%). Tridecan-2-one (45.26 ± 0.96–78.80 ± 0.55%), β-caryophyllene (1.80 ± 0.23–13.20 ± 0.33%), α-humulene (4.30 ± 1.09–12.73 ± 1.41%) and tridecan-2-ol (2.23 ± 0.17–10.10 ± 0.61%) were identified as major components of trunk bark oils. Statistical analyses of essential oil compositions showed that the variability mainly comes from the organs. Indeed, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) allowed us to cluster the samples into three groups, each one consisting of one different Z. leprieurii organ, showing that essential oils hydrodistillated from the different organs do not display the same chemical composition. However, significant differences in essential oil compositions for the same organ were highlighted during the studied period, showing the impact of the seasonal effect on essential oil compositions. Biological activities of the produced essential oils were also investigated. Essential oils exhibited high insecticidal activities against Sitophilus granarius, as well as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and moderate anti-plasmodial properties. Full article
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10 pages, 910 KiB  
Article
Corn-Starch-Based Materials Incorporated with Cinnamon Oil Emulsion: Physico-Chemical Characterization and Biological Activity
by Edaena Pamela Díaz-Galindo, Aleksandra Nesic, Silvia Bautista-Baños, Octavio Dublan García and Gustavo Cabrera-Barjas
Foods 2020, 9(4), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040475 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3990
Abstract
Active packaging represents a large and diverse group of materials, with its main role being to prolong the shelf-life of food products. In this work, active biomaterials based on thermoplastic starch-containing cinnamon oil emulsions were prepared by the compression molding technique. The thermal, [...] Read more.
Active packaging represents a large and diverse group of materials, with its main role being to prolong the shelf-life of food products. In this work, active biomaterials based on thermoplastic starch-containing cinnamon oil emulsions were prepared by the compression molding technique. The thermal, mechanical, and antifungal properties of obtained materials were evaluated. The results showed that the encapsulation of cinnamon oil emulsions did not influence the thermal stability of materials. Mechanical resistance to break was reduced by 27.4%, while elongation at break was increased by 44.0% by the addition of cinnamon oil emulsion. Moreover, the novel material provided a decrease in the growth rate of Botrytis cinerea by 66%, suggesting potential application in food packaging as an active biomaterial layer to hinder further contamination of fruits during the storage and transport period. Full article
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13 pages, 697 KiB  
Article
Toxicity and Synergistic Effect of Elsholtzia ciliata Essential Oil and Its Main Components against the Adult and Larval Stages of Tribolium castaneum
by Jun-Yu Liang, Jie Xu, Ying-Ying Yang, Ya-Zhou Shao, Feng Zhou and Jun-Long Wang
Foods 2020, 9(3), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030345 - 16 Mar 2020
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 4656
Abstract
Investigations have indicated that storage pests pose a great threat to global food security by damaging food crops and other food products derived from plants. Essential oils are proven to have significant effects on a large number of stored grain insects. This study [...] Read more.
Investigations have indicated that storage pests pose a great threat to global food security by damaging food crops and other food products derived from plants. Essential oils are proven to have significant effects on a large number of stored grain insects. This study evaluated the contact toxicity and fumigant activity of the essential oil extract from the aerial parts of Elsholtzia ciliata and its two major biochemical components against adults and larvae of the food storage pest beetle Tribolium castaneum. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis revealed 16 different components derived from the essential oil of E. ciliata, which included carvone (31.63%), limonene (22.05%), and α-caryophyllene (15.47%). Contact toxicity assay showed that the essential oil extract exhibited a microgram-level of killing activity against T. castaneum adults (lethal dose 50 (LD50) = 7.79 μg/adult) and larvae (LD50 = 24.87 μg/larva). Fumigant toxicity assay showed LD50 of 11.61 mg/L air for adults and 8.73 mg/L air for larvae. Carvone and limonene also exhibited various levels of bioactivity. A binary mixture (2:6) of carvone and limonene displayed obvious contact toxicity against T. castaneum adults (LD50 = 10.84 μg/adult) and larvae (LD50 = 30.62 μg/larva). Furthermore, carvone and limonene exhibited synergistic fumigant activity against T. castaneum larvae at a 1:7 ratio. Altogether, our results suggest that E. ciliata essential oil and its two monomers have a potential application value to eliminate T. castaneum. Full article
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19 pages, 2319 KiB  
Article
Volatile Transference and Antimicrobial Activity of Cheeses Made with Ewes’ Milk Fortified with Essential Oils
by Carmen C. Licon, Armando Moro, Celia M. Librán, Ana M. Molina, Amaya Zalacain, M. Isabel Berruga and Manuel Carmona
Foods 2020, 9(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010035 - 1 Jan 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4333
Abstract
During the last decades, essential oils (EOs) have been proven to be a natural alternative to additives or pasteurization for the prevention of microbial spoilage in several food matrices. In this work, we tested the antimicrobial activity of EOs from Melissa officinalis, [...] Read more.
During the last decades, essential oils (EOs) have been proven to be a natural alternative to additives or pasteurization for the prevention of microbial spoilage in several food matrices. In this work, we tested the antimicrobial activity of EOs from Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, and Thymus vulgaris against three different microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Clostridium tyrobutyricum, and Penicillium verrucosum. Pressed ewes’ cheese made from milk fortified with EOs (250 mg/kg) was used as a model. The carryover effect of each oil was studied by analyzing the volatile fraction of dairy samples along the cheese-making process using headspace stir bar sorptive extraction coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results showed that the EOs contained in T. vulgaris effectively reduced the counts of C. tyrobutyricum and inhibited completely the growth of P. verrucosum without affecting the natural flora present in the cheese. By contrast, the inhibitory effect of M. officinalis against lactic acid bacteria starter cultures rendered this oil unsuitable for this matrix. Full article
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12 pages, 615 KiB  
Communication
Inhibition of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica Isolates on Spinach Leaf Surfaces Using Eugenol-Loaded Surfactant Micelles
by Songsirin Ruengvisesh, Chris R. Kerth and T. Matthew Taylor
Foods 2019, 8(11), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110575 - 15 Nov 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3938
Abstract
Spinach and other leafy green vegetables have been linked to foodborne disease outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica around the globe. In this study, the antimicrobial activities of surfactant micelles formed from the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), SDS micelle-loaded [...] Read more.
Spinach and other leafy green vegetables have been linked to foodborne disease outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica around the globe. In this study, the antimicrobial activities of surfactant micelles formed from the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), SDS micelle-loaded eugenol (1.0% eugenol), 1.0% free eugenol, 200 ppm free chlorine, and sterile water were tested against the human pathogens E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Saintpaul, and naturally occurring microorganisms, on spinach leaf surfaces during storage at 5 °C over 10 days. Spinach samples were immersed in antimicrobial treatment solution for 2.0 min at 25 °C, after which treatment solutions were drained off and samples were either subjected to analysis or prepared for refrigerated storage. Whereas empty SDS micelles produced moderate reductions in counts of both pathogens (2.1–3.2 log10 CFU/cm2), free and micelle-entrapped eugenol treatments reduced pathogens by >5.0 log10 CFU/cm2 to below the limit of detection (<0.5 log10 CFU/cm2). Micelle-loaded eugenol produced the greatest numerical reductions in naturally contaminating aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, and fungi, though these reductions did not differ statistically from reductions achieved by un-encapsulated eugenol and 200 ppm chlorine. Micelles-loaded eugenol could be used as a novel antimicrobial technology to decontaminate fresh spinach from microbial pathogens. Full article
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17 pages, 605 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Properties of Encapsulated Antimicrobial Natural Plant Products for Ready-to-Eat Carrots
by Yosra Ben-Fadhel, Behnoush Maherani, Melinda Aragones and Monique Lacroix
Foods 2019, 8(11), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8110535 - 1 Nov 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3844
Abstract
The antimicrobial activity of natural antimicrobials (fruit extracts, essential oils and derivates), was assessed against six bacteria species (E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, S. Typhimurium, B. subtilis, E. faecium and S. aureus), two molds (A. flavus and [...] Read more.
The antimicrobial activity of natural antimicrobials (fruit extracts, essential oils and derivates), was assessed against six bacteria species (E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, S. Typhimurium, B. subtilis, E. faecium and S. aureus), two molds (A. flavus and P. chrysogenum) and a yeast (C. albicans) using disk diffusion method. Then, the antimicrobial compounds having high inhibitory capacity were evaluated for the determination of their minimum inhibitory, bactericidal and fungicidal concentration (MIC, MBC and MFC respectively). Total phenols and flavonoids content, radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power of selected compounds were also evaluated. Based on in vitro assays, five antimicrobial compounds were selected for their lowest effective concentration. Results showed that, most of these antimicrobial compounds had a high concentration of total phenols and flavonoids and a good anti-oxidant and anti-radical activity. In situ study showed that natural antimicrobials mix, applied on the carrot surface, reduced significantly the count of the initial mesophilic total flora (TMF), molds and yeasts and allowed an extension of the shelf-life of carrots by two days as compared to the control. However, the chemical treatment (mix of peroxyacetic acid and hydrogen peroxide) showed antifungal activity and a slight reduction of TMF. Full article
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Review

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24 pages, 1260 KiB  
Review
Phytotoxicity of Essential Oils: Opportunities and Constraints for the Development of Biopesticides. A Review
by Pierre-Yves Werrie, Bastien Durenne, Pierre Delaplace and Marie-Laure Fauconnier
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1291; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091291 - 14 Sep 2020
Cited by 92 | Viewed by 7552
Abstract
The extensive use of chemical pesticides leads to risks for both the environment and human health due to the toxicity and poor biodegradability that they may present. Farmers therefore need alternative agricultural practices including the use of natural molecules to achieve more sustainable [...] Read more.
The extensive use of chemical pesticides leads to risks for both the environment and human health due to the toxicity and poor biodegradability that they may present. Farmers therefore need alternative agricultural practices including the use of natural molecules to achieve more sustainable production methods to meet consumer and societal expectations. Numerous studies have reported the potential of essential oils as biopesticides for integrated weed or pest management. However, their phytotoxic properties have long been a major drawback for their potential applicability (apart from herbicidal application). Therefore, deciphering the mode of action of essential oils exogenously applied in regards to their potential phytotoxicity will help in the development of biopesticides for sustainable agriculture. Nowadays, plant physiologists are attempting to understand the mechanisms underlying their phytotoxicity at both cellular and molecular levels using transcriptomic and metabolomic tools. This review systematically discusses the functional and cellular impacts of essential oils applied in the agronomic context. Putative molecular targets and resulting physiological disturbances are described. New opportunities regarding the development of biopesticides are discussed including biostimulation and defense elicitation or priming properties of essential oils. Full article
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