Next Issue
Volume 12, February-2
Previous Issue
Volume 12, January-2
 
 

Foods, Volume 12, Issue 3 (February-1 2023) – 255 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) is an efficient and non-invasive technique that, in association with advanced chemometric methods, can be very useful in meat science. The well-described advantages of NIR in terms of operational speed and possible implementation of in-line, online, or at-line process monitoring are widely recognized. The accuracy of the SVM predicting models was used to assess some important characteristics of meat quality in minced samples of Bísaro pigs fattened in an open-air system using the corresponding spectra obtained in the near infrared region. The results showed the ability of NIRs as a promising method for predicting the meat quality characteristics of Bísaro pigs and the usefulness of the technique in the industry to monitor the quality of meat products. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
17 pages, 3000 KiB  
Article
α-Linolenic Acid Inhibits RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis In Vitro and Prevents Inflammation In Vivo
by Yufeng Deng, Weizhou Li, Yingying Zhang, Jingjing Li, Fangting He, Ke Dong, Zehui Hong, Ruocheng Luo and Xiaofang Pei
Foods 2023, 12(3), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030682 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2414
Abstract
Inflammation is an important risk factor for bone-destroying diseases. Our preliminary research found that Zanthoxylum bungeanum seed oil (ZBSO) is abundant in unsaturated fatty acids and could inhibit osteoclastogenesis in receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced RAW264.7 cells. However, the key [...] Read more.
Inflammation is an important risk factor for bone-destroying diseases. Our preliminary research found that Zanthoxylum bungeanum seed oil (ZBSO) is abundant in unsaturated fatty acids and could inhibit osteoclastogenesis in receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced RAW264.7 cells. However, the key constituents in ZBSO in the prevention of osteoclastogenesis and its possible mechanism related to inflammation are still unclear. Therefore, in this study, oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA), palmitoleic acid (PLA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in ZBSO, havingthe strongest effect on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, were selected by a tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining method. Furthermore, the effects of the selected fatty acids on anti-inflammation and anti-osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo were assessed using RT-qPCR. Among the four major unsaturated fatty acids we tested, ALA displayed the strongest inhibitory effect on osteoclastogenesis. The increased expression of free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFAR4) and β-arrestin2 (βarr2), as well as the decreased expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nuclear factor of activated T-cells c1 (NFATc1), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) in RAW264.7 cells after ALA treatment were observed. Moreover, in ovariectomized osteoporotic rats with ALA preventive intervention, we found that the expression of TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), NFATc1, and TRAP were decreased, while with the ALA therapeutic intervention, downregulated expression of NF-κB, NFATc1, TRAP, and transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) were noticed. These results indicate that ALA, as the major unsaturated fatty acid in ZBSO, could inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis via the FFAR4/βarr2 signaling pathway and could prevent inflammation, suggesting that ZBSO may be a promising potential natural product of unsaturated fatty acids and a dietary supplement for the prevention of osteoclastogenesis and inflammatory diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 10251 KiB  
Article
Pollution Characteristics, Spatial Distribution, and Evaluation of Heavy Metal(loid)s in Farmland Soils in a Typical Mountainous Hilly Area in China
by Guohui Shen, Xin Ru, Yanting Gu, Wei Liu, Kunzhen Wang, Baiyi Li, Yanzhi Guo and Juan Han
Foods 2023, 12(3), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030681 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2219
Abstract
Heavy metal(loid)s pollution in farmland soil is not only a serious environmental but also a human health-related issue. Accurate understanding and evaluation of heavy metal pollution levels in the soil are very important for sustainable agricultural development and food safety. Mountainous and hilly [...] Read more.
Heavy metal(loid)s pollution in farmland soil is not only a serious environmental but also a human health-related issue. Accurate understanding and evaluation of heavy metal pollution levels in the soil are very important for sustainable agricultural development and food safety. Mountainous and hilly areas have the dual functions of industrial development and agricultural production, and the farmland soil in these areas is more susceptible to heavy metal pollution. In this study, the single factor index, Nemerow index, geo-accumulation index, enrichment factor index, and potential ecological risk indices, which are mainly used to assess the contamination and risk of heavy metals in farmland soils. The sources of heavy metals in agricultural soils of the study area were analyzed using correlation analysis and principal component analysis. Finally, geostatistical methods were used to map the heavy metal contamination of farmland soils. An average concentration of all heavy metals (except As) in farmland soils of the study area exceeded the corresponding background values, as indicated by the obtained results. The results of the principal component analysis showed that the heavy metal sources in the soils of the study area can be classified into two groups. The five pollutant index methods all showed the most serious Hg pollution in the study area. The integrated pollutant mapping results showed that the risk of heavy metal pollution in the study area was mostly moderate, except for the western and central parts of the region. This study enhances understanding of the pollution levers of heavy metals in Yiyuan farmland soils, and also can facilitate the monitoring of heavy metal contaminants at the primary stage of the food chain and assess the risk of the presence of heavy metal contaminants in food, thus improving the health of the residents. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 3339 KiB  
Article
Development of a Novel Low-Calorie Lime Juice-Based Prebiotic Beverage Using a Combined Design Optimization Methodology
by Leila Abolghasemi Fakhri, Babak Ghanbarzadeh and Pasquale M. Falcone
Foods 2023, 12(3), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030680 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1833
Abstract
A novel lime-juice based low-calorie functional beverage was developed by using D-optimal combined design optimization. For the preparation of the beverage, the following functional ingredients were used: lime juice, lime peel essential oil (LEO) as a flavoring agent and bioactive component, sucralose as [...] Read more.
A novel lime-juice based low-calorie functional beverage was developed by using D-optimal combined design optimization. For the preparation of the beverage, the following functional ingredients were used: lime juice, lime peel essential oil (LEO) as a flavoring agent and bioactive component, sucralose as a low-calorie sweetener, an inulin/polydextrose (I/P) mixture as prebiotic fibers, pectin as a thickening agent and soluble dietary fiber, lutein as a carotenoid colorant and antioxidant, and peppermint extract (ME) as a flavoring agent and bioactive component. A combined design consisting of one mixture factor (LEO/ME ratio), one numeric factor (lutein concentration), and one categoric factor (presence or absence of prebiotics) was used for optimizing the functional beverage based on the sensory quality. Regression models were adequately fitted to the data of sensory acceptance with a determination coefficient >90%. The sample containing a mixture of prebiotics, 2:3 (v/v) ratio of LEO: ME, and 3 mg/100 mL lutein was selected as the best formulation among the six optimal beverages which was suggested by Design-Expert software. This final optimum sample showed the highest total phenolic (44.22 mg gallic acid equivalents/L) and flavonoid (25.49 mg quercetin equivalents/L) contents, and its antioxidant activity (as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging) was 38.30%. The newly designed beverage has the potential to promote health benefits and in therapeutic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Drinks and Liquid Nutrition)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

18 pages, 7615 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical and Sensory Properties and Shelf Life of Block-Type Processed Cheeses Fortified with Date Seeds (Phoenix dactylifera L.) as a Functional Food
by Nashi K. Alqahtani, Tareq M. Alnemr, Abdullah M. Alqattan, Salah M. Aleid and Hosam M. Habib
Foods 2023, 12(3), 679; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030679 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3068
Abstract
Processed cheese has rapidly been established as a commercial product in recent years. A new ingredient, a byproduct from date fruit seed (DFS), was obtained and tested as a fortified fiber from food industrial waste in block-type processed cheese. This is the first [...] Read more.
Processed cheese has rapidly been established as a commercial product in recent years. A new ingredient, a byproduct from date fruit seed (DFS), was obtained and tested as a fortified fiber from food industrial waste in block-type processed cheese. This is the first inclusive investigation to report such a test. Different concentrations of DFS (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) were added to block-type processed cheese as a partial substitution for butter. The current investigation was undertaken to estimate the impact of the partial substitution of butter by DFS and its effect on the product’s quality in terms of its shelf life and physicochemical, microstructure, color, and sensory properties. Quality was assessed over a 150-day storage period. The results indicate that adding DFS to cheese increased its nutritional value due to the addition of fiber. Additionally, the texture profile of cheese was decreased in terms of hardness, adhesion, springiness, and cohesiveness. The overall structure of cheeses became less compact and had a more open cheese network, which increased with increasing DFS% and duration of storage. Moreover, DFS exhibited the darkest color with increasing ratios of supplementary DFS and duration of storage. Based on the results found in the present investigation, it was concluded that an acceptable quality of block-type processed cheese could be achieved using DFS fiber at 5% and 10% levels of fortification. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2568 KiB  
Article
Elucidation of Non-Intentionally Added Substances from Plant Fiber/Plastic Composites by UPLC-QTOF/MS
by Hong Zhang, Qi-Zhi Su, Gui-Qin Shang, Yun-Xuan Weng and Lei Zhu
Foods 2023, 12(3), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030678 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2119
Abstract
Plant fiber/plastic composites (PPCs) have been widely used in food contact materials (FCMs) for many benefits, such as their claimed better environmental footprint compared to conventional plastics. However, their safety is still not fully understood and must be comprehensively evaluated. Non-volatiles extracted from [...] Read more.
Plant fiber/plastic composites (PPCs) have been widely used in food contact materials (FCMs) for many benefits, such as their claimed better environmental footprint compared to conventional plastics. However, their safety is still not fully understood and must be comprehensively evaluated. Non-volatiles extracted from six PPCs with different plant fibers and polymer matrices were characterized by employing ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry in combination with various spectral libraries and manual elucidation, taking into account spectral similarity and characteristic product ions. A total of 115 compounds were tentatively identified, 50 of which were oligomers or their derivatives from the sample with polylactic acid (PLA) and polybutylene adipate terephthalate (PBAT) as the polymer matrix, and some of them were Cramer rules class III substances based on the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC). Seven reaction products between PLA and PBAT monomers, as well as four derivatives of melamine, were elucidated and well detailed for the first time. In addition, bisphenol S was detected in all samples even though its origin remains to be further explored. Isoprothiolane, as an insecticide and fungicide used to control a range of rice pests, was identified in the sample with rice husk as fillers, experimentally confirming the presence of agrochemicals in samples containing plant fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Packaging Materials for Food Safety, Storage and Transport)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 2272 KiB  
Article
The Disturbance of the Antioxidant System Results in Internal Blue Discoloration of Postharvest Cherry Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. radculus pers) Roots
by Xingyu Wang, Yu Liu, Wenting Zhao, Pan Wang, Shuang Zhao, Xiaoyan Zhao and Dan Wang
Foods 2023, 12(3), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030677 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1598
Abstract
Internal blue discoloration in cherry radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. radculus pers) roots can appear after harvest. The antioxidant system and content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) will affect the blue discoloration. Currently, the reason for the blue discoloration is not [...] Read more.
Internal blue discoloration in cherry radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. radculus pers) roots can appear after harvest. The antioxidant system and content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) will affect the blue discoloration. Currently, the reason for the blue discoloration is not yet clear. In order to reveal the mechanism of the blue discoloration of cherry radish, we selected the blue discolored cherry radish as the research object and the white cherry radish as the control. The difference in the antioxidant system between them were compared, including related enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidants in this system. Meanwhile, the changes in the contents of 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin as a precursor substance and ROS were compared. The results showed that the activities of typical antioxidant enzymes decreased and the cycle of Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and Ascorbic acid–Glutathione (ASA–GSH) was disturbed, leading to the reduction of antioxidant effect and the failure of timely and effective decomposition of superoxide anions (O2•−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In addition, the elevated level of O2•− and H2O2 led to the disorder of the antioxidant system, while the 4-hydroxybrassinoside was oxidized under the catalysis of peroxidase (POD) and eventually led to the internal blue discoloration in cherry radish. These results can provide a theoretical basis for solving the blue discoloration problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 15383 KiB  
Article
Effect of Different Drying Methods on the Quality and Nonvolatile Flavor Components of Oudemansiella raphanipes
by Qiulian Shen, Zedong He, Yangyue Ding and Liping Sun
Foods 2023, 12(3), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030676 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2169
Abstract
Different drying methods affect the quality of foods. The aim of this study is to explore the effects of seven drying methods, including hot air drying at 60 °C and 80 °C, ultrasound-assisted hot air drying at 60 °C and 80 °C, microwave [...] Read more.
Different drying methods affect the quality of foods. The aim of this study is to explore the effects of seven drying methods, including hot air drying at 60 °C and 80 °C, ultrasound-assisted hot air drying at 60 °C and 80 °C, microwave drying, vacuum microwave drying, and vacuum freeze-drying, on the quality and nonvolatile flavor components of Oudemansiella raphanipes. The vacuum freeze-drying resulted in minimal collapse, mild shrinkage at the macroscopic level, and the formation of uniform pores at the microscopic level on the surfaces of O. raphanipes mushrooms. In addition, vacuum freeze-drying can improve the color attributes of the mushrooms. Therefore, the appearance and shape of vacuum freeze-drying treated O. raphanipes were closest to those of fresh mushrooms. We found that ultrasound-assisted treatment can effectively shorten the drying time of O. raphanipes. The drying time of ultrasound-assisted hot air drying at 60 °C was 20% shorter than that of hot air drying at 60 °C, and the drying time of ultrasound-assisted hot air drying at 80 °C was 37.5% shorter than that of hot air drying at 80 °C. The analysis of the nonvolatile flavor components showed that the ultrasound-assisted hot air drying at 60 °C of the O. raphanipes sample had the highest content of free amino acids (83.78 mg/g) and an equivalent umami concentration value (1491.33 monosodium glutamate/100 g). The vacuum freeze-drying treated O. raphanipes had the highest 5′-nucleotide content of 2.44 mg/g. Therefore, vacuum freeze-drying and ultrasound-assisted hot air drying at 60 °C, followed by vacuum microwave drying, might protect the flavor components of O. raphanipes to the greatest extent. However, microwave drying, hot air drying at 80 °C, and ultrasound-assisted hot air drying at 80 °C could destroy the flavor components of O. raphanipes during drying. The results of this study provided data support for the industrial production of dried O. raphanipes. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

25 pages, 4533 KiB  
Article
Iron from Co-Encapsulation of Defatted Nannochloropsis Oceanica with Inulin Is Highly Bioavailable and Does Not Impact Wheat Flour Shelf Life or Sensorial Attributes
by Rohil S. Bhatnagar, Xin-Gen Lei, Dennis D. Miller and Olga I. Padilla-Zakour
Foods 2023, 12(3), 675; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030675 - 3 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1802
Abstract
Defatted green microalgae Nannochloropsis oceanica (DGM) is a rich source of bioavailable iron. However, its use in foods results in unacceptable color and taste development. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate strategies to enhance the use of DGM in foods. [...] Read more.
Defatted green microalgae Nannochloropsis oceanica (DGM) is a rich source of bioavailable iron. However, its use in foods results in unacceptable color and taste development. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate strategies to enhance the use of DGM in foods. DGM and inulin were encapsulated (EC) in an oil-in-water emulsion using high-pressure homogenization. To confirm iron bioavailability, C57BL/6 mice were fed an iron-deficient diet (ID) for 2 weeks. The mice were then fed one of the four diets: ID, ID + DGM (DGM), ID + EC (EC50 or EC100) for 4 weeks. To test the stability of DGM as an iron fortificant at two different fortification rates of 17.5 mg Fe/kg (50%) or 35 mg Fe/kg (100%), whole (DGM50/DGM100), encapsulated (EC50/EC100) and color-masked (CM50/CM100) DGM were added to wheat flour (WF) at two different temperatures: 20 °C and 45 °C and were examined for 30 days. Acceptability studies were conducted to determine sensory differences between rotis (Indian flat bread) prepared from WF/EC50/CM50/EC100. The mice consuming EC50/EC100 diets showed comparable iron status to DGM-fed mice, suggesting that encapsulation did not negatively impact iron bioavailability. Addition of EC to wheat flour resulted in the lowest Fe2+ oxidation and color change amongst treatments, when stored for 30 days. There were no differences in the overall liking and product acceptance of rotis amongst treatments at both day 0 and day 21 samples. Our results suggest that EC50 can be effectively used as an iron fortificant in WF to deliver highly bioavailable iron without experiencing any stability or sensory defects, at least until 30 days of storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2599 KiB  
Article
Decoding the Effect of Age on the Taste Perception of Chicken Breast Soup Based on LC-QTOF-MS/MS Combined with a Chemometric Approach
by Lili Zhang, Li Liang, Kaina Qiao, Dandan Pu, Baoguo Sun, Xuewei Zhou and Yuyu Zhang
Foods 2023, 12(3), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030674 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1875
Abstract
A nontargeted fingerprinting approach combined with the chemometrics method and sensory analysis was used to assess the differences in taste-chemical compositions of chicken breast soup with different ages and their sensory qualities. The sensory evaluation results showed that the overall taste as well [...] Read more.
A nontargeted fingerprinting approach combined with the chemometrics method and sensory analysis was used to assess the differences in taste-chemical compositions of chicken breast soup with different ages and their sensory qualities. The sensory evaluation results showed that the overall taste as well as the sourness, saltiness, and umami scores of the soup were increased with the age of chicken. Fifty-nine compounds were identified from four soup samples by liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS/MS), and their total content was the highest in the 90 wk soup samples. Six upregulated compounds (carnosine, hypoxanthine, inosine, inosine 5′-monophosphate (5′-IMP), adenosine 5′-monophosphate (5′-AMP), and lactic acid) were identified as potential contributors to the taste characteristics of the 90 wk soup samples by orthogonal projections to latent structures–discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Additional experiments showed that 5′-AMP particularly contributed to the sourness of the soup, while carnosine contributed to the saltiness and umami of the soup. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 342 KiB  
Review
Opportunities and Challenges of Understanding Community Assembly in Spontaneous Food Fermentation
by Maanasa Mudoor Sooresh, Benjamin P. Willing and Benjamin C. T. Bourrie
Foods 2023, 12(3), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030673 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3107
Abstract
Spontaneous fermentations that do not rely on backslopping or industrial starter cultures were especially important to the early development of society and are still practiced around the world today. While current literature on spontaneous fermentations is observational and descriptive, it is important to [...] Read more.
Spontaneous fermentations that do not rely on backslopping or industrial starter cultures were especially important to the early development of society and are still practiced around the world today. While current literature on spontaneous fermentations is observational and descriptive, it is important to understand the underlying mechanism of microbial community assembly and how this correlates with changes observed in microbial succession, composition, interaction, and metabolite production. Spontaneous food and beverage fermentations are home to autochthonous bacteria and fungi that are naturally inoculated from raw materials, environment, and equipment. This review discusses the factors that play an important role in microbial community assembly, particularly focusing on commonly reported yeasts and bacteria isolated from spontaneously fermenting food and beverages, and how this affects the fermentation dynamics. A wide range of studies have been conducted in spontaneously fermented foods that highlight some of the mechanisms that are involved in microbial interactions, niche adaptation, and lifestyle of these microorganisms. Moreover, we will also highlight how controlled culture experiments provide greater insight into understanding microbial interactions, a modest attempt in decoding the complexity of spontaneous fermentations. Further research using specific in vitro microbial models to understand the role of core microbiota are needed to fill the knowledge gap that currently exists in understanding how the phenotypic and genotypic expression of these microorganisms aid in their successful adaptation and shape fermentation outcomes. Furthermore, there is still a vast opportunity to understand strain level implications on community assembly. Translating these findings will also help in improving other fermentation systems to help gain more control over the fermentation process and maintain consistent and superior product quality. Full article
18 pages, 1507 KiB  
Article
Predicting the Moisture Ratio of a Hami Melon Drying Process Using Image Processing Technology
by Guanyu Zhu, G.S.V. Raghavan and Zhenfeng Li
Foods 2023, 12(3), 672; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030672 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1635
Abstract
For food drying, moisture content and shrinkage are vital in the drying process. This paper is concerned with the moisture ratio modeling and prediction issues of the Hami melon drying process. First, an experimental system was developed; it included an adjustable-power microwave drying [...] Read more.
For food drying, moisture content and shrinkage are vital in the drying process. This paper is concerned with the moisture ratio modeling and prediction issues of the Hami melon drying process. First, an experimental system was developed; it included an adjustable-power microwave drying unit and an image-processing unit. The moisture contents and the areas of Hami melon slices at different times were sampled in real time. Then, the expression of the moisture ratio with regard to shrinkage was derived by using the Weierstrass approximation theorem. A maximum likelihood fitness function-based population evolution (MLFF-PE) algorithm was then put forward to fit the moisture ratio model and predict the moisture ratio. The results showed that the proposed MLFF-PE algorithm was effective at fitting and predicting the moisture ratio model of the drying process of Hami melon slices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2472 KiB  
Article
Influence of Ultrasound-Assisted Vacuum Drying on Physicochemical Characteristics, Antioxidant Activity, and α-Glucosidase Inhibition Activity of Flos Sophorae Immaturus
by Yuhong Gong, Jun Li, Jinwei Li, Liuping Fan and Li Wang
Foods 2023, 12(3), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030671 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1669
Abstract
Flos Sophorae Immaturus (FSI) contains a large number of bioactive substances with antioxidant and hypoglycaemic activity. However, a feasible drying process plays an important role in the retention of its biological activity. The present work investigated the effects of ultrasound-assisted vacuum drying (UAVD) [...] Read more.
Flos Sophorae Immaturus (FSI) contains a large number of bioactive substances with antioxidant and hypoglycaemic activity. However, a feasible drying process plays an important role in the retention of its biological activity. The present work investigated the effects of ultrasound-assisted vacuum drying (UAVD) on FSI samples in terms of drying time, colour, microstructure, and total flavonoid content (TFC). Meanwhile, the antioxidant activity and α-glucosidase inhibition activity were also evaluated. The results show that the drying time of UVAD samples was decreased by 40% compared to that of the single vacuum-dried (VD) samples (600 W for 10 min). The cellular porous structures of FSI tissue were formed by UAVD, which promoted the migration of water from the inside to the outside. Furthermore, samples treated by UAVD exhibited better antioxidant activities and α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition capacities, with DPPH (81.86%), ABTS (88.61%), FRAP (83.05%), α-glucosidase inhibition capacity (89%), α-amylase (85%), drying time (3 h), and total aberration (ΔE) (1.63) being the highest characteristic traits. In this condition, the highest levels of total flavonoid content (TFC), rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and genistein were obtained with 266.94, 239.46, 35.56, 8.54, 10.37, and 5.64 mg/g DW, respectively. The results confirm that UAVD is a novel method that significantly reduced the VD time and promoted the release of the bioactive substances of FSI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Ultrasound and Microwave Technology Application in Foods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2214 KiB  
Article
Application of Poultry Gelatin to Enhance the Physicochemical, Mechanical, and Rheological Properties of Fish Gelatin as Alternative Mammalian Gelatin Films for Food Packaging
by Azam Ashrafi, Hamid Babapour, Simindokht Johari, Faezeh Alimohammadi, Farangis Teymori, Abdorreza Mohammadi Nafchi, Nurul Nuraliya Shahrai, Nurul Huda and Ahmadreza Abedinia
Foods 2023, 12(3), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030670 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 2845
Abstract
This study aimed to describe the properties of cold water fish gelatin (FG) blended with poultry gelatin (PG) for a production of a sachet containing olive oil. To find a desirable film, the different ratio of FG-PG-based films were characterized in terms of [...] Read more.
This study aimed to describe the properties of cold water fish gelatin (FG) blended with poultry gelatin (PG) for a production of a sachet containing olive oil. To find a desirable film, the different ratio of FG-PG-based films were characterized in terms of mechanical properties. As the proportion of PG in PG-FG-based increased, the tensile strength and Young’s modulus were increased, and the elongation at break and heat seal strength of the films were decreased. The 50-50 film had favorable characteristics to use as a sachet. The amount of acid index and peroxide of the oil stored in the sachets after 14 days showed that there is a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the films. The barrier properties of the films including the water vapor permeability and oxygen permeability of films were increased from 1.21 to 4.95 × 10−11 g m−1 Pa−1 s−1 and 48 to 97 cm3 mµ/m2 d kPa, respectively. Dark, red, yellow, and opaque films were realized with increasing PG. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra approved a wide peak of approximately 2500 cm−1. The rheological analysis indicated that, by adding PG, viscosity, elastic modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G′′) were increased significantly (p < 0.05) about 9.5, 9.32 and 18 times, respectively. Therefore, an easy modification of FG with PG will make it suitable for oil sachet packaging applications for the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Edible Films and Coatings for Food Preservation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 29706 KiB  
Article
The Protective Role of Scorias spongiosa Polysaccharide-Based Microcapsules on Intestinal Barrier Integrity in DSS-Induced Colitis in Mice
by Yingyin Xu, Huiyu Feng, Zhiyuan Zhang, Qian Zhang, Jie Tang, Jie Zhou, Yong Wang and Weihong Peng
Foods 2023, 12(3), 669; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030669 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2241
Abstract
Scorias spongiosa, a type of edible fungus, is beneficial for intestinal health. However, the mechanisms by which polysaccharides derived from S. spongiosa contribute to the integrity of the intestinal barrier have been little investigated. In the present study, 40 C57BL/6J mice [...] Read more.
Scorias spongiosa, a type of edible fungus, is beneficial for intestinal health. However, the mechanisms by which polysaccharides derived from S. spongiosa contribute to the integrity of the intestinal barrier have been little investigated. In the present study, 40 C57BL/6J mice were assigned into five groups: (1) Normal; (2) Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)Administration; (3) DSS + Uncapped polysaccharides; (4) DSS + Low microcapsules; (5) DSS + High microcapsules. After one week of administration of S. spongiosa polysaccharides, all mice, excluding the Normal group, had free access to the drinking water of 3.5% DSS for seven days. Serum and feces were then taken for analysis. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated the structure of the micro-capped polysaccharides with curcumin was completed with a rough surface, which differs from the uncapped polysaccharides. Noticeably, S. spongiosa polysaccharides enhanced intestinal barrier integrity as evidenced by increasing the protein levels of Claudin-1, ZO-1 and ZO-2. Low-capped polysaccharides mitigated the DSS-induced oxidative stress by increasing catalase (CAT) concentration and decreasing malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentrations. Besides, DSS treatment caused a disturbance of inflammation and the contents of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and CRP were downregulated and the contents of IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ were upregulated by S. spongiosa polysaccharides. Research on the potential mechanisms indicated that S. spongiosa polysaccharides inhibited the DSS-triggered activation of NF-κB signaling. Moreover, the JAK/STAT1 and MAPK pathways were suppressed by S. spongiosa polysaccharides in DSS-challenged mice, with Lcap showing the strongest efficacy. 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing revealed that the richness and diversity of the microbial community were reshaped by S. spongiosa polysaccharide ingestion. Therefore, our study substantiated that S. spongiosa polysaccharides exhibited protective effects against colitis mice by reshaping the intestinal microbiome and maintaining the balance of intestinal barrier integrity, antioxidant capacity and colonic inflammation through regulation of the NF-κB–STAT1–MAPK axis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, and Novel Foods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1878 KiB  
Article
Impact of Agro-Industrial Side-Streams on Sesquiterpene Production by Submerged Cultured Cerrena unicolor
by Nils Püth, Franziska Ersoy, Ralf G. Berger and Ulrich Krings
Foods 2023, 12(3), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030668 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1783
Abstract
The quality and harvest of essential oils depend on a large number of factors, most of which are hard to control in an open-field environment. Therefore, Basidiomycota have gained attention as a source for biotechnologically produced terpenoids. The basidiomycete Cerrena unicolor (Cun) was [...] Read more.
The quality and harvest of essential oils depend on a large number of factors, most of which are hard to control in an open-field environment. Therefore, Basidiomycota have gained attention as a source for biotechnologically produced terpenoids. The basidiomycete Cerrena unicolor (Cun) was cultivated in submerged culture, and the production of sesquiterpenoids was analyzed via stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), followed by thermo-desorption gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (TDS-GC-MS). Identification of aroma-active sesquiterpenoids was supported by GC, coupled with an olfactory detection port (ODP). Following the ideal of a circular bioeconomy, Cun was submerged (up-scalable) cultivated, and supplemented with a variety of food industrial side-streams. The effects of the different supplementations and of pure fatty acids were evaluated by liquid extraction and analysis of the terpenoids via GC-MS. As sesquiterpenoid production was enhanced by the most by lipid-rich side-streams, a cultivation with 13C-labeled acetate was conducted. Data confirmed that lipid-rich side-streams enhanced the sesquiterpene production through an increased acetyl-CoA pool. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 2854 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Infant Digestion of Whey Proteins Isolate–Lactose
by Sarizan Sabari, Norliza Julmohammad, Haque Akanda Md Jahurul, Patricia Matanjun and Noorakmar Ab. Wahab
Foods 2023, 12(3), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030667 - 3 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2163
Abstract
The model in vitro protein digestion technique has received greater attention due to providing significant advantages compared to in vivo experiments. This research employed an in vitro infant digestive static model to examine the protein digestibility of whey proteins isolate–lactose (WPI–Lac). The polyacrylamide [...] Read more.
The model in vitro protein digestion technique has received greater attention due to providing significant advantages compared to in vivo experiments. This research employed an in vitro infant digestive static model to examine the protein digestibility of whey proteins isolate–lactose (WPI–Lac). The polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) pattern for alpha-lactalbumin of WPI at 60 min showed no detectable bands, while the alpha-lactalbumin of the WPI–Lac was completely digested after 5 min of gastric digestion. The beta-lactoglobulin of the WPI–Lac was found to be similar to the beta-lactoglobulin of the WPI, being insignificant at pH 3.0. The alpha-lactalbumin of the WPI decreased after 100 min of duodenal digestion at pH 6.5, and the WPI–Lac was completely digested after 60 min. The peptides were identified as ~2 kilodalton (kDa) in conjugated protein, which indicated that the level of degradation of the protein was high, due to the hydrolysis progress. The conjugated protein increased the responsiveness to digestive proteolysis, potentially leading to the release of immunogenic protein by lactose, and to the creation of hypoallergenic protein. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1094 KiB  
Article
Inactivation of Escherichia coli in an Orange Juice Beverage by Combined Ultrasonic and Microwave Treatment
by Ourdia-Nouara Kernou, Zahra Azzouz, Amine Belbahi, Kamelia Kerdouche, Ghania Kaanin-Boudraa, Akila Amir, Khodir Madani and Patricia Rijo
Foods 2023, 12(3), 666; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030666 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2795
Abstract
The inactivation of Escherichia coli is one of the major issues in the food industry. The present study focuses on the application of a combined microwave-ultrasound system for the optimization of the inactivation of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 in an orange juice drink. [...] Read more.
The inactivation of Escherichia coli is one of the major issues in the food industry. The present study focuses on the application of a combined microwave-ultrasound system for the optimization of the inactivation of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 in an orange juice drink. Using response surface methodology (RSM), trials were planned with a Box–Behnken Design (BBD) to maximize the impact of microwave power (A: 300–900 W), microwave treatment time (B: 15–35 s), and time of ultrasound (C: 10–30 min) on E. coli inactivation. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out and E. coli inactivation was expressed with a mathematical equation depending on the factors. The results showed that both the microwave treatment time and the time of ultrasound were effective as independent variables in eliminating the E. coli strain. However, the effect of these two variables, ultrasound and microwave exposure time, in combination was significantly greater than when examined separately. RSM modeling determined that optimal treatment conditions include 900 W microwave power, 33 s microwave treatment time, and 20 min time of ultrasound to achieve an 8-log reduction of E. coli, constituting total inactivation. The results of this study showed that ultrasound-microwave treatment is a potential alternative processing method for an orange juice beverage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instrument Analysis Applied in Food Science II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2269 KiB  
Article
Metagenomic Insights into the Anti-Obesity Effect of a Polysaccharide from Saccharina japonica
by Ying Song, Dongze Lu, Honggang Wang, Zhenyi Zhou, Xian Luo, Manjing Ma, Songze Ke, Hong Wang, Yanlei Yu and Bin Wei
Foods 2023, 12(3), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030665 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2613
Abstract
Saccharina japonica polysaccharides exhibit great potential to be developed as anti-obesity and prebiotic health products, but the underlying mechanism has not been adequately addressed. In this study, we investigated the potential mechanism of a S. japonica polysaccharide fraction (SjC) in preventing high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced [...] Read more.
Saccharina japonica polysaccharides exhibit great potential to be developed as anti-obesity and prebiotic health products, but the underlying mechanism has not been adequately addressed. In this study, we investigated the potential mechanism of a S. japonica polysaccharide fraction (SjC) in preventing high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice using 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing analysis. SjC was characterized as a 756 kDa sulfated polysaccharide and 16 weeks of SjC supplementation significantly alleviated HFD-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and glucose metabolism disorders. The 16S rRNA and metagenomic sequencing analysis demonstrated that SjC supplementation prevented gut microbiota dysbiosis mainly by regulating the relative abundance of Desulfovibrio and Akkermansia. Metagenomic functional profiling demonstrated that SjC treatment predominantly suppressed the amino acid metabolism of gut microbiota. Linking of 16S rRNA genes with metagenome-assembled genomes indicated that SjC enriched at least 22 gut bacterial species with fucoidan-degrading potential including Desulfovibrio and Akkermansia, which showed significant correlations with bodyweight. In conclusion, our results suggest that SjC exhibits a promising potential as an anti-obesity health product and the interaction between SjC and fucoidan-degrading bacteria may be associated with its anti-obesity effect. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 2186 KiB  
Article
Bacteriobiota and Chemical Changes during the Ripening of Traditional Fermented “Pirot ‘Ironed’ Sausage”
by Svetlana Bogdanović, Slaviša Stanković, Tanja Berić, Igor Tomasevic, Volker Heinz, Nino Terjung and Ivica Dimkić
Foods 2023, 12(3), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030664 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2077
Abstract
“Pirot ‘ironed’ sausage“ (Pis) is a traditional, fermented sausage, made from different types of meat (beef and chevon), without additives or starter cultures. The physical–chemical properties (pH, water activity, fats, moisture, and protein contents) were examined in the initial meat batter stuffing and [...] Read more.
“Pirot ‘ironed’ sausage“ (Pis) is a traditional, fermented sausage, made from different types of meat (beef and chevon), without additives or starter cultures. The physical–chemical properties (pH, water activity, fats, moisture, and protein contents) were examined in the initial meat batter stuffing and during ripening. Total bacterial diversity was examined at different time points using both culturable (traditional) and non-culturable (NGS sequencing) approaches. During the ripening, a decrease in pH value, aw, and moisture content was observed, as well as an increase in protein and fat content. At least a two-fold significant decrease was noted for colorimetric values during the ripening period. The dominance of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes was observed in the non-culturable approach in all studied samples. During the ripening process, an increase in Firmicutes (from 33.5% to 63.5%) with a decrease in Proteobacteria (from 65.4% to 22.3%) was observed. The bacterial genera that were dominant throughout the ripening process were Lactobacillus, Photobacterium, Leuconostoc, Weissella, and Lactococcus, while Carnobacterium, Brochothrix, and Acinetobacter were found also, but in negligible abundance. Among the culturable bacteria, Latilactobacillus sakei (Lactobacillus sakei) and Leuconostoc mesenteoides were present in all stages of ripening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiome and Volatile Compounds in Fermented Products)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 3513 KiB  
Article
Identification and Molecular Binding Mechanism of Novel α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Peptides from Hot-Pressed Peanut Meal Protein Hydrolysates
by Xinyu Yang, Dan Wang, Yangyong Dai, Luping Zhao, Wentao Wang and Xiuzhen Ding
Foods 2023, 12(3), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030663 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2321
Abstract
Hot-pressed peanut meal protein hydrolysates are rich in Arg residue, but there is a lack of research on their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. In this study, different proteases were used to produce hot-pressed peanut meal protein hydrolysates (PMHs) to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. [...] Read more.
Hot-pressed peanut meal protein hydrolysates are rich in Arg residue, but there is a lack of research on their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. In this study, different proteases were used to produce hot-pressed peanut meal protein hydrolysates (PMHs) to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. All PMHs showed good α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with the best inhibition effect coming from the dual enzyme system of Alcalase and Neutrase with an IC50 of 5.63 ± 0.19 mg/mL. The fractions with the highest inhibition effect were separated and purified using ultrafiltration and cation exchange chromatography. Four novel α-glucosidase inhibitory peptides (FYNPAAGR, PGVLPVAS, FFVPPSQQ, and FSYNPQAG) were identified by nano-HPLC-MS/MS and molecular docking. Molecular docking showed that peptides could occupy the active pocket of α-glucosidase through hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interaction, salt bridges, and π-stacking, thus preventing the formation of complexes between α-glucosidase and the substrate. In addition, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of PMHs was stable against hot, pH treatment and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The study demonstrated that PMHs might be used as a natural anti-diabetic material with the potential to inhibit α-glucosidase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Bioactive Peptides Improve Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1204 KiB  
Article
Effect of Flaxseed Mucilage and Gum Arabic on Probiotic Survival and Quality of Kefir during Cold Storage
by Eiman Alhssan, Songül Şahin Ercan and Hüseyin Bozkurt
Foods 2023, 12(3), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030662 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1920
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the survival of probiotic cultures in kefir. Kefir is a fermented dairy product, and in this study we incorporated nutritionally rich flaxseed mucilage and gum arabic as a prebiotic, then monitored for improvement in the the viability of [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the survival of probiotic cultures in kefir. Kefir is a fermented dairy product, and in this study we incorporated nutritionally rich flaxseed mucilage and gum arabic as a prebiotic, then monitored for improvement in the the viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis. In addition, some physicochemical variables of kefir were investigated. The addition of flaxseed mucilage and gum arabic significantly (p ˂ 0.05) increased the growth of both Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis compared to the control. Samples enriched with flaxseed mucilage and gum arabic had significantly (p ˂ 0.05) reduced pH and increased viscosity. Flaxseed mucilage and gum arabic significantly (p ˂ 0.05) changed the color parameters L*, a*, and b*. However, as the concentration of flaxseed mucilage increased, the L* value decreased. Moreover, adding flaxseed mucilage and gum arabic into kefir increased (p ˂ 0.05) the protein content. These results showed that flaxseed mucilage and gum arabic could be used to increase the survival of probiotic cultures in kefir without changing its physicochemical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Research of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fermented Foods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 2779 KiB  
Article
Sensory Wheel and Lexicon for the Description of Cold-Pressed Hemp Seed Oil
by Matilde Tura, Mara Mandrioli, Enrico Valli, Caterina Dinnella and Tullia Gallina Toschi
Foods 2023, 12(3), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030661 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2870
Abstract
Cold-pressed hemp seed oil (CP-HSO) has become available on the market and is gaining popularity mainly for its appeal and nutritional profile. The sensory quality largely depends on seed quality and processing as well as oil storage conditions. Given the “native” nature of [...] Read more.
Cold-pressed hemp seed oil (CP-HSO) has become available on the market and is gaining popularity mainly for its appeal and nutritional profile. The sensory quality largely depends on seed quality and processing as well as oil storage conditions. Given the “native” nature of the product, obtained by cold-pressing, the development of a standardized methodology to evaluate and describe the sensory quality of HSOs is of the utmost importance. To this aim, 16 commercial HSOs were evaluated, covering the main differences in brands and sales channels. A trained panel developed a vocabulary to describe the HSO profile consisting of 44 attributes, and a practical sensory wheel was proposed to classify attributes in different clusters and according to sensory modality. A sensory profile sheet was developed including two color descriptors (yellow, green), seven main positive (sunflower/pumpkin seeds, nutty, toasted nutty, hay, sweet, bitter, and pungent), several secondary positive (herbs, coffee, tobacco, etc.), four main defects (rancid, paint, burnt, and fish), and other secondary negative descriptors (boiled vegetables, cucumber, etc.). Subsequently, specific training of the panelists was carried out, and a satisfactory performance level was reached. This study represents the first attempt to standardize the sensory quality and terminology of HSO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Flavor Chemistry and Sensory Evaluation)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 5841 KiB  
Article
Area Gene Regulates the Synthesis of β-Glucan with Antioxidant Activity in the Aureobasidium pullulans
by Kai Zhang, Wei Zhou, Wan Wang, Shanshan Zhao, Congyu Lin, Xin Ru, Jiaqi Guan, Hua Cong and Qian Yang
Foods 2023, 12(3), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030660 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2162
Abstract
The ability of the fungus to regulate metabolism on various nitrogen sources makes it survive and metabolize in different environments. The biomass and the β-glucan yield of Aureobasidium pullulans are closely associated with the nitrogen source. This study found the only GATA nitrogen [...] Read more.
The ability of the fungus to regulate metabolism on various nitrogen sources makes it survive and metabolize in different environments. The biomass and the β-glucan yield of Aureobasidium pullulans are closely associated with the nitrogen source. This study found the only GATA nitrogen source activation regulating factor Area in HIT-LCY3. In order to testify the Area function, we amplified its conserved domain to build a silencing vector and used the RNAi to obtain the Area silent strain, and then explored its effect on the phenotype of A. pullulans and the yield of β-glucan. We found that the biomass and β-glucan yield of the silent strain decreased significantly after culturing with different nitrogen sources, in particular when using sodium nitrate and glutamate as the source. However, the β-glucan yield increased significantly after overexpression of Area, reaching 5.2 g/L when glutamine was the nitrogen source. In addition, the strain morphology changed as well under different nitrogen sources. At last, we investigated the antioxidant activity in vitro of β-glucan and found that it has a significant clearance effect on OH·, DPPH·, and ABTS·, being best with ABTS. Therefore, this study believed that the Area gene has a certain regulation function on the synthesis of β-glucan with antioxidant activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosynthesis, Regulation and Application of Microbial Polysaccharides)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1084 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Immune Modulation by β-1,3; 1,6 D-Glucan Derived from Ganoderma lucidum in Healthy Adult Volunteers, A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Shiu-Nan Chen, Fan-Hua Nan, Ming-Wei Liu, Min-Feng Yang, Ya-Chih Chang and Sherwin Chen
Foods 2023, 12(3), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030659 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3766
Abstract
Fungi-derived β-glucan, a type of glucopolysaccharide, has been shown to possess immune-modulatory properties in clinical settings. Studies have indicated that β-glucan derived from Ganoderma lucidum (commonly known as Reishi) holds particular promise in this regard, both in laboratory and in vivo settings. To [...] Read more.
Fungi-derived β-glucan, a type of glucopolysaccharide, has been shown to possess immune-modulatory properties in clinical settings. Studies have indicated that β-glucan derived from Ganoderma lucidum (commonly known as Reishi) holds particular promise in this regard, both in laboratory and in vivo settings. To further investigate the efficacy and safety of Reishi β-glucan in human subjects, a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted among healthy adult volunteers aged 18 to 55. Participants were instructed to self-administer the interventions or placebos on a daily basis for 84 days, with bloodwork assessments conducted at the beginning and end of the study. The results of the trial showed that subjects in the intervention group, who received Reishi β-glucan, exhibited a significant enhancement in various immune cell populations, including CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ T-lymphocytes, as well as an improvement in the CD4/CD8 ratio and natural killer cell counts when compared to the placebo group. Additionally, a statistically significant difference was observed in serum immunoglobulin A levels and natural killer cell cytotoxicity between the intervention and placebo groups. Notably, the intervention was found to be safe and well tolerated, with no statistically significant changes observed in markers of kidney or liver function in either group. Overall, the study provides evidence for the ability of Reishi β-glucan to modulate immune responses in healthy adults, thereby potentially bolstering their defense against opportunistic infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mushroom Biotechnology in Food Industry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 869 KiB  
Article
Microbial Carotenoid Synthesis Optimization in Goat Cheese Whey Using the Robust Taguchi Method: A Sustainable Approach to Help Tackle Vitamin A Deficiency
by Luis Carlos Mata-Gómez, Paula Mapelli-Brahm, Antonio J. Meléndez-Martínez, Alejandro Méndez-Zavala, Lourdes Morales-Oyervides and Julio Montañez
Foods 2023, 12(3), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030658 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1957
Abstract
The work describes the carotenoid synthesis process by Rhodotorula glutinis P4M422 using an agro-industrial waste as the substrate, seeking a biorefinery platform approach for waste utilization to produce high-value molecules. A culture medium based on goat milk whey (GMW) was optimized via the [...] Read more.
The work describes the carotenoid synthesis process by Rhodotorula glutinis P4M422 using an agro-industrial waste as the substrate, seeking a biorefinery platform approach for waste utilization to produce high-value molecules. A culture medium based on goat milk whey (GMW) was optimized via the Taguchi method (L9 array). Four factors (ethanol, carbon and nitrogen source, and pH) were evaluated at three levels. The carbon and nitrogen composition were the factors dominating the process performance. Optimized conditions were validated (Urea, 0.3% w/v; pH, 4.5; ethanol, 10% v/v; glucose, 6.0%), and the carotenoid production (4075 µg/L) was almost 200% higher than when using the un-optimized process (2058 µg/L). Provitamin A carotenoids torulene, β–carotene, and γ–carotene (different proportions) were produced under all conditions. The hydrolyzed goat milk whey showed promising expectations as a low-cost source for carotenoid production by Rhodotorula glutinis P4M422. The results are important for the innovative sustainable production of carotenoid-rich matrices for different purposes (nutrition, health promotion, color) and industries (foods, nutricosmetics, nutraceuticals, feeds), notably to help to combat vitamin A deficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1305 KiB  
Article
Exploring Consumer Behavior and Preferences towards Edible Mushrooms in Slovakia
by Kristína Predanócyová, Július Árvay and Marek Šnirc
Foods 2023, 12(3), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030657 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2809
Abstract
Edible mushrooms represent a food with high nutritional properties, and their consumption has a positive effect on the health of consumers. The aim of the paper is to identify the behavior and preferences of consumers in the consumption of edible mushrooms in Slovakia. [...] Read more.
Edible mushrooms represent a food with high nutritional properties, and their consumption has a positive effect on the health of consumers. The aim of the paper is to identify the behavior and preferences of consumers in the consumption of edible mushrooms in Slovakia. The aim of the paper was achieved by conducting a consumer survey using the snowball sampling method on a sample of 1166 respondents in the Slovak Republic, of which 1032 respondents were consumers of edible mushrooms. Using statistical methods (the Chi-square test of independence, Kruskal–Wallis H test, and Friedman test, as well as categorical principal component analysis), differences in consumer behavior were examined in three identified segments created based on the amount of consumption of edible mushrooms. The results of the consumer study showed the existence of statistically significant differences between the defined segments in terms of frequency of consumption, evaluation of the preference of edible mushrooms in various meals, evaluation of important reasons for consumption, and determination of preference for individual species of mushrooms, as well as determination of preference for the place of consumption and the option of obtaining mushrooms for consumption. Moreover, four latent components determining the purchase of mushrooms applicable in all segments were defined. Supporting the consumption of edible mushrooms among Slovak consumers is possible by increasing consumer awareness through recommendations and published articles. The research paper provides a new insight into the behavior and preferences of consumers in mushroom consumption, divided into three segments, which can fill the scientific research gap. The results provide valuable information for scientific purposes, as well as for food companies and policy makers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice—Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1970 KiB  
Article
Effects of Pulsed Pressure Curing on Beef Quality
by Chuang Li, Jiyong Shi, Xiaodong Zhai, Zhikun Yang, Xiaowei Huang, Zhihua Li, Yanxiao Li and Xiaobo Zou
Foods 2023, 12(3), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030656 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1532
Abstract
The study was proposed to investigate the effects of pulsed pressure curing on the beef absorption of the curing solution, cooking loss, moisture content, centrifugal loss, salt content, sensory attributes, texture, microstructures and volatile compounds. Curing methods include the following four treatments: (1) [...] Read more.
The study was proposed to investigate the effects of pulsed pressure curing on the beef absorption of the curing solution, cooking loss, moisture content, centrifugal loss, salt content, sensory attributes, texture, microstructures and volatile compounds. Curing methods include the following four treatments: (1) control group 1—static curing (SC); (2) control group 2—vacuum curing (VC); (3) control group 3—pressurized curing (PC); and (4) treatment group—pulsed pressure curing (PPC). The acquired results revealed that pulsed pressure curing significantly boosts the curing efficiency and moisture content, decreases cooking loss in beef, brightens meat color, and enhances texture compared to static curing, vacuum curing, and pressurized curing. Additionally, centrifugal losses were not impaired, and sensory findings revealed that PPC significantly improved the saltiness of beef. TPA results showed that the springiness and cohesiveness of PPC were greatly increased, and hardness and chewiness were significantly reduced. Moreover, PPC significantly reduced the content of 1-octen-3-ol and 1-hexanol. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images documented that pulsed pressure curing can effectively increase the tenderness of beef. This study demonstrates that processed meat product efficiency and sensory attributes should be taken into account when selecting a curing technique, and the PPC technique has an advantage in both areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Analytical Strategies in Food Safety and Quality Monitoring)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3082 KiB  
Article
Quality Improvement in Apple Ciders during Simultaneous Co-Fermentation through Triple Mixed-Cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia kudriavzevii, and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum
by Lujun Hu, Xiaodie Chen, Rui Lin, Teng Xu, Dake Xiong, Li Li and Zhifeng Zhao
Foods 2023, 12(3), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030655 - 2 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1834
Abstract
This study explored the effect of the combination of Saccharomyces yeast, non-Saccharomyces yeast (Pichia kudriavzevii), and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum during cider fermentation on physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities, flavor and aroma compounds, as well as sensory qualities. Ciders fermented with the triple [...] Read more.
This study explored the effect of the combination of Saccharomyces yeast, non-Saccharomyces yeast (Pichia kudriavzevii), and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum during cider fermentation on physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities, flavor and aroma compounds, as well as sensory qualities. Ciders fermented with the triple mixed-cultures of these three species showed lower acid and alcohol content than those fermented with the single-culture of S. cerevisiae. The antioxidant activities were enhanced by the triple mixed-culture fermentation, giving a higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging rate and total antioxidant capacity; specifically, the SPL5 cider showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging rate (77.28%), while the SPL2 gave the highest total antioxidant capacity (39.57 mmol/L). Additionally, the triple mixed-culture fermentation resulted in improved flavor and aroma with a lower acidity (L-malic acid) and higher aroma compounds (Esters), when compared with the single-culture fermented ciders (Saccharomyces cerevisiae); more specifically, the SPL4 cider resulted in the highest total flavor and aroma compounds. In addition, sensory evaluation demonstrated that ciders produced using the triple mixed-cultures gained higher scores than those fermented using the single-culture of S. cerevisiae, giving better floral aroma, fruity flavor, and overall acceptability. Therefore, our results indicated that the triple mixed-cultures (S. cerevisiae, P. kudriavzevii, and L. plantarum) were found to make up some enological shortages of the single S. cerevisiae fermented cider. This study is believed to provide a potential strategy to enhance cider quality and further give a reference for new industrial development protocols for cider fermentation that have better sensory qualities with higher antioxidant properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Biotechnology in Food Processing)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

11 pages, 459 KiB  
Article
The Effect of the Species and Harvesting Location on Dried Salted Cod Fatty Acid Signatures and Nutritional Quality
by Mário Quaresma, Gonçalo Pereira, Maria Leonor Nunes, Angela Jardim, Carlos Santos, Narcisa Bandarra and Cristina Roseiro
Foods 2023, 12(3), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030654 - 2 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1712
Abstract
The Atlantic cod was listed as ‘vulnerable’ by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, a condition that persists today. Fishing pressure on the Atlantic cod could be partially transferred to the Pacific cod, since the two cod species share genetic and phenotypic [...] Read more.
The Atlantic cod was listed as ‘vulnerable’ by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, a condition that persists today. Fishing pressure on the Atlantic cod could be partially transferred to the Pacific cod, since the two cod species share genetic and phenotypic similarities. The aim of this study is to expand knowledge of the composition of dried salted cod obtained from Atlantic and Pacific cod species, with the Atlantic cod being from two different harvesting locations. The comparison of these cod species revealed the existence of nine significant differences among individual FAs (accountable for 63.2% of total FAs), which was at a similar level to that observed between different harvesting locations for the Atlantic cod (ten significant differences among individual FAs, accountable for 61.6% of total FAs). Canonical discriminant analysis and cross-validation achieved full discrimination of the cod’s origin and 100% accuracy in the cod’s origin classification. The amount of EPA plus DHA in dried salted cod reached its higher value among the Pacific cod (302.3 mg/100 g), while the Atlantic cod averaged 284.1 g/100 g of edible portion. The Pacific cod presented a higher α-tocopherol content than its Atlantic counterpart (8.04 vs. 4.94 µg/g). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Foods of Marine Origin)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

19 pages, 4792 KiB  
Article
Development of a Halochromic, Antimicrobial, and Antioxidant Starch-Based Film Containing Phenolic Extract from Jaboticaba Peel
by Rafaela F. Luz, Richard D. R. Ferreira, Cassio N. S. Silva, Bruna M. Miranda, Roberta H. Piccoli, Monique S. Silva, Ladyslene C. Paula, Maria Inês G. Leles, Kátia F. Fernandes, Maurício V. Cruz and Karla A. Batista
Foods 2023, 12(3), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030653 - 2 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1811
Abstract
In this study, the antioxidant, antimicrobial, mechanical, optical, and barrier attributes of Solanum lycocarpum starch bio-based edible films incorporated with a phenolic extract from jaboticaba peel were investigated. Aiming to determine the effect of the polymers and the phenolic extract on the properties [...] Read more.
In this study, the antioxidant, antimicrobial, mechanical, optical, and barrier attributes of Solanum lycocarpum starch bio-based edible films incorporated with a phenolic extract from jaboticaba peel were investigated. Aiming to determine the effect of the polymers and the phenolic extract on the properties of the films, a three-factor simplex-lattice design was employed, and the formulation optimization was based on the produced films’ antioxidant potential. The optimized formulation of the starch-PEJP film showed a reddish-pink color with no cracks or bubbles and 91% antioxidant activity against DPPH radical. The optimized starch-PEJP film showed good transparency properties and a potent UV-blocking action, presenting color variation as a function of the pH values. The optimized film was also considerably resistant and highly flexible, showing a water vapor permeability of 3.28 × 10−6 g m−1 h−1 Pa−1. The microbial permeation test and antimicrobial evaluation demonstrated that the optimized starch-PEJP film avoided microbial contamination and was potent in reducing the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella spp. In summary, the active starch-PEJP film showed great potential as an environmentally friendly and halochromic material, presenting antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and high UV-protecting activity. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop