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Vaccines, Volume 11, Issue 1 (January 2023) – 196 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is one of the major pathogens involved in respiratory disease of young calves. Maternal BRSV humoral immunity is considered one potential strategy to protect calves in the first months of life. We showed that the vaccination of cows with a killed BRSV vaccine just before the last month of gestation provides a strong antibody response in animals and high quantities of BRSV-neutralizing antibodies in the colostrum. Calves fed colostrum from vaccinated cows were clinically protected against a BRSV challenge at 21 days of age. This supports the dam BRSV vaccination as a complementary approach to protect calves early in life against this severe disease. However, the detection of BRSV in the nasal cavities of challenged calves suggests no benefit of dam vaccination on virus circulation between calves. View this paper
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22 pages, 449 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours of Health Care Workers towards Vaccine-Preventable Diseases and Recommended Vaccinations: An Observational Study in a Teaching Hospital
by Marianna Riccio, Mattia Marte, Valentin Imeshtari, Francesca Vezza, Vanessa India Barletta, David Shaholli, Corrado Colaprico, Maria Di Chiara, Elena Caresta, Gianluca Terrin, Paola Papoff and Giuseppe La Torre
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010196 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2616
Abstract
Background: Recommended vaccinations are the cheapest and most effective measure to reduce the risk of transmission and related complications, especially in high-risk healthcare settings. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of HCWs in relation to national recommendations. Methods: A [...] Read more.
Background: Recommended vaccinations are the cheapest and most effective measure to reduce the risk of transmission and related complications, especially in high-risk healthcare settings. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of HCWs in relation to national recommendations. Methods: A transversal study was conducted through administration of a questionnaire by personal interview. The following care units were involved: Paediatric, Neonatal, Cardiac Surgery and General Intensive Care Units and Infectious Diseases Unit. Results: The study sample comprised 308 HCWs. Half the sample were aware of the vaccination recommendations, with occupation and age found to be predictive factors (OR = 9.38, 95%CI: 2.07–42.41; OR = 0.36, 95%CI: 0.22–0.60). A higher percentage defined the diseases as a risk for their patients’ health, although this perception was lower in the over-40 age group. In several cases, there were statistically significant differences between the care units (p < 0.001). Around three-quarters of the sample agreed that vaccination should be mandatory; willingness to undergo a future booster vaccination was statistically correlated with the variables of age and care unit (p < 0.001, p = 0.03). Conclusion: The protection of health in the workplace can be achieved through some strategic actions, such as the implementation of educational strategies, and protocols for the monitoring of immunocompetence and the improvement of vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Epidemiology and Vaccines 2.0)
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14 pages, 2747 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine Tolerance and Immunogenicity in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Recipients Aged 5–11 Years Old–Non-Randomized Clinical Trial
by Agnieszka Matkowska-Kocjan, Joanna Owoc-Lempach, Kamila Ludwikowska, Filip Szenborn, Natalia Moskwa, Katarzyna Kurek, Krzysztof Kałwak, Leszek Szenborn and Marek Ussowicz
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010195 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2251
Abstract
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic had a devastating impact on the world’s population in the years 2020–2022. The rapid development of vaccines enabled a reduction in the mortality and morbidity of COVID-19, but there are limited data about their effects on immunocompromised children. The aim [...] Read more.
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic had a devastating impact on the world’s population in the years 2020–2022. The rapid development of vaccines enabled a reduction in the mortality and morbidity of COVID-19, but there are limited data about their effects on immunocompromised children. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the mRNA BNT162b2 (Pfizer/Biontech) vaccine in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipients. Material and methods: Two cohorts of 34 children after allo-HSCT and 35 healthy children aged 5–11 years were vaccinated with two doses of the mRNA BNT162b2 (10 µg) vaccine. All children were evaluated for adverse effects with electronic surveys and the immunogenicity of the vaccine was assessed with anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG titer measurements. Results: All reported adverse events (AEs) were classified as mild. The most common AE was pain at the injection site. All the other AEs (both local and systemic) were rarely reported (<15% patients). Both groups showed a similar response in anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG production. Patients after allo-HSCT that were undergoing immunosuppressive treatment presented a poorer immunological response than patients off of treatment. Time since HSCT, patient age, lymphocyte count, and total IgG concentration did not correlate with initial/post-vaccination anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG titers. Most patients who were eligible for a third dose of the vaccine had an excellent humoral response observed after two vaccine doses. Conclusions: The COVID-19 mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine is very well tolerated and highly immunogenic in 5–11-year-old children after HSCT. Children >2 years of age after HSCT who did not receive immunosuppressive treatment presented excellent antibody production after two doses of the vaccine, but children on immunosuppression may require a more intense vaccination schedule. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Efficacy of COVID-19 Vaccine)
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12 pages, 2112 KiB  
Systematic Review
COVID-19 Vaccination Is Not Associated with Psychiatric Adverse Events: A Meta-Analysis
by Sang-Eun Lee, Sung-Ryul Shim, Jung-Hae Youn and Hyun-Wook Han
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010194 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3189
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a global health problem since December 2019. Vaccination has been widely considered the best way to prevent COVID-19 pandemic, but public concerns about the safety of vaccines remain. There have been many studies reporting adverse events in [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a global health problem since December 2019. Vaccination has been widely considered the best way to prevent COVID-19 pandemic, but public concerns about the safety of vaccines remain. There have been many studies reporting adverse events in the vaccinated. However, to date, no meta-analysis of the association of COVID-19 vaccination with psychiatric adverse events has been conducted yet. In this meta-analysis, studies on depression, anxiety and distress after COVID-19 vaccination were searched in the PubMed, Cochrane and Embase from January 2020 to April 2022. The OR of depression in four studies with a total sample size of 462,406 is obtained as 0.88 (95% CI; 0.75, 1.03), and the OR of anxiety as 0.86 (95% CI; 0.71, 1.05). However, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups. The mean difference of distress in two studies was −0.04 (95%CI; −0.05, −0.02; p < 0.0001). As a result of the moderator analysis, married people experienced less depression and anxiety after vaccination, and in White people, depression after vaccination was lower than others. We also found that people with a history of COVID-19 infection were more depressed and anxious after vaccination. We suggest that COVID-19 vaccination was not associated with a worsening of depression and anxiety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adverse Events of COVID-19 Vaccines)
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14 pages, 2137 KiB  
Article
S Trimer Derived from SARS-CoV-2 B.1.351 and B.1.618 Induced Effective Immune Response against Multiple SARS-CoV-2 Variants
by Hongye Wang, Zengshuai Wang, Liang Ma, Xiaoyong Zhu, Bingxiang Li, Yuhang Huang, Jingwen Li, Ming Sun, Li Shi and Yufeng Yao
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010193 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1646
Abstract
The spread of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants leads to a heavy burden on healthcare and the global economy, highlighting the need for developing vaccines that induce broad immunity against coronavirus. Here, we explored the immunogenicity of monovalent or bivalent spike (S) trimer subunit [...] Read more.
The spread of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants leads to a heavy burden on healthcare and the global economy, highlighting the need for developing vaccines that induce broad immunity against coronavirus. Here, we explored the immunogenicity of monovalent or bivalent spike (S) trimer subunit vaccines derived from SARS-CoV-2 B.1.351 (S1-2P) or/and B.1. 618 (S2-2P) in Balb/c mice. Both S1-2P and S2-2P elicited anti-spike antibody responses, and alum adjuvant induced higher levels of antibodies than Addavax adjuvant. The dose responses of the vaccines on immunogenicity were evaluated in vivo. A low dose of 5 μg monovalent recombinant protein or 2.5 μg bivalent vaccine triggered high-titer antibodies that showed cross-activity to Beta, Delta, and Gamma RBD in mice. The third immunization dose could boost (1.1 to 40.6 times) high levels of cross-binding antibodies and elicit high titers of neutralizing antibodies (64 to 1024) prototype, Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants. Furthermore, the vaccines were able to provoke a Th1-biased cellular immune response. Significantly, at the same antigen dose, S1-2P immune sera induced stronger broadly neutralizing antibodies against prototype, Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants compared to that induced by S2-2P. At the same time, the low dose of bivalent vaccine containing S2-2P and S1-2P (2.5 μg for each antigen) significantly improved the cross-neutralizing antibody responses. In conclusion, our results showed that monovalent S1-2P subunit vaccine or bivalent vaccine (S1-2P and S2-2P) induced potent humoral and cellular responses against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants and provided valuable information for the development of recombinant protein-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines that protect against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Efficacy of COVID-19 Vaccine)
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18 pages, 316 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Daily Behavior Changes and Vaccine Attitudes at the Early Stage of the COVID-19 Pandemic among Japanese People from Different Demographics: A Retrospective and Exploratory Examination Using a Free-Response Survey
by Mariko Kikutani, Mie Matsui and Yuta Takiguchi
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010192 - 16 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1507
Abstract
This study investigated how daily behaviors of Japanese people changed during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic and whether the change was mediated by demographics. It also examined whether the magnitude of behavior change in a demographic group is related to their [...] Read more.
This study investigated how daily behaviors of Japanese people changed during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic and whether the change was mediated by demographics. It also examined whether the magnitude of behavior change in a demographic group is related to their attitudes towards the COVID-19 vaccine. 301 Japanese responded to an online survey in February 2021, in which they first wrote some activities they frequently performed before the virus outbreak and then wrote about activities in their current life. The number of gathered answers were 1858 for ‘before’ and 1668 for ‘after’, and they were grouped into 19 behavior categories. Overall, behaviors such as traveling, eating out, and shopping were much less frequently described in the ‘after’ condition; while housework, food delivery, and pandemic prevention were mentioned more. However, the change pattern was significantly influenced by demographics of age, gender, having children or not, and household income. Especially women, younger generations, and people without children showed the greatest extent of behavior change compared with the other demographic cohorts. These groups were reported to be vaccine-hesitant in the literature. This study suggests that individuals with hesitant attitudes towards vaccines are more willing to change their behaviors to control viral transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Epidemiology and Transmission)
14 pages, 1410 KiB  
Article
Advancing Immunization Coverage and Equity: A Structured Synthesis of Pro-Equity Strategies in 61 Gavi-Supported Countries
by Vesela Ivanova, A. S. M. Shahabuddin, Alyssa Sharkey and Mira Johri
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010191 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2778
Abstract
Background: Global immunization inequities persist, reflected in the 25 million underimmunized and 18 million zero-dose children in 2021. To identify country approaches to reach underimmunized and zero-dose children, we undertook a structured synthesis of pro-equity strategies across 61 countries receiving programmatic support from [...] Read more.
Background: Global immunization inequities persist, reflected in the 25 million underimmunized and 18 million zero-dose children in 2021. To identify country approaches to reach underimmunized and zero-dose children, we undertook a structured synthesis of pro-equity strategies across 61 countries receiving programmatic support from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. Methods: We extracted data from 174 Country Joint Appraisals and Multi-Stakeholder Dialogue reports (2016–2020). We identified strategies via a targeted keyword search, informed by a determinants of immunization coverage framework. Strategies were synthesized into themes consolidated from UNICEF’s Journey to Health and Immunization (JTHI) and the Global Routine Immunization Strategies and Practices (GRISP) frameworks. Results: We found 607 unique strategies across 61 countries and 24 themes. Strategies to improve care at the point of service (44%); to improve knowledge, awareness and beliefs (25%); and to address preparation, cost and effort barriers (13%) were common. Fewer strategies targeted experience of care (8%), intent, (7%) and after-service (3%). We also identified strategies addressing gender-related barriers to immunization and targeting specific types of communities. Conclusions: We summarize the range of pro-equity immunization strategies employed in Gavi-supported countries and interpret them thematically. Findings are incorporated into a searchable database which can be used to inform equity-driven immunization programs, policies and decision-making which target underimmunized and zero-dose communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inequality in Immunization 2023)
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10 pages, 261 KiB  
Article
Predictors of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Uptake among Health Professionals: A Cross-Sectional Study in Ghana
by Abdul-Samed Mohammed, Mubarick Nungbaso Asumah, Bijaya Kumar Padhi, Abhinav Sinha, Issah Mohammed, Safayet Jamil, Osborn Antwi Boasiako, Nladobi Leman and Russell Kabir
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010190 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2359
Abstract
COV-2 SARs has disproportionately affected low- and middle-income countries such as Ghana, where the healthcare system was not prepared enough to provide care, drugs, and equipment. This study was carried out to assess predictors of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among health professionals in the [...] Read more.
COV-2 SARs has disproportionately affected low- and middle-income countries such as Ghana, where the healthcare system was not prepared enough to provide care, drugs, and equipment. This study was carried out to assess predictors of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among health professionals in the Bono region of Ghana. A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 424 health professionals recruited through simple random sampling. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were utilized to identify the predictors of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance presented as an odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). All respondents had heard about the COVID-19 vaccine. The most common source of information was the media (45.8%). The proportion of health professionals who accepted the COVID-19 vaccine was 73.6%. Among those who did not take the vaccine, 64.3% were willing to take it in the future. The key predictors of taking the COVID-19 vaccine included: age 25 to 45 years (AOR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.14–3.35), age older than 45 years (AOR = 5.30, 95% CI: 2.59–10.87), males (AOR = 4.09, 95% CI: 2.34–7.15), Christians (AOR = 3.10, 95% CI: 1.44–7.72), and at least three years of experience (AOR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.033–2.93). Reasons for not taking vaccines included: vaccines were rapidly developed and approved (41.0%), immediate side effects (39.2%), and unforeseen future effects (37.5%). This study showed that most participants had received their first dose of COVID-19 vaccination, and most of those hesitant about the vaccine were willing to receive it in the future. This is a positive finding for policy makers since it reflects that fewer resources will be needed for behavioural change initiatives. In addition, it would present a chance to focus on minority individuals who are unwilling to take the vaccine and offer targeted community mobilisation. Full article
10 pages, 261 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy and Personality Traits; Results from a Large National Cross-Sectional Survey in Qatar
by Shuja Reagu, Roland M. Jones and Majid Alabdulla
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010189 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2104
Abstract
Attitudes to vaccination arise from a complex interplay of personal and environmental factors. This has been true for the COVID-19 vaccination attitudes too and understanding personal factors would help design immunisation strategies that help in infectious disease control. The five-factor model of personality [...] Read more.
Attitudes to vaccination arise from a complex interplay of personal and environmental factors. This has been true for the COVID-19 vaccination attitudes too and understanding personal factors would help design immunisation strategies that help in infectious disease control. The five-factor model of personality has been established as a valid construct in exploring individual attitudes and traits. This institutional review board approved study explores the relationship between these five domains of personality and attitudes to COVID-19 vaccination in Qatar which has a migrant majority population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Qatar using an online survey link containing validated tools to measure vaccine hesitancy and personality traits. People from diverse ethnic and sociodemographic backgrounds, amounting to 5340 individuals, completed the self-report survey. After controlling for social and demographic variables, individuals scoring significantly higher on Conscientiousness were more likely to refuse the COVID-19 vaccination, while those scoring significantly lower on Openness to experience and Neuroticism were also more likely to refuse COVID-19 vaccination. Both groups of individuals scoring significantly higher and lower on Conscientiousness and Neuroticism, respectively, were more likely to trust their own research than trust endorsement of the COVID-19 vaccine from their doctor or healthcare organisation. The study highlights the highly complex and sometimes contradictory relationship between vaccine hesitancy and personality traits and makes a case for understanding this relationship better in order to inform successful immunisation strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination)
11 pages, 1466 KiB  
Article
Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM Secondary Response Was Suppressed by Preexisting Immunity in Vaccinees: A Prospective, Longitudinal Cohort Study over 456 Days
by Qiu-Yan Xu, Lin Xie, Xin-Qi Zheng, Xian-Ming Liang, Zhi-Juan Jia, Yan-Yun Liu, Xiao-Yu Liang, Li-Li Liu, Tian-Ci Yang and Li-Rong Lin
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010188 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1898
Abstract
To obtain more insight into IgM in anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity a prospective cohort study was carried out in 32 volunteers to longitudinally profile the kinetics of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM response induced by administration of a three-dose inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine regimen at 19 serial time [...] Read more.
To obtain more insight into IgM in anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity a prospective cohort study was carried out in 32 volunteers to longitudinally profile the kinetics of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM response induced by administration of a three-dose inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine regimen at 19 serial time points over 456 days. The first and second doses were considered primary immunization, while the third dose was considered secondary immunization. IgM antibodies showed a low secondary response that was different from the other three antibodies (neutralizing, total, and IgG antibodies). There were 31.25% (10/32) (95% CI, 14.30–48.20%) of participants who never achieved a positive IgM antibody conversion over 456 days after vaccination. The seropositivity rate of IgM antibodies was 68.75% (22/32) (95% CI, 51.80–85.70%) after primary immunization. Unexpectedly, after secondary immunization the seropositivity response rate was only 9.38% (3/32) (95% CI, 1.30–20.10%), which was much lower than that after primary immunization (p = 0.000). Spearman’s correlation analysis indicated a poor correlation of IgM antibodies with the other three antibodies. IgM response in vaccinees was completely different from the response patterns of neutralizing, total, and IgG antibodies following both the primary immunization and the secondary immunization and was suppressed by pre-existing immunity induced by primary immunization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in COVID-19 Vaccines and Neutralizing Antibody)
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10 pages, 649 KiB  
Brief Report
Increased Risk of Hospitalization for Pneumonia in Italian Adults from 2010 to 2019: Scientific Evidence for a Call to Action
by Emanuele Amodio, Francesco Vitale, Daniela d’Angela, Ciro Carrieri, Barbara Polistena, Federico Spandonaro, Alessandra Pagliaro and Eva Agostina Montuori
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010187 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1695
Abstract
Background: Understanding trends in pneumonia-associated hospitalizations can help to quantify the burden of disease and identify risk conditions and at-risk populations. This study evaluated characteristics of hospitalizations due to pneumonia that occurred in Italy in a 10-year period from 2010 to 2019. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Understanding trends in pneumonia-associated hospitalizations can help to quantify the burden of disease and identify risk conditions and at-risk populations. This study evaluated characteristics of hospitalizations due to pneumonia that occurred in Italy in a 10-year period from 2010 to 2019. Methods: All hospitalizations with a principal or secondary diagnosis of pneumonia over the 10-year period were included, which were identified by hospital discharges for all-cause pneumonia and pneumococcal pneumonia in the anonymized hospital discharge database of the Italian Health Ministry. Results: A total of 2,481,213 patients were hospitalized for pneumonia between 2010 and 2019; patients aged 75–86 years accounted for 30.1% of hospitalizations. Most hospitalizations (88.1%) had an unspecified pneumonia discharge code. In-hospital death was recorded in 13.0% of cases. The cumulative cost for pneumonia hospitalizations of the 10-year period were EUR 11,303,461,591. Over the observation period, the incidence rate for hospitalized all-cause pneumonia in any ages increased from 100 per 100,000 in 2010 to over 160 cases per 100,000 per year in 2019 (p < 0.001). Overall, there was a significant increase in annual percent changes in hospitalization rates (+3.47 per year), in-hospital death (+4.6% per year), and costs (+3.95% per year) over the 10-year period. Conclusions: Our analysis suggests that hospitalizations for pneumonia are increasing over time in almost all age groups, especially in the elderly. Given the substantial burden of pneumonia in terms of mortality, healthcare resources, and economic costs, greater public health efforts should thus be made to promote vaccinations against influenza and pneumococcus, particularly in high-risk groups. Full article
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12 pages, 3479 KiB  
Article
Oral Vaccination of Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Expressing ORF132 Induces Protective Immunity against Cyprinid Herpesvirus-2
by Licong Wang, Maoxia Yang, Sheng Luo, Guanjun Yang, Xinjiang Lu, Jianfei Lu and Jiong Chen
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010186 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2211
Abstract
Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is the etiological agent of herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) disease, which causes serious economic losses in the crucian carp culture industry. In this study, by displaying ORF132 on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells (named EBY100/pYD1-ORF132), we evaluated the [...] Read more.
Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is the etiological agent of herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) disease, which causes serious economic losses in the crucian carp culture industry. In this study, by displaying ORF132 on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells (named EBY100/pYD1-ORF132), we evaluated the protective efficacy of oral administration against CyHV-2 infection. Intense innate and adaptive immune responses were evoked in both mucosal and systemic tissues after oral vaccination with EBY100/pYD1-ORF132. Importantly, oral vaccination provided significant protection for crucian carp post CyHV-2 infection, resulting in a relative percent survival (RPS) of 64%. In addition, oral administration suppressed the virus load and relieved histological damage in selected tissues. Our results indicated that surface-displayed ORF132 on S. cerevisiae could be used as potential oral vaccine against CyHV-2 infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Viruses and Vaccination)
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12 pages, 286 KiB  
Article
Exploring Factors Associated with Chinese-Americans’ Willingness to Receive an Additional Hypothetical Annual Dose of the COVID-19 Vaccine
by Ming Li, Bo Kyum Yang, Zuojin Yu, Lin Zhu, Xuewei Chen, Gary L. Kreps and Radhika Kansangra
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010185 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1786
Abstract
Chinese-Americans are one of the largest groups of Asian-Americans in the US with distinctive behavioral and cultural characteristics that influence health service use. Although Chinese-Americans have significantly higher COVID-19-related mortality rates, relative to other racial and ethnic groups, limited literature is available examining [...] Read more.
Chinese-Americans are one of the largest groups of Asian-Americans in the US with distinctive behavioral and cultural characteristics that influence health service use. Although Chinese-Americans have significantly higher COVID-19-related mortality rates, relative to other racial and ethnic groups, limited literature is available examining their willingness to accept the COVID-19 vaccine. With recent development of the combination influenza-COVID-19 vaccine by biotechnology companies to mitigate COVID-19 infection, we examined factors associated with Chinese-Americans’ acceptance of hypothetical annual doses of COVID-19 vaccination before the vaccine rollout. A total of 241 Chinese-Americans who received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine completed an online questionnaire developed and based on health behavior theories. Our results indicated that Chinese-American participants who were satisfied with their prior COVID-19 vaccination experience, who had more accurate knowledge and perceived higher susceptibility of getting COVID-19, were more willing to receive the annual COVID-19 vaccine in the future. The findings of our current study may be used to guide the development of strategic messages to promote uptake of the annual COVID-19 vaccine by Chinese-Americans in the U.S. Full article
13 pages, 4314 KiB  
Review
Driving Paediatric Vaccine Recovery in Europe
by Claire Alexander, Mariel Cabrera, Michael Moore and Marta Lomazzi
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010184 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2697
Abstract
Background: Childhood vaccination coverage has increased throughout Europe in recent decades. However, challenges persist in many areas within the European Union (EU), resulting in declining coverage rates in many countries in the period between 2010 and 2021. This general trend requires increased efforts [...] Read more.
Background: Childhood vaccination coverage has increased throughout Europe in recent decades. However, challenges persist in many areas within the European Union (EU), resulting in declining coverage rates in many countries in the period between 2010 and 2021. This general trend requires increased efforts to combat barriers around vaccination uptake. Thus, this article aims to summarise key learnings and trends in paediatric vaccination within the EU, with a focus on current challenges and enablers. Methods: Methodology is based on analysis of primary data, mainly vaccination coverage rates, as well as review and analysis of the select relevant literature, including peer-reviewed articles, academic research papers, official reports, policies, and other publicly available sources. Results: For all vaccines assessed (DTP 1st dose, DTP 3rd dose, Hib3, HepB3, measles 1st dose, measles 2nd dose, and polio 3rd dose), a high degree of variation and fluctuation in coverage can be observed. There is a general trend of declining coverage in 2019 compared to 2010, with lower performing countries, such as Romania and Austria, showing increasingly severe coverage fluctuations between the years examined across the analysed vaccines. Conclusions: Evidence suggests that increasing both accessibility and information regarding vaccines are key enablers to vaccination uptake. Moreover, given the current challenges the EU is facing, crisis preparedness plans are pertinent to ensure immunity gaps do not further exacerbate the disruption of vaccination systems. Full article
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11 pages, 264 KiB  
Article
Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior toward COVID-19 Vaccination in Young Italians
by Shizuka Kibi, David Shaholli, Vanessa India Barletta, Francesca Vezza, Marcello Gelardini, Carla Ardizzone, Daniele Grassucci and Giuseppe La Torre
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010183 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1718
Abstract
Purpose: The knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of young Italians towards the COVID-19 vaccination were analyzed in order to provide information useful to elaborate the strategies that can be implemented to obtain the best possible vaccination coverage in this population. Methods: A [...] Read more.
Purpose: The knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of young Italians towards the COVID-19 vaccination were analyzed in order to provide information useful to elaborate the strategies that can be implemented to obtain the best possible vaccination coverage in this population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 5313 young people aged between 11 and 30 years. Data were collected through an online survey during the period from 1 to 10 March 2021. The answers to the questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS statistical software. Intention to vaccinate was studied by univariate analysis using Pearson’s chi-square test to assess differences between groups for categorical variables, and by multivariate analysis applying the binary logistic regression model, and the Hosmer–Lemeshow test was performed to assess goodness of fit. Results: Television (32.1%), internet/search engine (25.9%), and social networks (10.4%) were the main sources of information for young Italians. The survey analysis showed that 74.5% (3956) of the respondents were willing to be vaccinated against COVID-19 versus 25.5% (1357) who were against it. Demographic data, in particular, age, gender, experience with influenza vaccine, and level of knowledge about the disease, were significant determinants (p < 0.001) for the choice to vaccinate against COVID-19. Discussion: These results suggest that in order to implement the vaccination campaign, correct information is needed to improve awareness of the vaccine and COVID-19, while also taking into account the target group, which differs not only in age but also in the sources of information used compared to the adult population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Epidemiology and Vaccines 2.0)
10 pages, 966 KiB  
Article
Adverse Reactions after Booster SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination Have Less Impact on Antibody Response than after Basic Vaccination Scheme
by Andrea Kanizsai, Laszlo Zavori, Tihamer Molnar, Margit Tőkés-Füzesi, Zoltan Szalai, Janos Berecz, Reka Varnai, Zoltan Peterfi, Attila Schwarcz and Peter Csecsei
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010182 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1688
Abstract
Background: It is known that adverse reactions following SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations show a positive correlation with the subsequent antibody titer. However, it is not clear how the adverse reactions following the booster vaccination are related to the antibody levels that can be measured after [...] Read more.
Background: It is known that adverse reactions following SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations show a positive correlation with the subsequent antibody titer. However, it is not clear how the adverse reactions following the booster vaccination are related to the antibody levels that can be measured after a 3rd dose. The primary goal of this study was to investigate whether the adverse reactions following the booster vaccination show a correlation with subsequent antibody levels. Methods: Adverse reactions occurring within 7 days after the 3rd vaccination were recorded and the anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein immunoglobulin (Ig) level in the venous blood was measured on post-vaccination 14th, 60th and 120th days. Results: A total of 218 volunteers were included in the study. Main findings: (i) The adverse reactions that appeared after the booster dose did not show a positive correlation with the subsequent antibody level, except a correlation in the case of fever; (ii) there were more symptomatic patients in the group receiving heterologous booster vaccine, (iii) fever after the 2nd dose was independently associated with a reduction in the likelihood of COVID-19 positivity after the booster dose. Conclusion: No adverse reactions, but fever showed a correlation with the antibody level after the booster SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination)
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14 pages, 3037 KiB  
Communication
Zero-Dose, Under-Immunized, and Dropout Children in Nigeria: The Trend and Its Contributing Factors over Time
by Ryoko Sato
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010181 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2282
Abstract
Introduction: This study analyzes the trend of prevalence of, and factors contributing to, children with incomplete vaccination status, namely zero-dose, under-immunized, and dropout children, over time from 2003 to 2018 in Nigeria, one of the countries with the highest number of children with [...] Read more.
Introduction: This study analyzes the trend of prevalence of, and factors contributing to, children with incomplete vaccination status, namely zero-dose, under-immunized, and dropout children, over time from 2003 to 2018 in Nigeria, one of the countries with the highest number of children with incomplete vaccination. Methods: Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data from 2003 to 2018 were analyzed to calculate the prevalence of children with incomplete vaccination status by geographical zone over time and to investigate the factors contributing to the change in the prevalence of such children over time based on the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition analysis. Results: The prevalence of children with incomplete vaccination status substantially decreased from 2003 to 2018 in most of zones in Nigeria. Rural areas and the northern zones had consistently higher prevalence of children with incomplete vaccination status than urban areas and the southern zones. It was identified that mothers’ education and the household wealth level explained the reduction in the prevalence of zero-dose and under-immunized children, but the degree of contribution of each factor varied by zone and place of residence, i.e., urban or rural. Both the mother’s education and household wealth level only weakly contributed to the reduction in the number of dropout children. Discussions and conclusion: Future studies should explore further how to improve the vaccination coverage in Nigeria over time. Examples of topics for future study include other contributing factors beyond education and wealth level, differential factors influencing the reduction in the number of children with incomplete vaccination status by area of residence (urban vs. rural), why the reduction in the number of dropout children is not explained by either education or wealth, and the significant contributors to the reduction in the number of such children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination Hesitancy: Attitudes and Associated Factors)
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20 pages, 1916 KiB  
Review
Understanding the Barriers and Attitudes toward Influenza Vaccine Uptake in the Adult General Population: A Rapid Review
by Verna L. Welch, Tom Metcalf, Richard Macey, Kristen Markus, Amy J. Sears, Ashley Enstone, Jakob Langer, Amit Srivastava, Alejandro Cane and Timothy L. Wiemken
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010180 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3889
Abstract
Influenza is a common respiratory infection associated with a substantial clinical, humanistic, and economic burden globally. Vaccines are essential to prevent and control influenza and are recommended by public-health agencies, such as the WHO and US CDC; however, vaccination rates vary considerably across [...] Read more.
Influenza is a common respiratory infection associated with a substantial clinical, humanistic, and economic burden globally. Vaccines are essential to prevent and control influenza and are recommended by public-health agencies, such as the WHO and US CDC; however, vaccination rates vary considerably across the globe. This review aimed to investigate the perceived barriers and attitudes to influenza vaccination in the global population, in order to identify strategies that may improve influenza vaccination coverage. A structured literature search was undertaken to identify studies that reported on patient-reported attitudes towards influenza vaccination, focused on the adult general population in 16 prespecified countries. Eighty studies were included in this review. Negative attitude towards healthcare were found to be the most agreed upon barrier to vaccine uptake (31.1% agreement). The most agreed promoter of influenza vaccination was trust in healthcare services (62.0% agreement). Approximately 50% of participants intended to receive the influenza vaccine in the following season. To improve influenza vaccination coverage, healthcare workers must strengthen the foundation of substantial trust in healthcare services and provide educational materials that improve influenza vaccination knowledge among the adult general population. Full article
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13 pages, 284 KiB  
Review
Consistency of Bacterial Triggers in the Pathogenesis of Hidradenitis Suppurativa
by Elia Rosi, Prisca Guerra, Gianmarco Silvi, Giulia Nunziati, Ilaria Scandagli, Antonella Di Cesare and Francesca Prignano
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010179 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2089
Abstract
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is an inflammatory skin disease whose pathogenesis remains poorly defined. Over the past decades, the bacterial role in HS patients has been a focus of research. According to the literature, the HS skin (and probably gut) bacterial composition is different [...] Read more.
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is an inflammatory skin disease whose pathogenesis remains poorly defined. Over the past decades, the bacterial role in HS patients has been a focus of research. According to the literature, the HS skin (and probably gut) bacterial composition is different to that of healthy controls. To date, a key question is whether compositional changes in the microbial populations are responsible for the development of HS (primum movens), or only secondarily reflect the ongoing inflammatory process. The great diversity of methodologies that have been used to study microbial role in HS have led to an accumulation of conflicting results. Thus, in view of these considerations, the aim of this article is to provide the reader with an overview about different hypotheses proposed to explain the bacterial role in HS pathogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Skin Immune-Mediated Disease)
14 pages, 1741 KiB  
Review
Efficacy and Safety of Quadrivalent Conjugate Meningococcal Vaccines: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Andrea Conti, Gaia Broglia, Chiara Sacchi, Fabrizia Risi, Francesco Barone-Adesi and Massimiliano Panella
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010178 - 13 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2953
Abstract
Over the last decades, different quadrivalent antimeningococcal vaccine formulations (diphteria toxoid conjugate, MenACWY-D; tetanus toxoid conjugate, MenACWY-TT; CRM197 protein conjugate, MenACWY-CRM) have been developed. However, their availability varies, both in terms of authorized formulations and of inclusion in vaccination schedules. Furthermore, several [...] Read more.
Over the last decades, different quadrivalent antimeningococcal vaccine formulations (diphteria toxoid conjugate, MenACWY-D; tetanus toxoid conjugate, MenACWY-TT; CRM197 protein conjugate, MenACWY-CRM) have been developed. However, their availability varies, both in terms of authorized formulations and of inclusion in vaccination schedules. Furthermore, several countries include only the monovalent meningococcal C (MenC) vaccine in their immunization programmes. Finally, there is currently no updated systematic review that directly compares the MenACWY formulations. Thus, we summarized the evidence on efficacy and safety through four parallel, independent systematic literature reviews with meta-analysis which included randomized controlled trials comparing the abovementioned vaccines. A total of 16 studies have been included. In terms of efficacy, MenACWY-TT outperformed MenACWY-D and MenACWY-CRM for A, W-135, and Y serogroups, while no significant difference was found for serogroup C. Furthermore, we did not find significant differences in efficacy between MenC and MenACWY-TT. Regarding the safety, we were able to perform a quantitative analysis only between MenACWY-TT and MenC, finding no significant differences. Similarly, among the different MenACWY formulations no relevant differences were identified. These findings suggest that MenACWY-TT could be preferable to other formulations to improve current vaccination programs and to better develop future immunization policies. Full article
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14 pages, 282 KiB  
Article
Barriers and Facilitators to COVID-19 Vaccine Uptake among Polish Patients: A Qualitative Interview Study
by Ludmiła Marcinowicz, Ewa Fejfer-Wirbal, Agnieszka Dudzik, Agnieszka Genowska and Sławomir Terlikowski
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010177 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1623
Abstract
The decision to receive a COVID-19 vaccine is influenced by a variety of individual and contextual factors. However, there are very few studies that analyse individual vaccination decisions using a qualitative methodology. To close this gap, we conducted a qualitative interview study to [...] Read more.
The decision to receive a COVID-19 vaccine is influenced by a variety of individual and contextual factors. However, there are very few studies that analyse individual vaccination decisions using a qualitative methodology. To close this gap, we conducted a qualitative interview study to examine the opinions and experiences with the vaccine among patients previously hospitalized due to COVID-19, including barriers and facilitators to vaccine uptake. An exploratory qualitative study, using semi-structured telephone interviews, was conducted among 22 patients admitted for COVID-19 in Poland in 2022. Opinions of patients previously hospitalized with COVID-19 on vaccination were varied. Barriers to COVID-19 vaccine uptake stemmed from concerns about vaccine safety, patients’ religious beliefs, and negative stories. High disease severity and anxiety over personal and family health were important arguments in favour of receiving the COVID-19 vaccine. The study findings indicated the need for ongoing health education by healthcare staff as well as coordination and integration of multi-sectoral institutional measures regarding COVID-19 prevention strategies as well as increased public health initiatives on social media and engagement of community leaders for awareness about vaccines and vaccination. It is crucial to build trust in COVID-19 vaccinations among the general public by disseminating reliable information through trustworthy and credible sources. However, it ought to be emphasised that, regardless of the measures taken, some individuals will remain unconvinced about receiving a COVID-19 vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination Hesitancy across the Globe)
12 pages, 270 KiB  
Article
Knowledge, Attitudes, Perceptions, and Acceptance of COVID-19 Vaccination among Pharmacy and Non-Pharmacy Students
by Hamid Saeed, Khubaib Ali, Muhammad Nabeel, Muhammad Fawad Rasool, Muhammad Islam, Furqan Khurshid Hashmi, Amna Saeed and Zikria Saleem
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010176 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2290
Abstract
University students are a sub-group of the population at high risk of COVID-19 infection, and their judgments on vaccination affect the public attitudes towards vaccination. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, and acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine among [...] Read more.
University students are a sub-group of the population at high risk of COVID-19 infection, and their judgments on vaccination affect the public attitudes towards vaccination. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, and acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine among pharmacy and non-pharmacy students. A cross-sectional study was conducted by enrolling pharmacy (375) and non-pharmacy (225) students from the universities in Lahore. Chi-square analysis was used for significant frequency distributions and a 5-point Likert scale was used to score attitude, perception, and acceptance. The majority of the students were aged between 19–24 years, hailing from urban and middle-class families with good self-reported health. The preferred vaccine was Pfizer, followed by Sinopharm and Sinovac. The major source of information was social media, followed by government campaigns and family members. The pharmacy students demonstrated better knowledge and positive attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccination. The non-pharmacy students scored higher for the questions based on scientific leads, myths, and baffling conspiracies. The non-pharmacy students showed higher hesitancy/barrier total scores related to their trust in the health system, COVID-19 vaccine storage, and efficacy. Data suggested that pharmacy students exhibited better knowledge, positive attitudes, and perceptions about COVID-19 vaccination. Overall, vaccine efficacy and safety were mutual concerns. Nonetheless, non-pharmacy students were hesitant due to mistrust in the health system of Pakistan. Full article
18 pages, 2418 KiB  
Article
GlnH, a Novel Antigen That Offers Partial Protection against Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli Infection
by Conor Quinn, Julen Tomás-Cortázar, Oritsejolomi Ofioritse, Joanne Cosgrave, Claire Purcell, Catherine McAloon, Susanna Frost and Siobhán McClean
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010175 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2242 | Correction
Abstract
Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) causes zoonotic infections, with potentially devastating complications, and children under 5 years old are particularly susceptible. Antibiotic treatment is contraindicated, and due to the high proportion of infected children that suffer from severe and life-changing complications, there is an [...] Read more.
Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) causes zoonotic infections, with potentially devastating complications, and children under 5 years old are particularly susceptible. Antibiotic treatment is contraindicated, and due to the high proportion of infected children that suffer from severe and life-changing complications, there is an unmet need for a vaccine to prevent VTEC infections. Bacterial adhesins represent promising candidates for the successful development of a vaccine against VTEC. Using a proteomic approach to identify bacterial proteins interacting with human gastrointestinal epithelial Caco-2 and HT-29 cells, we identified eleven proteins by mass spectrometry. These included a glutamine-binding periplasmic protein, GlnH, a member of the ABC transporter family. The glnH gene was identified in 13 of the 15 bovine and all 5 human patient samples tested, suggesting that it is prevalent. We confirmed that GlnH is involved in the host cell attachment of an O157:H7 prototype E. coli strain to gastrointestinal cells in vitro. Recombinant GlnH was expressed and purified prior to the immunisation of mice. When alum was used as an adjuvant, GlnH was highly immunogenic, stimulating strong serological responses in immunised mice, and it resulted in a modest reduction in faecal shedding but did not reduce colonisation. GlnH immunisation with a T-cell-inducing adjuvant (SAS) also showed comparable antibody responses and an IgG1/IgG2a ratio suggestive of a mixed Th1/Th2 response but was partially protective, with a 1.25-log reduction in colonisation of the colon and caecum at 7 days relative to the adjuvant only (p = 0.0280). It is clear that future VTEC vaccine developments should consider the contribution of adjuvants in addition to antigens. Moreover, it is likely that a combined cellular and humoral response may prove more beneficial in providing protective interventions against VTEC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunological Aspect regarding Vaccine Development and Uses)
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23 pages, 1751 KiB  
Review
Human Coronavirus Cell Receptors Provide Challenging Therapeutic Targets
by Georgina I. López-Cortés, Miryam Palacios-Pérez, Margarita M. Hernández-Aguilar, Hannya F. Veledíaz and Marco V. José
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010174 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2588
Abstract
Coronaviruses interact with protein or carbohydrate receptors through their spike proteins to infect cells. Even if the known protein receptors for these viruses have no evolutionary relationships, they do share ontological commonalities that the virus might leverage to exacerbate the pathophysiology. ANPEP/CD13, DPP [...] Read more.
Coronaviruses interact with protein or carbohydrate receptors through their spike proteins to infect cells. Even if the known protein receptors for these viruses have no evolutionary relationships, they do share ontological commonalities that the virus might leverage to exacerbate the pathophysiology. ANPEP/CD13, DPP IV/CD26, and ACE2 are the three protein receptors that are known to be exploited by several human coronaviruses. These receptors are moonlighting enzymes involved in several physiological processes such as digestion, metabolism, and blood pressure regulation; moreover, the three proteins are expressed in kidney, intestine, endothelium, and other tissues/cell types. Here, we spot the commonalities between the three enzymes, the physiological functions of the enzymes are outlined, and how blocking either enzyme results in systemic deregulations and multi-organ failures via viral infection or therapeutic interventions is addressed. It can be difficult to pinpoint any coronavirus as the target when creating a medication to fight them, due to the multiple processes that receptors are linked to and their extensive expression. Full article
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13 pages, 1737 KiB  
Article
Rickettsia Vaccine Candidate pVAX1-OmpB24 Stimulates TCD4+INF-γ+ and TCD8+INF-γ+ Lymphocytes in Autologous Co-Culture of Human Cells
by Karla Dzul-Rosado, Luis Donis-Maturano, Juan Arias-León, Jesús Machado-Contreras, Guillermo Valencia-Pacheco, Candi Panti-Balam, Javier Balam-Romero, Angela Ku-González, Gaspar Peniche-Lara, Juan Mosqueda, Oscar E. Zazueta, Cesar Lugo-Caballero and Fernando Puerto-Manzano
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010173 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2176
Abstract
Background: In recent years, promising vaccination strategies against rickettsiosis have been described in experimental animal models and human cells. OmpB is considered an immunodominant antigen that is recognized by T and B cells. The aim of this study was to identify TCD4+INF-γ+ and [...] Read more.
Background: In recent years, promising vaccination strategies against rickettsiosis have been described in experimental animal models and human cells. OmpB is considered an immunodominant antigen that is recognized by T and B cells. The aim of this study was to identify TCD4+INF-γ+ and TCD8+INF-γ+ lymphocytes in an autologous system with macrophages transfected with the vaccine candidate pVAX1-OmpB24. Lymphocytes and monocytes from 14 patients with Rickettsia were isolated from whole blood. Monocytes were differentiated into macrophages and transfected with the plasmid pVAX1-OmpB24 pVax1. Isolated lymphocytes were cultured with transfected macrophages. IFN-γ-producing TCD4+ and TCD8+ lymphocyte subpopulations were identified by flow cytometry, as was the percentage of macrophages expressing CD40+, CD80+, HLA-I and HLA-II. Also, we analyzed the exhausted condition of the T lymphocyte subpopulation by PD1 expression. Macrophages transfected with pVAX1-OmpB24 stimulated TCD4+INF-γ+ cells in healthy subjects and patients infected with R. typhi. Macrophages stimulated TCD8+INF-γ+ cells in healthy subjects and patients infected with R. rickettsii and R. felis. Cells from healthy donors stimulated with OmpB-24 showed a higher percentage of TCD4+PD1+. Cells from patients infected with R. rickettsii had a higher percentage of TCD8+PD-1+, and for those infected with R. typhi the larger number of cells corresponded to TCD4+PD1+. Human macrophages transfected with pVAX1-OmpB24 activated TCD4+IFN-γ+ and CD8+IFN-γ+ in patients infected with different Rickettsia species. However, PD1 expression played an important role in the inhibition of T lymphocytes with R. felis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunity and Vaccination against Bacterial Infections)
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2 pages, 404 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Guerrieri et al. Nasal and Salivary Mucosal Humoral Immune Response Elicited by mRNA BNT162b2 COVID-19 Vaccine Compared to SARS-CoV-2 Natural Infection. Vaccines 2021, 9, 1499
by Mariapia Guerrieri, Beatrice Francavilla, Denise Fiorelli, Marzia Nuccetelli, Francesco Maria Passali, Luca Coppeta, Giuseppina Somma, Sergio Bernardini, Andrea Magrini and Stefano Di Girolamo
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010172 - 13 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1059
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [...] Full article
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14 pages, 263 KiB  
Article
Rural Americans’ COVID-19 Vaccine Perceptions and Willingness to Vaccinate against COVID-19 with Their Community Pharmacists: An Exploratory Study
by Alexis M. Koskan, Iris E. LoCoco, Casey L. Daniel and Benjamin S. Teeter
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010171 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2772
Abstract
In early 2022 in the U.S., rural adults were the least likely to vaccinate against COVID-19 due to vaccine hesitancy and reduced healthcare access. This study explored the factors influencing rural adults’ COVID-19 vaccine perceptions and their acceptance of pharmacist-administered vaccination. We utilized [...] Read more.
In early 2022 in the U.S., rural adults were the least likely to vaccinate against COVID-19 due to vaccine hesitancy and reduced healthcare access. This study explored the factors influencing rural adults’ COVID-19 vaccine perceptions and their acceptance of pharmacist-administered vaccination. We utilized phone-based semi-structured interviews with 30 adults living in rural regions of one southwestern state and analyzed the data using a team-based thematic analysis approach. Vaccine-willing participants described knowing other people affected by the virus and their desired protection from the virus. They reported trusting scientific institutions and the government to provide safe vaccines. Vaccine-hesitant populations, however, feared that the COVID-19 vaccine development process had been rushed, compromising the safety of these newer vaccines. Although they differed in the news sources they preferred for receiving COVID-19 vaccine information, both vaccine-willing and vaccine-hesitant participants described trusting local authorities, such as healthcare providers and county government officials, to provide accurate COVID-19 vaccine information. Regarding the acceptability of pharmacist-administered COVID-19 vaccinations, all but one participant described their acceptance of this healthcare delivery approach. Future outreach should leverage rural adults’ trust in local sources, including community pharmacists, deemed more convenient access points to healthcare, when addressing vaccine hesitancy. Full article
15 pages, 298 KiB  
Article
Changes in COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptability among Parents with Children Aged 6–35 Months in China—Repeated Cross-Sectional Surveys in 2020 and 2021
by Kechun Zhang, Xue Liang, Karen Lau Wa Tam, Joseph Kawuki, Paul Shing-fong Chan, Siyu Chen, Yuan Fang, He Cao, Xiaofeng Zhou, Yaqi Chen, Tian Hu, Hongbiao Chen and Zixin Wang
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010170 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1394
Abstract
China is considering to offer COVID-19 vaccination for children aged 6–35 months. This study investigated the changes in COVID-19 vaccine acceptability and associated factors among parents with children aged 6–35 months in 2020 and 2021. Two rounds of cross-sectional online surveys were conducted [...] Read more.
China is considering to offer COVID-19 vaccination for children aged 6–35 months. This study investigated the changes in COVID-19 vaccine acceptability and associated factors among parents with children aged 6–35 months in 2020 and 2021. Two rounds of cross-sectional online surveys were conducted among adult factory workers in Shenzhen, China. A subset of 208 (first round) and 229 (second round) parents with at least one child aged 6–35 months was included in the study. Parental acceptability of COVID-19 vaccination increased significantly from 66.8% in the first round to 79.5% in the second round (p = 0.01). Positive attitudes, perceived subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were associated with higher parental acceptability in both rounds of surveys (p values ranged from <0.001 to 0.003). A negative association of negative attitudes with parental acceptability was observed in the second round (p = 0.02). No significant associations of exposure to information related to COVID-19 vaccination on social media with parental acceptability was found in either round of survey. Expanding the existing COVID-19 vaccination programs to cover children aged 6–35 months is necessary in China. Future programs should focus on modifying perceptions among parents to promote COVID-19 vaccination for children in this age group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Vaccines and Public Health)
11 pages, 2320 KiB  
Article
A Simple and Cost-Efficient Platform for a Novel Porcine Circovirus Type 2d (PCV2d) Vaccine Manufacturing
by Sarawuth Noppiboon, Neeracha Lapanusorn, Pisit Ekkpongpaisit, Sarah Slack, Stefanie Frank and Lalintip Hocharoen
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010169 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2143
Abstract
Porcine circovirus type 2d (PCV2d) is becoming the predominant PCV genotype and considerably affects the global pig industry. Nevertheless, currently, no commercial PCV2d vaccine is available. Preventing and controlling the disease caused by PCV2d is therefore based on other genotype-based vaccines. However, their [...] Read more.
Porcine circovirus type 2d (PCV2d) is becoming the predominant PCV genotype and considerably affects the global pig industry. Nevertheless, currently, no commercial PCV2d vaccine is available. Preventing and controlling the disease caused by PCV2d is therefore based on other genotype-based vaccines. However, their production platforms are laborious, limited in expression level, and relatively expensive for veterinary applications. To address these challenges, we have developed a simple and cost-efficient platform for a novel PCV2d vaccine production process, using fed-batch E. coli fermentation followed by cell disruption and filtration, and a single purification step via cation exchange chromatography. The process was developed at bench scale and then pilot scale, where the PCV2d subunit protein yield was approximately 0.93 g/L fermentation volume in a short production time. Moreover, we have successfully implemented this production process at two different sites, in Southeast Asia and Europe. This demonstrates transferability and the high potential for successful industrial production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Vaccines)
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18 pages, 340 KiB  
Article
Knowledge and Attitudes of Healthcare Professionals Regarding Perinatal Influenza Vaccination during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Chrysoula Taskou, Antigoni Sarantaki, Apostolos Beloukas, Vasiliki Ε. Georgakopoulou, Georgios Daskalakis, Petros Papalexis and Aikaterini Lykeridou
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010168 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2061
Abstract
Immunizations during pregnancy are an important aspect of perinatal care. Although the influenza vaccine during pregnancy is safe, vaccination rates are low. According to research data, one of the reasons for the low vaccination rates among pregnant women is that they do not [...] Read more.
Immunizations during pregnancy are an important aspect of perinatal care. Although the influenza vaccine during pregnancy is safe, vaccination rates are low. According to research data, one of the reasons for the low vaccination rates among pregnant women is that they do not receive a clear recommendation from healthcare providers. This study aims to record the knowledge and attitudes about influenza vaccination and investigate healthcare professionals’ recommendations during the perinatal period. A cross-sectional study was conducted with convenience sampling in Athens, Greece. Our purposive sample included 240 midwives, Ob/Gs, and pediatricians. Data were collected using an appropriate standardized questionnaire with information about demographics, attitudes towards influenza vaccination, and knowledge about the influenza virus and peripartum vaccination. Statistical analysis was conducted using IBM SPSS-Statistics version 26.0. This study identifies the reasons for the lack of vaccine uptake including a wide range of misconceptions or lack of knowledge about influenza infection, lack of convenient access to get vaccinated, etc. Misconceptions about influenza and influenza vaccines could be improved by better education of healthcare workers. Continuing professional education for health professionals is necessary to improve the level of knowledge, prevent negative beliefs, and promote preventive and therapeutic practices. Full article
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15 pages, 900 KiB  
Article
Level of Knowledge Regarding Mpox among Peruvian Physicians during the 2022 Outbreak: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Jose A. Gonzales-Zamora, David R. Soriano-Moreno, Anderson N. Soriano-Moreno, Linda Ponce-Rosas, Lucero Sangster-Carrasco, Abraham De-Los-Rios-Pinto, Raysa M. Benito-Vargas, Valentina Murrieta-Ruiz, Noelia Morocho-Alburqueque, Brenda Caira-Chuquineyra, Daniel Fernandez-Guzman, Fabricio Ccami-Bernal, Carlos Quispe-Vicuña, Mariano Alarcon-Parra, Antony Pinedo-Soria and Jorge Alave
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010167 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2925
Abstract
Introduction: Due to the high incidence of mpox in Peru and the poor knowledge about this disease among healthcare workers in non-endemic countries, it is crucial to determine the knowledge status of Peruvian physicians. Methodology: We conducted an analytical cross-sectional study based on [...] Read more.
Introduction: Due to the high incidence of mpox in Peru and the poor knowledge about this disease among healthcare workers in non-endemic countries, it is crucial to determine the knowledge status of Peruvian physicians. Methodology: We conducted an analytical cross-sectional study based on an online survey from August to September 2022. Physicians who had a medical license and lived and practiced medicine in Peru were included. To evaluate the factors associated with a higher level of knowledge, we used crude (cPR) and adjusted (aPR) prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using Poisson regression. Results: We included 463 physicians. The mean age was 36.6 (SD: 10.3) years, and most were male (58.1%). Regarding knowledge, the median knowledge score was 14 [IQR: 13 to 15] out of 17 points. In terms of knowledge gaps, only 60.7% of the participants knew that there was an FDA-approved vaccine for mpox, 49.0% of participants knew about mpox proctitis and 33.3% acknowledged that it could be transmitted by the bite of an infected rodent. We found that taking care of patients with mpox (aPR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.72) was associated with higher knowledge (>p50), while living in the eastern macro-region (aPR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.93) was associated with lower knowledge (≤p50). Conclusions: Our study showed a high level of knowledge about mpox among Peruvian physicians. However, educational campaigns may be necessary, especially for physicians from the eastern region and those who do not have clinical experience with mpox. Full article
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