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Microorganisms, Volume 7, Issue 10 (October 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Taking Advantage of Bacterial Adaptation in Order to Optimize Industrial Production of Dry Propionibacterium freudenreichii
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100477 - 22 Oct 2019
Abstract
Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a beneficial bacterium, used both as a probiotic and as a cheese starter. Large-scale production of P. freudenreichii is required to meet growing consumers’ demand. Production, drying and storage must be optimized, in order to guarantee high P. freudenreichii viability [...] Read more.
Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a beneficial bacterium, used both as a probiotic and as a cheese starter. Large-scale production of P. freudenreichii is required to meet growing consumers’ demand. Production, drying and storage must be optimized, in order to guarantee high P. freudenreichii viability within powders. Compared to freeze-drying, spray drying constitutes the most productive and efficient, yet the most stressful process, imposing severe oxidative and thermal constraints. The aim of our study was to provide the tools in order to optimize the industrial production of dry P. freudenreichii. Bacterial adaptation is a well-known protective mechanism and may be used to improve bacterial tolerance towards technological stresses. However, the choice of bacterial adaptation type must consider industrial constraints. In this study, we combined (i) modulation of the growth medium composition, (ii) heat-adaptation, and (iii) osmoadaptation, in order to increase P. freudenreichii tolerance towards technological stresses, including thermal and oxidative constraints, using an experimental design. We further investigated optimal growth and adaptation conditions, by monitoring intracellular compatible solutes accumulation. Glucose addition, coupled to heat-adaptation, triggered accumulation of trehalose and of glycine betaine, which further provided high tolerance towards spray drying and storage. This work opens new perspectives for high quality and fast production of live propionibacteria at the industrial scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Healthy Turkeys in Egypt: First Report of Linezolid Resistance
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100476 - 22 Oct 2019
Abstract
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gaining much attention as causative agents of serious nosocomial infections in humans. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and phenotypic antimicrobial resistance of CoNS as well as the presence of resistance-associated genes in CoNS isolated from turkey farms [...] Read more.
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gaining much attention as causative agents of serious nosocomial infections in humans. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and phenotypic antimicrobial resistance of CoNS as well as the presence of resistance-associated genes in CoNS isolated from turkey farms in Egypt. Two hundred and fifty cloacal swabs were collected from apparently healthy turkeys in Egypt. Suspected isolates were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The susceptibility testing of CoNS isolates against 20 antimicrobial agents was performed using the broth microdilution test. The presence of resistance-associated genes like mecA, vanA, blaZ, erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), aac-aphD, optrA, valS, and cfr was determined. Thirty-nine CoNS were identified. All isolates were phenotypically resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, penicillin, ampicillin, and tetracycline. The resistance rates to erythromycin, chloramphenicol, oxacillin, daptomycin, and tigecycline were 97.4%, 94.9%, 92.3%, 89.7%, and 87.2%, respectively. Thirty-one isolates were resistant to linezolid (79.5%). Low resistance rate was detected for both imipenem and vancomycin (12.8%). The erm(C) gene was identified in all erythromycin phenotypically resistant isolates, whereas two resistant isolates possessed three resistance-conferring genes erm(A), erm(B), and erm(C). The cfr and optrA genes were detected in 11 (35.5%) and 12 (38.7%) of the 31 linezolid-resistant isolates. The mecA, aac-aphD, and blaZ genes were identified in 22.2%, 41.9%, and 2.6% of phenotypically resistant isolates to oxacillin, gentamicin, and penicillin, respectively. This is the first study revealing the correlation between linezolid resistance and presence of cfr and optrA genes in CoNS isolates from Egypt, and it can help to improve knowledge about the linezolid resistance mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance)
Open AccessArticle
Low Temperature (15 °C) Reduces Bacterial Diversity and Prolongs the Preservation Time of Volvariella volvacea
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100475 - 20 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) is the most commonly cultivated edible fungus in the world, but the challenges associated with the preservation have limited its marketability. Microbiology, especially bacteria, play a key role in the deterioration of food, this study aimed to [...] Read more.
Straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) is the most commonly cultivated edible fungus in the world, but the challenges associated with the preservation have limited its marketability. Microbiology, especially bacteria, play a key role in the deterioration of food, this study aimed to reveal the succession of the bacterial community on the surfaces of V. volvacea fruit bodies under different temperature conditions. We amplified 16S rRNA genes of V4 regions, obtained the bacterial species information by using high-throughput sequencing technology, and analyzed the effects of environmental temperature and preservation time on bacterial communities. The relative abundances of Firmicutes, Bacilli, and Bacillales increased significantly when straw mushrooms began to rot. Furthermore, the relative abundances of Paenibacillus, Lysinibacillus and Solibacillus, which belong to Bacillales, increased with the decay of straw mushroom. The Shannon and Simpson indices of V. volvacea stored at 30 °C were significantly higher than those of V. volvacea stored at 15 °C, which indicates that a high temperature contributes to the improvement in the species diversity. According to the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) results, the number of biomarkers in the 30 °C group (32, 42.11%) was significantly higher than that in the 15 °C group (17, 22.37%), indicating that a high temperature has a clustering effect on some bacterial communities. A Spearman correlation analysis showed that Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Solibacillus promoted the decay of straw mushroom. In conclusion, a high temperature increases the bacterial diversity on the straw mushroom surfaces and has a clustering effect on the bacterial communities. The bacterial community consisting of Firmicutes, Bacilli, Bacillales, Paenibacillus, Lysinibacillus, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Solibacillus could promote the decay of straw mushroom, so new preservation materials research can focus on inhibiting anaerobic and decay-causing bacteria to prolong preservation time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Insights into the Bacterial Profiles and Resistome Structures Following the Severe 2018 Flood in Kerala, South India
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100474 - 19 Oct 2019
Viewed by 222
Abstract
Extreme flooding is one of the major risk factors for human health, and it can significantly influence the microbial communities and enhance the mobility of infectious disease agents within the affected areas. The flood crisis in 2018 was one of the severe natural [...] Read more.
Extreme flooding is one of the major risk factors for human health, and it can significantly influence the microbial communities and enhance the mobility of infectious disease agents within the affected areas. The flood crisis in 2018 was one of the severe natural calamities recorded in the southern state of India (Kerala) that significantly affected its economy and ecological habitat. We utilized a combination of shotgun metagenomics and bioinformatics approaches to understand the bacterial profile and the abundance of pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in extremely flooded areas of Kuttanad, Kerala (4–10 feet below sea level). Here we report the bacterial profiles of flooded sites that are abundant with virulent and resistant bacteria. The flooded sites were heavily contaminated with faecal contamination indicators such as Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis and multidrug-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi/typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Vibrio cholerae. The resistome of the flooded sites contains 103 known resistant genes, of which 38% are plasmid-encoded, where most of them are known to be associated with pathogenic bacteria. Our results reveal an overall picture of the bacterial profile and resistome of sites following a devastating flood event, which might increase the levels of pathogens and its associated risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Microbiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Rapid Bacterial Community Changes during Vermicomposting of Grape Marc Derived from Red Winemaking
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100473 - 19 Oct 2019
Viewed by 197
Abstract
Previous studies dealing with changes in microbial communities during vermicomposting were mostly performed at lab-scale conditions and by using low-throughput techniques. Therefore, we sought to characterize the bacterial succession during the vermicomposting of grape marc over a period of 91 days in a [...] Read more.
Previous studies dealing with changes in microbial communities during vermicomposting were mostly performed at lab-scale conditions and by using low-throughput techniques. Therefore, we sought to characterize the bacterial succession during the vermicomposting of grape marc over a period of 91 days in a pilot-scale vermireactor. Samples were taken at the initiation of vermicomposting, and days 14, 28, 42, and 91, representing both active and mature stages of vermicomposting. By using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing, significant changes in the bacterial community composition of grape marc were found after 14 days and throughout the process (p < 0.0001). There was also an increase in bacterial diversity, both taxonomic and phylogenetic, from day 14 until the end of the trial. We found the main core microbiome comprised of twelve bacterial taxa (~16.25% of the total sequences) known to be capable of nitrogen fixation and to confer plant-disease suppression. Accordingly, functional diversity included increases in specific genes related to nitrogen fixation and synthesis of plant hormones (salicylic acid) after 91 days. Together, the findings support the use of grape marc vermicompost for sustainable practices in the wine industry by disposing of this high-volume winery by-product and capturing its value to improve soil fertility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Microbiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancement of Astaxanthin Biosynthesis in Oleaginous Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica via Microalgal Pathway
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100472 - 19 Oct 2019
Viewed by 113
Abstract
Astaxanthin is a high-value red pigment and antioxidant used by pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. The astaxanthin produced chemically is costly and is not approved for human consumption due to the presence of by-products. The astaxanthin production by natural microalgae requires large open [...] Read more.
Astaxanthin is a high-value red pigment and antioxidant used by pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. The astaxanthin produced chemically is costly and is not approved for human consumption due to the presence of by-products. The astaxanthin production by natural microalgae requires large open areas and specialized equipment, the process takes a long time, and results in low titers. Recombinant microbial cell factories can be engineered to produce astaxanthin by fermentation in standard equipment. In this work, an oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica was engineered to produce astaxanthin at high titers in submerged fermentation. First, a platform strain was created with an optimised pathway towards β-carotene. The platform strain produced 331 ± 66 mg/L of β-carotene in small-scale cultivation, with the cellular content of 2.25% of dry cell weight. Next, the genes encoding β-ketolase and β-hydroxylase of bacterial (Paracoccus sp. and Pantoea ananatis) and algal (Haematococcus pluvialis) origins were introduced into the platform strain in different copy numbers. The resulting strains were screened for astaxanthin production, and the best strain, containing algal β-ketolase and β-hydroxylase, resulted in astaxanthin titer of 44 ± 1 mg/L. The same strain was cultivated in controlled bioreactors, and a titer of 285 ± 19 mg/L of astaxanthin was obtained after seven days of fermentation on complex medium with glucose. Our study shows the potential of Y. lipolytica as the cell factory for astaxanthin production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-conventional Yeasts: Genomics and Biotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of the Three New Kayviruses and Their Lytic Activity Against Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100471 - 18 Oct 2019
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Abstract
The development of antimicrobial resistance has become a global concern. One approach to overcome the problem of drug resistance is the application of bacteriophages. This study aimed at characterizing three phages isolated from sewage, which show lytic activity against clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant [...] Read more.
The development of antimicrobial resistance has become a global concern. One approach to overcome the problem of drug resistance is the application of bacteriophages. This study aimed at characterizing three phages isolated from sewage, which show lytic activity against clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Morphology, genetics and biological properties, including host range, adsorption rate, latent time, phage burst size and lysis profiles, were studied in all three phages. As analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), phages vB_SauM-A, vB_SauM-C, vB_SauM-D have a myovirion morphology. One of the tested phages, vB_SauM-A, has relatively rapid adsorption (86% in 17.5 min), short latent period (25 min) and extremely large burst size (~500 plaque-forming units (PFU) per infected cell). The genomic analysis revealed that vB_SauM-A, vB_SauM-C, vB_SauM-D possess large genomes (vB_SauM-A 139,031 bp, vB_SauM-C 140,086 bp, vB_SauM-D 139,088 bp) with low G+C content (~30.4%) and are very closely related to the phage K (95–97% similarity). The isolated bacteriophages demonstrate broad host range against MDR S. aureus strains, high lytic activity corresponding to strictly virulent life cycle, suggesting their potential to treat S. aureus infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Pathogenesis of Staphylococcus Infection)
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Open AccessErratum
Erratum: Kim, J.; et al. Characterization of mcr-1-Harboring Plasmids from Pan Drug-Resistant Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Retail Raw Chicken in South Korea. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 344
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100470 - 18 Oct 2019
Viewed by 155
Abstract
The authors would like to make the following corrections to the published paper [...] Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Safety of Food and Water Supplies in the Landscape of Changing Climate
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100469 - 18 Oct 2019
Viewed by 114
Abstract
In response to evolving environmental, production, and processing conditions, microbial communities have tremendous abilities to move toward increased diversity and fitness by various pathways such as vertical and horizontal gene transfer mechanisms, biofilm formation, and quorum sensing [...] Full article
Open AccessReview
Current Status and Potential Applications of Underexplored Prokaryotes
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100468 - 18 Oct 2019
Viewed by 108
Abstract
Thousands of prokaryotic genera have been published, but methodological bias in the study of prokaryotes is noted. Prokaryotes that are relatively easy to isolate have been well-studied from multiple aspects. Massive quantities of experimental findings and knowledge generated from the well-known prokaryotic strains [...] Read more.
Thousands of prokaryotic genera have been published, but methodological bias in the study of prokaryotes is noted. Prokaryotes that are relatively easy to isolate have been well-studied from multiple aspects. Massive quantities of experimental findings and knowledge generated from the well-known prokaryotic strains are inundating scientific publications. However, researchers may neglect or pay little attention to the uncommon prokaryotes and hard-to-cultivate microorganisms. In this review, we provide a systematic update on the discovery of underexplored culturable and unculturable prokaryotes and discuss the insights accumulated from various research efforts. Examining these neglected prokaryotes may elucidate their novelties and functions and pave the way for their industrial applications. In addition, we hope that this review will prompt the scientific community to reconsider these untapped pragmatic resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Diversity in Extreme Environments)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Temperatures Used in Food Storage on Duration of Heat Stress Induced Invasiveness of L. monocytogenes
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100467 - 17 Oct 2019
Viewed by 178
Abstract
The unpropitious conditions of the food processing environment trigger in Listeria monocytogenes stress response mechanisms that may affect the pathogen’s virulence. To date, many studies have revealed that acid, osmotic, heat, cold and oxidative stress modify invasiveness of L. monocytogenes. Nonetheless, there [...] Read more.
The unpropitious conditions of the food processing environment trigger in Listeria monocytogenes stress response mechanisms that may affect the pathogen’s virulence. To date, many studies have revealed that acid, osmotic, heat, cold and oxidative stress modify invasiveness of L. monocytogenes. Nonetheless, there is limited data on the duration of the stress effect on bacterial invasiveness. Since most food is stored at low or room temperatures we studied the impact of these temperatures on the duration of heat stress effect on invasiveness of 8 L. monocytogenes strains. Bacteria were heat-treated for 20 min at 54 °C and then incubated at 5 and 20 °C up to 14 days. A decrease in invasiveness over time was observed for bacteria not exposed to heating. It was found that heat shock significantly reduced the invasion capacity of all strains and the effect lasted between 7 and 14 days at both 5 and 20 °C. In conclusion, 20-min heating reduces invasion capacity of all L. monocytogenes strains; however, the stress effect is temporary and lasts between 7 and 14 days in the food storage conditions. The invasiveness of bacteria changes along with the incubation time and is temperature-dependent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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Open AccessHypothesis
Cows Get Crohn’s Disease and They’re Giving Us Diabetes
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100466 - 17 Oct 2019
Viewed by 228
Abstract
Increasingly, Johne’s disease of ruminants and human Crohn’s disease are regarded as the same infectious disease: paratuberculosis. Mycobacterium avium ss. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the cause of Johne’s and is the most commonly linked infectious cause of Crohn’s disease. Humans are broadly exposed to [...] Read more.
Increasingly, Johne’s disease of ruminants and human Crohn’s disease are regarded as the same infectious disease: paratuberculosis. Mycobacterium avium ss. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the cause of Johne’s and is the most commonly linked infectious cause of Crohn’s disease. Humans are broadly exposed to MAP in dairy products and in the environment. MAP has been found within granulomas such as Crohn’s disease and can stimulate autoantibodies in diseases such as type 1 diabetes (T1D) and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Moreover, beyond Crohn’s and T1D, MAP is increasingly associated with a host of autoimmune diseases. This article suggests near equivalency between paucibacillary Johne’s disease of ruminant animals and human Crohn’s disease and implicates MAP zoonosis beyond Crohn’s disease to include T1D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycobacteria Infections and Autoimmune Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Intestinal Microbiota of Grass Carp Fed Faba Beans: A Comparative Study
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100465 - 17 Oct 2019
Viewed by 117
Abstract
Many reports of the intestinal microbiota of grass carp have addressed the microbial response to diet or starvation or the effect of microbes on metabolism; however, the intestinal microbiota of crisp grass carp has yet to be elucidated. Moreover, the specific bacteria that [...] Read more.
Many reports of the intestinal microbiota of grass carp have addressed the microbial response to diet or starvation or the effect of microbes on metabolism; however, the intestinal microbiota of crisp grass carp has yet to be elucidated. Moreover, the specific bacteria that play a role in the crispiness of grass carp fed faba beans have not been elucidated. In the present study, 16S sequencing was carried out to compare the intestinal microbiota in the fore-, mid- and hind-intestine segments of grass carp following feeding with either faba beans or formula feed. Our results showed that (1) the hind-intestine presented significant differences in diversity relative to the fore- or midintestine and (2) faba beans significantly increased the diversity of intestinal microbiota, changed the intestinal microbiota structure (Fusobacteria was reduced from 64.26% to 18.24%, while Proteobacteria was significantly increased from 17.75% to 51.99%), and decreased the metabolism of energy, cofactors and vitamins in grass carp. Furthermore, at the genus and species levels, Acinetobacter accounted for 15.09% of the microbiota, and Acinetobacter johnsonii and Acinetobacter radioresistens constituted 3.41% and 2.99%, respectively, which indicated that Acinetobacter of the family Moraxellaceae contributed to changes in the intestinal microbiota structure and could be used as a potential biomarker. These results may provide clues at the intestinal microbiota level to understanding the mechanism underlying the crispiness of grass carp fed faba beans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gut Microbiota)
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Open AccessArticle
Genetic Diversity and Demographic History of Ganoderma boninense in Oil Palm Plantations of Sarawak, Malaysia Inferred from ITS Regions
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100464 - 16 Oct 2019
Viewed by 211
Abstract
Ganoderma boninense causes basal stem rot (BSR) and is responsible for substantial economic losses to Southeast Asia’s palm oil industry. Sarawak, a major producer in Malaysia, is also affected by this disease. Emergence of BSR in oil palm planted on peat throughout Sarawak [...] Read more.
Ganoderma boninense causes basal stem rot (BSR) and is responsible for substantial economic losses to Southeast Asia’s palm oil industry. Sarawak, a major producer in Malaysia, is also affected by this disease. Emergence of BSR in oil palm planted on peat throughout Sarawak is alarming as the soil type was previously regarded as non-conducive. Phylogenetic analysis indicated a single species, G. boninense as the cause of BSR in Sarawak. Information on evolutionary and demographic history for G. boninense in Sarawak inferred through informative genes is lacking. Hence, a haplotype study on single nucleotide polymorphisms in internal transcribed spacers (SNPs-ITS) of G. boninense was carried out. Sequence variations were analysed for population structure, phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships. The internal transcribed spacers (ITS) region of 117 isolates from four populations in eight locations across Sarawak coastal areas revealed seven haplotypes. A major haplotype, designated GbHap1 (81.2%), was found throughout all sampling locations. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were observed mainly in the ITS1 region. The genetic structure was not detected, and genetic distance did not correlate with geographical distance. Haplotype network analysis suggested evidence of recent demographic expansion. Low genetic differences among populations also suggested that these isolates belong to a single G. boninense founder population adapting to oil palm as the host. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Microbiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Probiotics Prevents Sensitization to Oral Antigen and Subsequent Increases in Intestinal Tight Junction Permeability in Juvenile–Young Adult Rats
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100463 - 16 Oct 2019
Viewed by 313
Abstract
Increased intestinal permeability is thought to underlie the pathogenesis of food allergy. We explore the mechanism responsible for changes in the morphology and function of the intestinal barrier using a rat model of food allergy, focusing on the contribution of intestinal microbiota. Juvenile–young [...] Read more.
Increased intestinal permeability is thought to underlie the pathogenesis of food allergy. We explore the mechanism responsible for changes in the morphology and function of the intestinal barrier using a rat model of food allergy, focusing on the contribution of intestinal microbiota. Juvenile–young adult rats were sensitized with ovalbumin and treated with antibiotics or probiotics (Clostridium butyricum and Lactobacillus reuteri), respectively. The serum ovalbumin-IgE levels, intestinal permeability, histopathological features, tight junction (TJ)-associated proteins, Th2 cytokines, and gut microbiota in feces were analyzed in each group. Sensitized rats showed an increase in ovalbumin-IgE levels and intestinal permeability with gut mucosal inflammation, whereas rats that received probiotics were only mildly affected. Rats given ovalbumin, but not those given probiotics, showed a reduction in both TJ-related protein expression and localization. Th2 cytokine levels were increased in the sensitized rats, but not in those given probiotics. TJs in rats treated with ovalbumin and antibiotics were disrupted, but those in rats administered probiotics were undamaged. Clostridiaceae were increased in the probiotics groups, especially Alkaliphilus, relative to the ovalbumin-sensitized group. Gut microbiota appears to play a role in regulating epithelial barrier function, and probiotics may help to prevent food sensitization through the up-regulation of TJ proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Gut Microbiota Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Phylogenetic Analyses of Xanthomonads Causing Bacterial Leaf Spot of Tomato and Pepper: Xanthomonas euvesicatoria Revealed Homologous Populations Despite Distant Geographical Distribution
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100462 - 16 Oct 2019
Viewed by 128
Abstract
Bacterial leaf spot of tomato and pepper (BLS), an economically important bacterial disease caused by four species of Xanthomonas (X. euvesicatoria (Xe), X. vesicatoria (Xv), X. gardneri (Xg), and X. perforans (Xp)), is a [...] Read more.
Bacterial leaf spot of tomato and pepper (BLS), an economically important bacterial disease caused by four species of Xanthomonas (X. euvesicatoria (Xe), X. vesicatoria (Xv), X. gardneri (Xg), and X. perforans (Xp)), is a global problem and can cause over 50% crop loss under unfavorable conditions. Among the four species, Xe and Xv are prevalent worldwide. Characterization of the pathogens is crucial for disease management and regulatory purposes. In this study, we performed a multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) with six genes (hrcN, dnaA gyrB, gapA, pdg, and hmbs) on BLS strains. Other Xanthomonas species were included to determine phylogenetic relationships within and among the tested strains. Four BLS species comprising 76 strains from different serological groups and diverse geographical locations were resolved into three major clades. BLS xanthomonads formed distinct clusters in the phylogenetic analyses. Three other xanthomonads, including X. albilineans, X. sacchari, and X. translucens pv. undolusa revealed less than 85%, 88%, and 89% average nucleotide identity (ANI), respectively, with the other species of Xanthomonas included in this study. Both antibody and MLSA data showed that Xv was clearly separated from Xe and that the latter strains were remarkably clonal, even though they originated from distant geographical locations. The Xe strains formed two separate phylogenetic groups; Xe group A1 consisted only of tomato strains, whereas Xe group A2 included strains from pepper and tomato. In contrast, the Xv group showed greater heterogeneity. Some Xv strains from South America were closely related to strains from California, while others grouped closer to a strain from Indiana and more distantly to a strain from Hawaii. Using this information molecular tests can now be devised to track distribution of clonal populations that may be introduced into new geographic areas through seeds and other infected plant materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Microbial Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Global Burden of Colistin-Resistant Bacteria: Mobilized Colistin Resistance Genes Study (1980–2018)
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100461 - 16 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Colistin is considered to be an antimicrobial of last-resort for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections. The recent global dissemination of mobilized colistin resistance (mcr) genes is an urgent public health threat. An accurate estimate of the global prevalence of [...] Read more.
Colistin is considered to be an antimicrobial of last-resort for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections. The recent global dissemination of mobilized colistin resistance (mcr) genes is an urgent public health threat. An accurate estimate of the global prevalence of mcr genes, their reservoirs and the potential pathways for human transmission are required to implement control and prevention strategies, yet such data are lacking. Publications from four English (PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Web of Science) and two Chinese (CNKI and WANFANG) databases published between 18 November 2015 and 30 December 2018 were identified. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the prevalence of mcr genes in bacteria isolated from humans, animals, the environment and food products were investigated. A total of 974 publications were identified. 202 observational studies were included in the systematic review and 71 in the meta-analysis. mcr genes were reported from 47 countries across six continents and the overall average prevalence was 4.7% (0.1–9.3%). China reported the highest number of mcr-positive strains. Pathogenic Escherichia coli (54%), isolated from animals (52%) and harboring an IncI2 plasmid (34%) were the bacteria with highest prevalence of mcr genes. The estimated prevalence of mcr-1 pathogenic E. coli was higher in food-animals than in humans and food products, which suggests a role for foodborne transmission. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of prevalence of the mcr gene by source, organism, genotype and type of plasmid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens)
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Open AccessArticle
Seroprevalence Study of Anti-HEV IgG among Different Adult Populations in Corsica, France, 2019
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100460 - 16 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. In France, hyperendemic areas including Corsica have an anti-HEV Immunoglobulin G (IgG) prevalence higher than 50%. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG in three [...] Read more.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. In France, hyperendemic areas including Corsica have an anti-HEV Immunoglobulin G (IgG) prevalence higher than 50%. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG in three adult populations in Corsica and the risk factors associated with antibody detection. Between 2017 and 2019, a total of 930 individuals, including 467 blood donors, 393 students or university staff members and 70 patients from general practice, were tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG using the Wantai HEV IgG enzyme immunoassay kit and filled a questionnaire. The association between seropositivity and potential risk factors was tested with univariate and multivariate analyses. Out of the 930 samples, 52.3% (486/930) were seropositive—54.4% (254/467) among blood donors, 47.6% (187/393) among university students and 64.3% (45/70) among patients of general practice. Three main risk factors were identified: (i) skinning and butchering (Adjusted Odds Ratio aOR = 2.76, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] [1.51–5.37]; p-value < 10−3), (ii) consumption of a local pork live raw sausage (fittonu) (aOR = 1.95 95% CI [1.45–2.64]; p-value = 10−5), and (iii) increasing age (p-value = 0.003). Seropositivity rates between the different populations were homogeneous after age stratification. This cross-sectional study indicates a high anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence in the Corsican adult population, not significantly different between women and men and increasing with age. This serosurvey also showed homogeneity regarding the exposure to HEV among three different types of populations. Finally, we confirmed the endemicity of Corsica with respect to HEV and identified a strong association between consumption of figatellu/fittonu and the practice of skinning and butchering with the detection of anti-HEV IgG. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Pathogenetic Impact of Bacterial–Fungal Interactions
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100459 - 16 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Polymicrobial infections are of paramount importance because of the potential severity of clinical manifestations, often associated with increased resistance to antimicrobial treatment. The intricate interplay with the host and the immune system, and the impact on microbiome imbalance, are of importance in this [...] Read more.
Polymicrobial infections are of paramount importance because of the potential severity of clinical manifestations, often associated with increased resistance to antimicrobial treatment. The intricate interplay with the host and the immune system, and the impact on microbiome imbalance, are of importance in this context. The equilibrium of microbiota in the human host is critical for preventing potential dysbiosis and the ensuing development of disease. Bacteria and fungi can communicate via signaling molecules, and produce metabolites and toxins capable of modulating the immune response or altering the efficacy of treatment. Most of the bacterial–fungal interactions described to date focus on the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans and different bacteria. In this review, we discuss more than twenty different bacterial–fungal interactions involving several clinically important human pathogens. The interactions, which can be synergistic or antagonistic, both in vitro and in vivo, are addressed with a focus on the quorum-sensing molecules produced, the response of the immune system, and the impact on clinical outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Fungal Virulence and Commensalism)
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Open AccessArticle
A Dengue Vaccine: Will It be Accepted and Is It Feasible? Lessons from Barranquilla, Colombia, and Merida, Venezuela
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100458 - 16 Oct 2019
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Abstract
With one vaccine on the market and others in clinical trials, policy makers in dengue endemic regions face the decision of whether to introduce a dengue vaccine in their communities. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that individualized assessments be conducted before any [...] Read more.
With one vaccine on the market and others in clinical trials, policy makers in dengue endemic regions face the decision of whether to introduce a dengue vaccine in their communities. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that individualized assessments be conducted before any vaccine introduction to evaluate disease burden and the strength of current vaccination programs. This study seeks to aid in that decision-making process by examining the acceptability and feasibility of dengue vaccine introduction in Barranquilla, Colombia, and Merida, Venezuela. Surveys were administered February–June of 2018 for three groups: patients (n = 351), health professionals (n = 197), and government officials (n = 26). In Barranquilla, most respondents reported dengue to be a moderate-severe problem, that a dengue vaccine would be useful in their communities, and that their current vaccination programs could handle the addition of a new vaccine. In Venezuela, respondents were less likely to view dengue as a major concern and listed multiple barriers to not just dengue vaccine introduction, but to providing current vaccines as well. Further work is needed in Colombia to more objectively assess the country’s readiness as a whole for a future dengue vaccine. As political and social unrest continues in Venezuela, however, future initiatives should focus on trust and capacity building. This study can serve as a framework for future assessments of the acceptability and feasibility of a dengue vaccine in both targeted areas and on larger scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Vector Borne Infections: A Novel Threat for Global Health)
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Open AccessArticle
CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Gene Replacement in the Fungal Keratitis Pathogen Fusarium solani var. petroliphilum
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100457 - 16 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Fungal keratitis (FK) is a site-threatening infection of the cornea associated with ocular trauma and contact lens wear. Members of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) are predominant agents of FK worldwide, but genes that support their corneal virulence are poorly understood. As [...] Read more.
Fungal keratitis (FK) is a site-threatening infection of the cornea associated with ocular trauma and contact lens wear. Members of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) are predominant agents of FK worldwide, but genes that support their corneal virulence are poorly understood. As a means to bolster genetic analysis in FSSC pathogens, we sought to employ a CRISPR/Cas9 system in an FK isolate identified as Fusarium petroliphilum. Briefly, this approach involves the introduction of two components into fungal protoplasts: (1) A purified Cas9 protein complexed with guide RNAs that will direct the ribonuclease to cut on either side of the gene of interest, and (2) a “repair template” comprised of a hygromycin resistance cassette flanked by 40 bp of homology outside of the Cas9 cuts. In this way, Cas9-induced double strand breaks should potentiate double homologous replacement of the repair template at the desired locus. We targeted a putative ura3 ortholog since its deletion would result in an easily discernable uracil auxotrophy. Indeed, 10% of hygromycin-resistant transformants displayed the auxotrophic phenotype, all of which harbored the expected ura3 gene deletion. By contrast, none of the transformants from the repair template control (i.e., no Cas9) displayed the auxotrophic phenotype, indicating that Cas9 cutting was indeed required to promote homologous integration. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the in vitro Cas9 system is an easy and efficient approach for reverse genetics in FSSC organisms, including clinical isolates, which should enhance virulence research in these important but understudied ocular pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insights Into The Molecular Pathogenesis of Ocular Infections)
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Open AccessReview
Gut Microbiome Modulation Based on Probiotic Application for Anti-Obesity: A Review on Efficacy and Validation
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100456 - 16 Oct 2019
Viewed by 204
Abstract
The growing prevalence of obesity has become an important problem worldwide as obesity has several health risks. Notably, factors such as excessive food consumption, a sedentary way of life, high sugar consumption, a fat-rich diet, and a certain genetic profile may lead to [...] Read more.
The growing prevalence of obesity has become an important problem worldwide as obesity has several health risks. Notably, factors such as excessive food consumption, a sedentary way of life, high sugar consumption, a fat-rich diet, and a certain genetic profile may lead to obesity. The present review brings together recent advances regarding the significance of interventions involving intestinal gut bacteria and host metabolic phenotypes. We assess important biological molecular mechanisms underlying the impact of gut microbiota on hosts including bile salt metabolism, short-chain fatty acids, and metabolic endotoxemia. Some previous studies have shown a link between microbiota and obesity, and associated disease reports have been documented. Thus, this review focuses on obesity and gut microbiota interactions and further develops the mechanism of the gut microbiome approach related to human obesity. Specifically, we highlight several alternative diet treatments including dietary changes and supplementation with probiotics. The future direction or comparative significance of fecal transplantation, synbiotics, and metabolomics as an approach to the modulation of intestinal microbes is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota: Its Role in Diabetes and Obesity)
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Open AccessArticle
Global Transcriptional Response of Three Highly Acid-Tolerant Field Strains of Listeria monocytogenes to HCl Stress
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100455 - 16 Oct 2019
Viewed by 164
Abstract
Tolerance to acid is of dual importance for the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes: acids are used as a preservative, and gastric acid is one of the first defenses within the host. There are considerable differences in the acid tolerance of strains. Here [...] Read more.
Tolerance to acid is of dual importance for the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes: acids are used as a preservative, and gastric acid is one of the first defenses within the host. There are considerable differences in the acid tolerance of strains. Here we present the transcriptomic response of acid-tolerant field strains of L. monocytogenes to HCl at pH 3.0. RNAseq revealed significant differential expression of genes involved in phosphotransferase systems, oxidative phosphorylation, cell morphology, motility, and biofilm formation. Genes in the acetoin biosynthesis pathway were upregulated, suggesting that L. monocytogenes shifts to metabolizing pyruvate to acetoin under organic acid stress. We also identified the formation of cell aggregates in microcolonies as a potential relief strategy. A motif search within the first 150 bp upstream of differentially expressed genes identified a novel potential regulatory sequence that may have a function in the regulation of virulence gene expression. Our data support a model where an excess of intracellular H+ ions is counteracted by pumping H+ out of the cytosol via cytochrome C under reduced activity of the ATP synthase. The observed morphological changes suggest that acid stress may cause cells to aggregate in biofilm microcolonies to create a more favorable microenvironment. Additionally, HCl stress in the host stomach may serve as (i) a signal to downregulate highly immunogenic flagella, and (ii) as an indicator for the imminent contact with host cells which triggers early stage virulence genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Feature Papers in Microbial Biotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle
Janthinobacterium CG23_2: Comparative Genome Analysis Reveals Enhanced Environmental Sensing and Transcriptional Regulation for Adaptation to Life in an Antarctic Supraglacial Stream
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100454 - 15 Oct 2019
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Abstract
As many bacteria detected in Antarctic environments are neither true psychrophiles nor endemic species, their proliferation in spite of environmental extremes gives rise to genome adaptations. Janthinobacterium sp. CG23_2 is a bacterial isolate from the Cotton Glacier stream, Antarctica. To understand how Janthinobacterium [...] Read more.
As many bacteria detected in Antarctic environments are neither true psychrophiles nor endemic species, their proliferation in spite of environmental extremes gives rise to genome adaptations. Janthinobacterium sp. CG23_2 is a bacterial isolate from the Cotton Glacier stream, Antarctica. To understand how Janthinobacterium sp. CG23_2 has adapted to its environment, we investigated its genomic traits in comparison to genomes of 35 published Janthinobacterium species. While we hypothesized that genome shrinkage and specialization to narrow ecological niches would be energetically favorable for dwelling in an ephemeral Antarctic stream, the genome of Janthinobacterium sp. CG23_2 was on average 1.7 ± 0.6 Mb larger and predicted 1411 ± 499 more coding sequences compared to the other Janthinobacterium spp. Putatively identified horizontal gene transfer events contributed 0.92 Mb to the genome size expansion of Janthinobacterium sp. CG23_2. Genes with high copy numbers in the species-specific accessory genome of Janthinobacterium sp. CG23_2 were associated with environmental sensing, locomotion, response and transcriptional regulation, stress response, and mobile elements—functional categories which also showed molecular adaptation to cold. Our data suggest that genome plasticity and the abundant complementary genes for sensing and responding to the extracellular environment supported the adaptation of Janthinobacterium sp. CG23_2 to this extreme environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Evolution of Extremophiles)
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Open AccessArticle
Differential Distribution and Determinants of Ammonia Oxidizing Archaea Sublineages in the Oxygen Minimum Zone off Costa Rica
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100453 - 15 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) are microbes that are widely distributed in the ocean that convert ammonia to nitrite for energy acquisition in the presence of oxygen. Recent study has unraveled highly diverse sublineages within the previously defined AOA ecotypes (i.e., water column A [...] Read more.
Ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) are microbes that are widely distributed in the ocean that convert ammonia to nitrite for energy acquisition in the presence of oxygen. Recent study has unraveled highly diverse sublineages within the previously defined AOA ecotypes (i.e., water column A (WCA) and water column B (WCB)), although the eco-physiology and environmental determinants of WCB subclades remain largely unclear. In this study, we examined the AOA communities along the water columns (40–3000 m depth) in the Costa Rica Dome (CRD) upwelling region in the eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean. Highly diverse AOA communities that were significantly different from those in oxygenated water layers were observed in the core layer of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), where the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was < 2μM. Moreover, a number of AOA phylotypes were found to be enriched in the OMZ core. Most of them were negatively correlated with DO and were also detected in other OMZs in the Arabian Sea and Gulf of California, which suggests low oxygen adaptation. This study provided the first insight into the differential niche partitioning and environmental determinants of various subclades within the ecotype WCB. Our results indicated that the ecotype WCB did indeed consist of various sublineages with different eco-physiologies, which should be further explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Diversity in Extreme Environments)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of INS-15, A Metalloprotease Potentially Involved in the Invasion of Cryptosporidium parvum
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100452 - 14 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoan parasite that can cause moderate-to-severe diarrhea. Insulinase-like proteases (INS) are one of the largest protein families within the small proteome of the pathogen. However, their roles in C. parvum biology remain un-elucidated. In this study, a member of [...] Read more.
Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoan parasite that can cause moderate-to-severe diarrhea. Insulinase-like proteases (INS) are one of the largest protein families within the small proteome of the pathogen. However, their roles in C. parvum biology remain un-elucidated. In this study, a member of the protein family, INS-15 of C. parvum encoded by cgd3_4260, was cloned, expressed and characterized to understand its function. INS-15 and its domain I were expressed in Escherichia coli and polyclonal antibodies against the domain I and one specific polypeptide were prepared in rabbits. The role of INS-15 protein in the C. parvum invasion was preliminarily studied. Recombinant INS-15 protein and its domain I were successfully expressed in E. coli, together with various degraded products. The cgd3_4260 gene had a peak expression at 2 h of in vitro C. parvum culture, while the INS-15 protein was expressed in the mid-anterior region of sporozoites and the area of merozoites opposite to the nucleus. Anti-INS-15 domain I antibodies reduced the invasion of C. parvum sporozoites by over 40%. The anterior location of INS-15 in invasion stages and partial reduction of in vitro growth indicate that INS-15 plays some roles in the invasion or early development of C. parvum. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cell Cycle, Division Rate, and Feeding of the Heterotroph Phalacroma rotundatum in a Chilean Fjord
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100451 - 14 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Phalacroma rotundatum is a rare cosmopolitan heterotrophic dinoflagellate. This species, included in the IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Microalgae, may be a diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxin vector, but little is known about its ecophysiology and behavior. A vertical net haul collected [...] Read more.
Phalacroma rotundatum is a rare cosmopolitan heterotrophic dinoflagellate. This species, included in the IOC-UNESCO Taxonomic Reference List of Harmful Microalgae, may be a diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxin vector, but little is known about its ecophysiology and behavior. A vertical net haul collected during the austral summer of 2018 in Reloncaví Sound (Chilean Patagonia) revealed an unusually abundant population of P. rotundatum and prompted intensive 24 h sampling on 16–17 January to study the cell cycle and feeding behavior of this species. Hydrographic measurements from a buoy revealed the local characteristic estuarine circulation, with a brackish surface layer (salinity 26–28) separated from saltier, colder bottom waters by a pycnocline at a depth modulated by the tidal regime. A high proportion of P. rotundatum cells were packed with digestive vacuoles (peak of 70% at 14:00), and phased cell division (µ = 0.46 d−1) occurred 3 h after sunrise. The division time (TD) was 2 h. This is the first cell cycle study of P. rotundatum. The results here disagree with those of previous field studies that considered asynchronous division in some Dinophysis species to be related to heterotrophic feeding. They also question the very specific prey requirements, Tiarina fusus, reported for P. rotundatum in northern Europe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dinoflagellate Biology in the Omics Era)
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Open AccessArticle
Aeromonas hydrophila, an Emerging Causative Agent of Freshwater-Farmed Whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100450 - 14 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Aeromonas hydrophila is a well-known bacterial pathogen associated with mass mortalities in aquaculture. Yet, few reports are available on whiteleg shrimp-pathogenic A. hydrophila. In the present study, a virulent isolate WS05 was confirmed as a causative agent of diseased freshwater-cultured whiteleg shrimp [...] Read more.
Aeromonas hydrophila is a well-known bacterial pathogen associated with mass mortalities in aquaculture. Yet, few reports are available on whiteleg shrimp-pathogenic A. hydrophila. In the present study, a virulent isolate WS05 was confirmed as a causative agent of diseased freshwater-cultured whiteleg shrimp and showed a mean lethal dose (LD50) value of 4.8 × 104 CFU mL−1. It was identified phenotypically and molecularly as an A. hydrophila strain, and exhibited susceptibility to several veterinary antibiotics extensively used in aquaculture, including cotrimoxazole, doxycycline, florfenicol, neomycin, and tetracycline. In view of the strongest inhibition zone of florfenicol against isolate WS05, the synergistic effect of the combinations of florfenicol and herb extracts was further evaluated, and the result indicated that Punica granatum extract was a potential synergist of florfenicol against isolate WS05 and the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) for the florfenicol-P. granatum extract was calculated as 0.31. When combined with 7.81 mg mL−1 P. granatum extract, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of florfenicol against isolate WS05 was reduced from 0.50 to 0.03 mg L−1, and its activity against isolate WS05 was also enhanced with a significant reduction of ≥3.61 log in cell density after 24 h of treatment compared with that in the single drug treatment. In addition, the protective effect was potentiated by the combination of florfenicol and P. granatum extract, with a cumulative mortality of 36.66% (p < 0.05) and 33.33% (p < 0.05) lower than that in the single treatment with florfenicol and P. granatum extract after the challenge with isolate WS05 for seven days. As far as we know, this is the first study to describe whiteleg shrimp-pathogenic A. hydrophila and suggest P. granatum extract as a potential synergist of florfenicol against the A. hydrophila pathogen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue An Update on Aeromonas)
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Open AccessArticle
Seroepidemiology and the Molecular Detection of Animal Brucellosis in Punjab, Pakistan
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100449 - 13 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella (B.), affecting both animals and humans, causing severe economic loses and severe illness, respectively. The objective of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence and the risk factors [...] Read more.
Brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella (B.), affecting both animals and humans, causing severe economic loses and severe illness, respectively. The objective of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence and the risk factors associated with caprine, ovine, and bovine brucellosis in selected districts of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 1083 blood samples were randomly collected from animals (goats = 440, sheep = 203, cows = 206, and buffaloes = 234). Questionnaires were used to collect data on risk factors associated with brucellosis on the sampling day. All samples were initially screened for anti-Brucella antibodies using the rose bengal plate test (RBPT). The seropositive serum samples were confirmed by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of the Brucella genus- and Brucella species-specific DNA (B. abortus and B. melitensis). Univariant and binary logistic regression were used to identify important risk factors of brucellosis. Anti-Brucella antibodies and DNA were detected in 35 (3.23%) serum samples. Thirty-four (97.1%) DNA samples were confirmed as B. melitensis by qRT-PCR. Abortion history and natural mating were found to be potential risk factors. Brucella melitensis was identified as the causative agent of caprine, ovine, and bovine brucellosis in the selected districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Diseased animals may act as a source of infection for other animals. The elimination of positive seroreactors, development of control strategies for brucellosis, and education programs regarding the control of zoonotic disease are highly needed in developing countries like Pakistan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Public Health Microbiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling the Reduction and Cross-Contamination of Salmonella in Poultry Chilling Process in China
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100448 - 13 Oct 2019
Viewed by 273
Abstract
The study was to establish a predictive model for reduction and cross-contamination of Salmonella on chicken in chilling process. Reduction of Salmonella on chicken was 0.75 ± 0.04, 0.74 ± 0.08, and 0.79 ± 0.07 log CFU/g with 20, 50, and 100 mg/L [...] Read more.
The study was to establish a predictive model for reduction and cross-contamination of Salmonella on chicken in chilling process. Reduction of Salmonella on chicken was 0.75 ± 0.04, 0.74 ± 0.08, and 0.79 ± 0.07 log CFU/g with 20, 50, and 100 mg/L of chlorine, respectively. No significant differences of bacterial reductions with 20–100 mg/L of chlorine were found and a Normal (−0.75, 0.1) distribution could describe the uncertainty of bacterial reductions. Inoculated and non-inoculated chicken samples were washed together and bacterial transfer rates among them were 0.13%–0.004% with 20–100 mg/L of chlorine. No significant differences of transfer rates with 50–100 mg/L of chlorine were observed and a Triangle (−2.5, −1.5, −1.1) distribution could describe the log transfer rate. Additionally, a 3-factor response surface model based on the central composite design was developed to evaluate the effects of initial contamination level (1–5 log CFU/g), pre-chill incidence (3%–40%) and chlorine concentration (0–100 mg/L) on post-chill incidence. The post-chill incidences in these treatments were within 30%–91.7%. The developed model showed a satisfactory performance to predict the post-chill incidence as evidenced by statistical indices (pseudo-R2 = 0.9; p < 0.0001; RMSE = 0.21) and external validation parameters (Bf = 1.02; Af = 1.11). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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