Special Issue "Plant Microbial Interactions"

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Microbe Interactions".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Paula Garcia Fraile
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Lab 210-213, Edificio Departamental de Biología, Microbiology and Genetics Department, University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain
Interests: PCR; DNA; conservation; molecular biology; bioinformatics and computational biology; biotechnology; microbiology; taxonomy; microbial molecular biology; environmental microbiology; molecular microbiology; microbial ecology; microbial biotechnology; microbial culture; microbial isolation; biofertilizers; science communication; microbial diversity; soil microbiology; chromosomes; metagenomics; symbiosis; agricultural microbiology; molecular microbial ecology; inoculation; rhizosphere; endophytes; PGPR; rhizobium; microbiological methods; plant growth promoting rhizobacteria

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plants cohabit with a wide variety of microorganisms belonging to a broad diversity of taxa that greatly influence their performance. Some of these microorganisms are plant pathogens, which endanger plant health and crop production. Others provide benefits to the plant by supplying nutrients, synthesizing phytohormones, stimulating plant stress resistance or inhibiting pathogens. There are also microbial commensalisms in which the microsymbiont benefits from the plant without benefitting or harming it. Many of these microorganisms colonize the rhizosphere, and few of them can enter the endosphere to be established as plant endophytes. In any case, the interactions between plants and microorganisms are based on the expression of certain molecules encoded in their genomes, which have coevolved to allow a shared environment. The expansion of existing knowledge on plant–microbial interactions is important not only for basic science advancement, but also to preserve or even increase crop yields based on acquired knowledge.

This Special Issue aims to compile review and research articles offering new insights in plant–microbial interactions. We welcome the submission of articles that cover, but are not limited to, the following topics:

  • Molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction of microorganisms with their host plants
  • Analysis of plant microbiomes
  • Genomics and transcriptomics of plant–microbial interactions
  • Taxonomy and systematics of microorganisms interacting with plants
  • Engineering microorganism interactions with plants
  • Effects of microorganisms on plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses
  • Impact of microorganisms on plant yield and quality

Dr. Paula Garcia Fraile
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Biochar Suppresses Bacterial Wilt of Tomato by Improving Soil Chemical Properties and Shifting Soil Microbial Community
Microorganisms 2019, 7(12), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7120676 - 10 Dec 2019
Abstract
The role of biochar amendments in enhancing plant disease resistance has been well documented, but its mechanism is not yet fully understood. In the present study, 2% biochar made from wheat straw was added to the soil of tomato infected by Ralstonia solanacearum [...] Read more.
The role of biochar amendments in enhancing plant disease resistance has been well documented, but its mechanism is not yet fully understood. In the present study, 2% biochar made from wheat straw was added to the soil of tomato infected by Ralstonia solanacearum to explore the interrelation among biochar, tomato bacterial wilt resistance, soil chemical properties, and soil microbial community and to decipher the disease suppression mechanisms from a soil microbial perspective. Biochar application significantly reduced the disease severity of bacterial wilt, increased soil total organic carbon, total nitrogen, C:N ratio, organic matter, available P, available K, pH, and electrical conductivity. Biochar treatment also increased soil acid phosphatase activity under the non-R.-solanacearum-inoculated condition. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed substantial differences in rhizosphere bacterial community structures between biochar-amended and nonamended treatments. Biochar did not influence soil microbial richness and diversity but significantly increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria in soil at the phylum level under R. solanacearum inoculation. Furthermore, biochar amendment harbored a higher abundance of Chitinophaga, Flavitalea, Adhaeribacter, Pontibacter, Pedobacter, and Ohtaekwangia at the genus level of Bacteroides and Pseudomonas at the genus level of Proteobacteria under R. solanacearum inoculation. Our findings suggest that a biochar-shifted soil bacterial community structure can favorably contribute to the resistance of tomato plants against bacterial wilt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Microbial Interactions)
Open AccessArticle
Grapevine Phyllosphere Community Analysis in Response to Elicitor Application against Powdery Mildew
Microorganisms 2019, 7(12), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7120662 - 07 Dec 2019
Abstract
The reduction of antimicrobial treatments and mainly the application of environmentally friendly compounds, such as resistance elicitors, is an impelling challenge to undertake more sustainable agriculture. We performed this research to study the effectiveness of non-conventional compounds in reducing leaf fungal attack and [...] Read more.
The reduction of antimicrobial treatments and mainly the application of environmentally friendly compounds, such as resistance elicitors, is an impelling challenge to undertake more sustainable agriculture. We performed this research to study the effectiveness of non-conventional compounds in reducing leaf fungal attack and to investigate whether they influence the grape phyllosphere. Pathogenicity tests were conducted on potted Vitis vinifera “Nebbiolo” and “Moscato” cultivars infected with the powdery mildew agent (Erysiphe necator) and treated with three elicitors. Differences in the foliar microbial community were then evaluated by community-level physiological profiling by using BiologTM EcoPlates, high throughput sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region, and RNA sequencing for the viral community. In both cultivars, all products were effective as they significantly reduced pathogen development. EcoPlate analysis and ITS sequencing showed that the microbial communities were not influenced by the alternative compound application, confirming their specific activity as plant defense elicitors. Nevertheless, “Moscato” plants were less susceptible to the disease and presented different phyllosphere composition, resulting in a richer viral community, when compared with the “Nebbiolo” plants. The observed effect on microbial communities pointed to the existence of distinct genotype-specific defense mechanisms independently of the elicitor application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Microbial Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Rhizosphere Metagenomics of Paspalum scrobiculatum L. (Kodo Millet) Reveals Rhizobiome Multifunctionalities
Microorganisms 2019, 7(12), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7120608 - 23 Nov 2019
Abstract
Multifunctionalities linked with the microbial communities associated with the millet crop rhizosphere has remained unexplored. In this study, we are analyzing microbial communities inhabiting rhizosphere of kodo millet and their associated functions and its impact over plant growth and survival. Metagenomics of Paspalum [...] Read more.
Multifunctionalities linked with the microbial communities associated with the millet crop rhizosphere has remained unexplored. In this study, we are analyzing microbial communities inhabiting rhizosphere of kodo millet and their associated functions and its impact over plant growth and survival. Metagenomics of Paspalum scrobiculatum L.(kodo millet) rhizopshere revealed taxonomic communities with functional capabilities linked to support growth and development of the plants under nutrient-deprived, semi-arid and dry biotic conditions. Among 65 taxonomically diverse phyla identified in the rhizobiome, Actinobacteria were the most abundant followed by the Proteobacteria. Functions identified for different genes/proteins led to revelations that multifunctional rhizobiome performs several metabolic functions including carbon fixation, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, iron and aromatic compound metabolism, stress response, secondary metabolite synthesis and virulence, disease, and defense. Abundance of genes linked with N, P, S, Fe and aromatic compound metabolism and phytohormone synthesis—along with other prominent functions—clearly justifies growth, development, and survival of the plants under nutrient deprived dry environment conditions. The dominance of actinobacteria, the known antibiotic producing communities shows that the kodo rhizobiome possesses metabolic capabilities to defend themselves against biotic stresses. The study opens avenues to revisit multi-functionalities of the crop rhizosphere for establishing link between taxonomic abundance and targeted functions that help plant growth and development in stressed and nutrient deprived soil conditions. It further helps in understanding the role of rhizosphere microbiome in adaptation and survival of plants in harsh abiotic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Microbial Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
The Type III Accessory Protein HrpE of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Surpasses the Secretion Role, and Enhances Plant Resistance and Photosynthesis
Microorganisms 2019, 7(11), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7110572 - 18 Nov 2019
Abstract
Many species of plant-pathogenic gram-negative bacteria deploy the type III (T3) secretion system to secrete virulence components, which are mostly characteristic of protein effectors targeting the cytosol of the plant cell following secretion. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), a rice pathogen [...] Read more.
Many species of plant-pathogenic gram-negative bacteria deploy the type III (T3) secretion system to secrete virulence components, which are mostly characteristic of protein effectors targeting the cytosol of the plant cell following secretion. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), a rice pathogen causing bacterial blight disease, uses the T3 accessory protein HrpE to assemble the pilus pathway, which in turn secretes transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors. The hrpE gene can execute extensive physiological and pathological functions beyond effector secretion. As evidenced in this study, when the hrpE gene was deleted from the Xoo genome, the bacteria incur seriouimpairments in multiplication, motility, and virulence. The virulence nullification is attributed to reduced secretion and translocation of PthXo1, which is a TAL effector that determines the bacterial virulence in the susceptible rice varieties. When the HrpE protein produced by prokaryotic expression is applied to plants, the recombinant protein is highly effective at inducing the defense response. Moreover, leaf photosynthesis efficiency is enhanced in HrpE-treated plants. These results provide experimental avenues to modulate the plant defense and growth tradeoff by manipulating a bacterial T3 accessory protein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Microbial Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Distinct Microbial Community of Phyllosphere Associated with Five Tropical Plants on Yongxing Island, South China Sea
Microorganisms 2019, 7(11), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7110525 - 04 Nov 2019
Abstract
The surfaces of a leaf are unique and wide habitats for a microbial community. These microorganisms play a key role in plant growth and adaptation to adverse conditions, such as producing growth factors to promote plant growth and inhibiting pathogens to protect host [...] Read more.
The surfaces of a leaf are unique and wide habitats for a microbial community. These microorganisms play a key role in plant growth and adaptation to adverse conditions, such as producing growth factors to promote plant growth and inhibiting pathogens to protect host plants. The composition of microbial communities very greatly amongst different plant species, yet there is little data on the composition of the microbiome of the host plants on the coral island in the South China Sea. In this study, we investigated the abundances and members of a major microbial community (fungi, bacteria, and diazotrophs) on the leaves of five dominant plant species (Ipomoea pes-caprae, Wedelia chinensis, Scaevola sericea, Cocos nucifera, and Sesuvium portulacastrum) on the island using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and high-throughput amplicon sequencing. Quantitative PCR results showed that fungi and bacteria were ubiquitous and variable among different host plants. Scaevola sericea showed the lowest absolute abundance and highest diversity of fungi and bacteria, while Cocos nucifera had the lowest abundance and the highest diversity of diazotrophs compare to the other four plants. There was a small proportion of shared microorganisms among the five different plants, while unique fungi, bacteria and diazotrophs were significantly enriched for different host plant species in this study (p < 0.05). Some of the most abundant organisms found in the communities of these different host plants are involved in important biogeochemical cycles that can benefit their host, including carbon and nitrogen cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Microbial Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Bacterial Consortium for Improved Maize (Zea mays L.) Production
Microorganisms 2019, 7(11), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7110519 - 01 Nov 2019
Abstract
The ever-increasing human population is a major concern for food security. Maize is the third largest most important food crop. The major problems of cultivation arise from urbanization and land pollution. This reduces the amount of land available for agriculture. The use of [...] Read more.
The ever-increasing human population is a major concern for food security. Maize is the third largest most important food crop. The major problems of cultivation arise from urbanization and land pollution. This reduces the amount of land available for agriculture. The use of chemicals in agriculture is not environmentally friendly. Thus, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) have been proposed as alternatives. This study aims to test the growth-promoting effect of maize inoculated with six indigenous PGPB isolates. These isolates were assayed for various biochemical and plant growth-promoting activities. They were also assayed for biocontrol activities. Based on the results, six isolates viz A1, A18, A29, NWU4, NWU14, and NWU198 were used to inoculate maize seeds. The inoculated seeds were tried out on the field. A randomized block design was used. PGPB used were in single, consortia of two, and three organisms. The length of the leaves, roots, and stem, plant height, numbers of leaves, and weight of 100 seeds were taken at the fourth and eighth weeks after planting. Microbial consortia increased growth parameters compared to single inoculant treatments. Thus, they can be of advantage in the eradication of low yield. They can also serve as reliable alternatives to chemical fertilizers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Microbial Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Responses of Rhizosphere Fungal Communities to the Sewage Sludge Application into the Soil
Microorganisms 2019, 7(11), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7110505 - 29 Oct 2019
Abstract
Due to the increasing sewage sludge production in the world and problems with its disposal, an application of sludge to the soil appears to be a suitable solution considering its fertilizer properties and ability to improve the soil physical conditions. On the other [...] Read more.
Due to the increasing sewage sludge production in the world and problems with its disposal, an application of sludge to the soil appears to be a suitable solution considering its fertilizer properties and ability to improve the soil physical conditions. On the other hand, the sludge may also contain undesirable and toxic substances. Since soil microorganisms are sensitive to environmental changes, they can be used as indicators of soil quality. In this study, we used sewage sludge (SS) from two municipal wastewater treatment plants (SS-A and SS-B) in the dose of 5 t/ha and 15 t/ha in order to determine possible changes in the fungal community diversity, especially arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), in the rhizosphere of Arundo donax L. Rhizosphere samples were collected in summer and autumn for two consecutive years and the fungal diversity was examined using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and 18S rDNA sequencing. Fungal alpha diversity was more affected by SS-A than SS-B probably due to the higher heavy metal content. However, based on principal component analysis and ANOSIM, significant changes in overall fungal diversity were not observed. Simultaneously, 18S rDNA sequencing showed that more various fungal taxa were detected in the sample with sewage sludge than in the control. Glomus sp. as a representative of AMF was the most represented. Moreover, Funneliformis in both samples and Rhizophagus in control with Septoglomus in the sludge sample were other representatives of AMF. Our results indicate that the short-term sewage sludge application into the soil does not cause a shift in the fungal community composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Microbial Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Phylogenetic Analyses of Xanthomonads Causing Bacterial Leaf Spot of Tomato and Pepper: Xanthomonas euvesicatoria Revealed Homologous Populations Despite Distant Geographical Distribution
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100462 - 16 Oct 2019
Abstract
Bacterial leaf spot of tomato and pepper (BLS), an economically important bacterial disease caused by four species of Xanthomonas (X. euvesicatoria (Xe), X. vesicatoria (Xv), X. gardneri (Xg), and X. perforans (Xp)), is a [...] Read more.
Bacterial leaf spot of tomato and pepper (BLS), an economically important bacterial disease caused by four species of Xanthomonas (X. euvesicatoria (Xe), X. vesicatoria (Xv), X. gardneri (Xg), and X. perforans (Xp)), is a global problem and can cause over 50% crop loss under unfavorable conditions. Among the four species, Xe and Xv are prevalent worldwide. Characterization of the pathogens is crucial for disease management and regulatory purposes. In this study, we performed a multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) with six genes (hrcN, dnaA gyrB, gapA, pdg, and hmbs) on BLS strains. Other Xanthomonas species were included to determine phylogenetic relationships within and among the tested strains. Four BLS species comprising 76 strains from different serological groups and diverse geographical locations were resolved into three major clades. BLS xanthomonads formed distinct clusters in the phylogenetic analyses. Three other xanthomonads, including X. albilineans, X. sacchari, and X. translucens pv. undolusa revealed less than 85%, 88%, and 89% average nucleotide identity (ANI), respectively, with the other species of Xanthomonas included in this study. Both antibody and MLSA data showed that Xv was clearly separated from Xe and that the latter strains were remarkably clonal, even though they originated from distant geographical locations. The Xe strains formed two separate phylogenetic groups; Xe group A1 consisted only of tomato strains, whereas Xe group A2 included strains from pepper and tomato. In contrast, the Xv group showed greater heterogeneity. Some Xv strains from South America were closely related to strains from California, while others grouped closer to a strain from Indiana and more distantly to a strain from Hawaii. Using this information molecular tests can now be devised to track distribution of clonal populations that may be introduced into new geographic areas through seeds and other infected plant materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Microbial Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
One Small RNA of Fusarium graminearum Targets and Silences CEBiP Gene in Common Wheat
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100425 - 09 Oct 2019
Abstract
The pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum (F. graminearum), causing Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab, is one of the most important cereal killers worldwide, exerting great economic and agronomic losses on global grain production. To repress pathogen invasion, plants have evolved a [...] Read more.
The pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum (F. graminearum), causing Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab, is one of the most important cereal killers worldwide, exerting great economic and agronomic losses on global grain production. To repress pathogen invasion, plants have evolved a sophisticated innate immunity system for pathogen recognition and defense activation. Simultaneously, pathogens continue to evolve more effective means of invasion to conquer plant resistance systems. In the process of co-evolution of plants and pathogens, several small RNAs (sRNAs) have been proved in regulating plant immune response and plant-microbial interaction. In this study, we report that a F. graminearum sRNA (Fg-sRNA1) can suppress wheat defense response by targeting and silencing a resistance-related gene, which codes a Chitin Elicitor Binding Protein (TaCEBiP). Transcriptional level evidence indicates that Fg-sRNA1 can target TaCEBiP mRNA and trigger silencing of TaCEBiP in vivo, and in Nicotiana benthamiana (N. benthamiana) plants, Western blotting experiments and YFP Fluorescence observation proofs show that Fg-sRNA1 can suppress the accumulation of protein coding by TaCEBiP gene in vitro. F. graminearum PH-1 strain displays a weakening ability to invasion when Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) vector induces effective silencing Fg-sRNA1 in PH-1 infected wheat plants. Taken together, our results suggest that a small RNA from F. graminearum can target and silence the wheat TaCEBiP gene to enhance invasion of F. graminearum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Microbial Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Genome Insights into the Novel Species Microvirga brassicacearum, a Rapeseed Endophyte with Biotechnological Potential
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090354 - 14 Sep 2019
Abstract
Plants harbor a diversity of microorganisms constituting the plant microbiome. Many bioinoculants for agricultural crops have been isolated from plants. Nevertheless, plants are an underexplored niche for the isolation of microorganisms with other biotechnological applications. As a part of a collection of canola [...] Read more.
Plants harbor a diversity of microorganisms constituting the plant microbiome. Many bioinoculants for agricultural crops have been isolated from plants. Nevertheless, plants are an underexplored niche for the isolation of microorganisms with other biotechnological applications. As a part of a collection of canola endophytes, we isolated strain CDVBN77T. Its genome sequence shows not only plant growth-promoting (PGP) mechanisms, but also genetic machinery to produce secondary metabolites, with potential applications in the pharmaceutical industry, and to synthesize hydrolytic enzymes, with potential applications in biomass degradation industries. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of strain CDVBN77T shows that it belongs to the genus Microvirga, its closest related species being M. aerophila DSM 21344T (97.64% similarity) and M. flavescens c27j1T (97.50% similarity). It contains ubiquinone 10 as the predominant quinone, C19:0 cycloω8c and summed feature 8 as the major fatty acids, and phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine as the most abundant polar lipids. Its genomic DNA G+C content is 62.3 (mol %). Based on phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic, and phenotypic analyses, we suggest the classification of strain CDVBN77T within a new species of the genus Microvirga and propose the name Microvirga brassicacearum sp. nov. (type strain CDVBN77T = CECT 9905T = LMG 31419T). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Microbial Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification and Functional Analysis of NLP-Encoding Genes from the Postharvest Pathogen Penicillium expansum
Microorganisms 2019, 7(6), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7060175 - 15 Jun 2019
Abstract
Penicillium expansum is a major postharvest pathogen that infects different fruits, mainly through injuries inflicted during harvest or subsequent handling after harvest. Several effectors were suggested to mediate pathogenicity of P. expansum in fruit tissue. Among these effectors Nep1-like proteins (NLPs), produced by [...] Read more.
Penicillium expansum is a major postharvest pathogen that infects different fruits, mainly through injuries inflicted during harvest or subsequent handling after harvest. Several effectors were suggested to mediate pathogenicity of P. expansum in fruit tissue. Among these effectors Nep1-like proteins (NLPs), produced by various microorganisms with different lifestyles, are known for their ability to induce necrosis in dicot plants and were shown to be involved in virulence of several plant-related pathogens. This study was aimed at the identification and functional characterization of two NLP genes found in the genome of P. expansum. The genes were designated Penlp1 and Penlp2 and were found to code type1 and type3 NLP respectively. Necrosis-inducing activity of the two proteins was demonstrated by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. While Penlp1 expression was induced during apple infection and in liquid culture, the highest level of Penlp2 expression was found in ungerminated spores. Deletion of Penlp1, but not Penlp2, resulted in reduced virulence on apples manifested by reduced rate of lesion development (disease severity). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Microbial Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
The Gene Encoding NAD-Dependent Epimerase/Dehydratase, wcaG, Affects Cell Surface Properties, Virulence, and Extracellular Enzyme Production in the Soft Rot Phytopathogen, Pectobacterium carotovorum
Microorganisms 2019, 7(6), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7060172 - 13 Jun 2019
Abstract
Pectobacterium carotovorum is a gram-negative bacterium that, together with other soft rot Enterobacteriaceae causes soft rot disease in vegetables, fruits, and ornamental plants through the action of exoproteins including plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs). Although pathogenicity in these bacteria is complex, virulence levels [...] Read more.
Pectobacterium carotovorum is a gram-negative bacterium that, together with other soft rot Enterobacteriaceae causes soft rot disease in vegetables, fruits, and ornamental plants through the action of exoproteins including plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs). Although pathogenicity in these bacteria is complex, virulence levels are proportional to the levels of plant cell wall-degrading exoenzymes (PCWDEs) secreted. Two low enzyme-producing transposon Tn5 mutants were isolated, and compared to their parent KD100, the mutants were less virulent on celery petioles and carrot disks. The inactivated gene responsible for the reduced virulence phenotype in both mutants was identified as wcaG. The gene, wcaG (previously denoted fcl) encodes NAD-dependent epimerase/dehydratase, a homologue of GDP-fucose synthetase of Escherichia coli. In Escherichia coli, GDP-fucose synthetase is involved in the biosynthesis of the exopolysaccharide, colanic acid (CA). The wcaG mutants of P. carotovorum formed an enhanced level of biofilm in comparison to their parent. In the hydrophobicity test the mutants showed more hydrophobicity than the parent in hexane and hexadecane as solvents. Complementation of the mutants with extrachromosomal copies of the wild type gene restored these functions to parental levels. These data indicate that NAD-dependent epimerase/dehydratase plays a vital rule in cell surface properties, exoenzyme production, and virulence in P. carotovorum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Microbial Interactions)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Exploration of Plant-Microbe Interactions for Sustainable Agriculture in CRISPR Era
Microorganisms 2019, 7(8), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7080269 - 17 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Plants and microbes are co-evolved and interact with each other in nature. Plant-associated microbes, often referred to as plant microbiota, are an integral part of plant life. Depending on the health effects on hosts, plant–microbe (PM) interactions are either beneficial or harmful. The [...] Read more.
Plants and microbes are co-evolved and interact with each other in nature. Plant-associated microbes, often referred to as plant microbiota, are an integral part of plant life. Depending on the health effects on hosts, plant–microbe (PM) interactions are either beneficial or harmful. The role of microbiota in plant growth promotion (PGP) and protection against various stresses is well known. Recently, our knowledge of community composition of plant microbiome and significant driving factors have significantly improved. So, the use of plant microbiome is a reliable approach for a next green revolution and to meet the global food demand in sustainable and eco-friendly agriculture. An application of the multifaceted PM interactions needs the use of novel tools to know critical genetic and molecular aspects. Recently discovered clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas-mediated genome editing (GE) tools are of great interest to explore PM interactions. A systematic understanding of the PM interactions will enable the application of GE tools to enhance the capacity of microbes or plants for agronomic trait improvement. This review focuses on applying GE techniques in plants or associated microbiota for discovering the fundamentals of the PM interactions, disease resistance, PGP activity, and future implications in agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Microbial Interactions)
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