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Open AccessArticle

Low Temperature (15 °C) Reduces Bacterial Diversity and Prolongs the Preservation Time of Volvariella volvacea

1
Institute of Edible Fungi, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai 201403, China
2
College of Life Sciences, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100475
Received: 30 August 2019 / Revised: 16 October 2019 / Accepted: 18 October 2019 / Published: 20 October 2019
Straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) is the most commonly cultivated edible fungus in the world, but the challenges associated with the preservation have limited its marketability. Microbiology, especially bacteria, play a key role in the deterioration of food, this study aimed to reveal the succession of the bacterial community on the surfaces of V. volvacea fruit bodies under different temperature conditions. We amplified 16S rRNA genes of V4 regions, obtained the bacterial species information by using high-throughput sequencing technology, and analyzed the effects of environmental temperature and preservation time on bacterial communities. The relative abundances of Firmicutes, Bacilli, and Bacillales increased significantly when straw mushrooms began to rot. Furthermore, the relative abundances of Paenibacillus, Lysinibacillus and Solibacillus, which belong to Bacillales, increased with the decay of straw mushroom. The Shannon and Simpson indices of V. volvacea stored at 30 °C were significantly higher than those of V. volvacea stored at 15 °C, which indicates that a high temperature contributes to the improvement in the species diversity. According to the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) results, the number of biomarkers in the 30 °C group (32, 42.11%) was significantly higher than that in the 15 °C group (17, 22.37%), indicating that a high temperature has a clustering effect on some bacterial communities. A Spearman correlation analysis showed that Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Solibacillus promoted the decay of straw mushroom. In conclusion, a high temperature increases the bacterial diversity on the straw mushroom surfaces and has a clustering effect on the bacterial communities. The bacterial community consisting of Firmicutes, Bacilli, Bacillales, Paenibacillus, Lysinibacillus, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Solibacillus could promote the decay of straw mushroom, so new preservation materials research can focus on inhibiting anaerobic and decay-causing bacteria to prolong preservation time. View Full-Text
Keywords: Volvariella volvacea; food preservation; bacterial community; Firmicutes; Solibacillus Volvariella volvacea; food preservation; bacterial community; Firmicutes; Solibacillus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, X.; Liu, S.; Chen, M.; Yu, C.; Zhao, Y.; Yang, H.; Zha, L.; Li, Z. Low Temperature (15 °C) Reduces Bacterial Diversity and Prolongs the Preservation Time of Volvariella volvacea. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 475.

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