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Open AccessArticle

Differential Distribution and Determinants of Ammonia Oxidizing Archaea Sublineages in the Oxygen Minimum Zone off Costa Rica

1
SZU-HKUST Joint PhD Program in Marine Environmental Science, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518061, China
2
Department of Ocean Science, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China
3
Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510220, China
4
CAS Key Laboratory for Experimental Study under Deep-sea Extreme Conditions, Institute of Deep-sea Science and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Sanya 572000, China
5
Hong Kong Branch of Southern Marine Science & Engineering Guangdong Laboratory, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100453
Received: 21 September 2019 / Revised: 8 October 2019 / Accepted: 13 October 2019 / Published: 15 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Diversity in Extreme Environments)
Ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) are microbes that are widely distributed in the ocean that convert ammonia to nitrite for energy acquisition in the presence of oxygen. Recent study has unraveled highly diverse sublineages within the previously defined AOA ecotypes (i.e., water column A (WCA) and water column B (WCB)), although the eco-physiology and environmental determinants of WCB subclades remain largely unclear. In this study, we examined the AOA communities along the water columns (40–3000 m depth) in the Costa Rica Dome (CRD) upwelling region in the eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean. Highly diverse AOA communities that were significantly different from those in oxygenated water layers were observed in the core layer of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), where the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was < 2μM. Moreover, a number of AOA phylotypes were found to be enriched in the OMZ core. Most of them were negatively correlated with DO and were also detected in other OMZs in the Arabian Sea and Gulf of California, which suggests low oxygen adaptation. This study provided the first insight into the differential niche partitioning and environmental determinants of various subclades within the ecotype WCB. Our results indicated that the ecotype WCB did indeed consist of various sublineages with different eco-physiologies, which should be further explored. View Full-Text
Keywords: ammonia oxidizing archaea; amoA gene; ecotype; deep oxygen minimum zone; Costa Rica Dome ammonia oxidizing archaea; amoA gene; ecotype; deep oxygen minimum zone; Costa Rica Dome
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Lu, Y.; Xia, X.; Cheung, S.; Jing, H.; Liu, H. Differential Distribution and Determinants of Ammonia Oxidizing Archaea Sublineages in the Oxygen Minimum Zone off Costa Rica. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 453.

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