Special Issue "Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens"

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Despoina Koulenti

2nd Critical Care Department, Attikon University Hospital, Athens, Greece &BTCCRC, UQ Centre for Clinical Research, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland Brisbane, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: critical care; infectious diseases; sepsis; healthcare-associated infections; severe respiratory infections; multidrug-resistant microorganisms; antibiotic optimization; high fidelity medical simulation
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Sotirios Tsiodras

Specialist of Internal Medicine & Infectious Diseases, 4th Department of Internal Medicine, University of Athens Medical School, 1 Rimini street, GR-12462 Haidari, Athens, Greece
Website | E-Mail
Interests: infectious diseases; sepsis; healthcare-associated infections; multidrug-resistant microorganisms; epidemiology; public health; virology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Background: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens represent a significant and ever-increasing threat to healthcare globally, as infections by MDR pathogens are related to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. It has been reported that, by the year 2050, 10 million people will die annually as a consequence of MDR infections, unless a global and effective response is achieved to tackle the problem.

Goal: Further research is urgently needed to inform the best approaches for preventing and controlling the spread of MDR pathogens. Also, research on the development and validation of rapid diagnostic techniques that will enable the fast identification of resistance patterns and the development of novel antimicrobials is of paramount importance to improve the outcomes of MDR infections.

Scope: The scope of this Special Issue is to present the results of clinical and pre-clinical (experimental) research on multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens, as well as to present reviews that will advance the current knowledge on the topic and will act as a platform for further research.

Details for Authors: Original clinical (in humans, especially in the hospital setting) and experimental research articles on MDR pathogens. Reviews on the current measures for controlling the spread of MDR pathogens, as well as advances in the diagnosis and treatment of infections due to MDR pathogens.

Dr. Despoina Koulenti
Prof. Sotirios Tsiodras
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Microorganisms is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Competence for Natural Transformation Is Common among Clinical Strains of Resistant Acinetobacter spp.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7020030
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
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Abstract
Horizontal gene transfer events provide the basis for extensive dissemination of antimicrobial resistance traits between bacterial populations. Conjugation is considered to be the most frequent mechanism behind new resistance acquisitions in clinical pathogens but does not fully explain the resistance patterns seen in [...] Read more.
Horizontal gene transfer events provide the basis for extensive dissemination of antimicrobial resistance traits between bacterial populations. Conjugation is considered to be the most frequent mechanism behind new resistance acquisitions in clinical pathogens but does not fully explain the resistance patterns seen in some bacterial genera. Gene transfer by natural transformation has been described for numerous clinical isolates, including some Acinetobacter species. The main aim of this study was to determine to what extent clinical, resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolates, express competence for natural transformation. Twenty-two clinical Acinetobacter spp. isolates collected over a 16-year time period, from five different geographical separated and/or distinct Portuguese Hospitals were tested for natural transformability. Fourteen isolates, including 11 A. baumannii, 2 A. nosocomialis and 1 Acinetobacter sp., were identified as competent on semisolid media facilitating surface-motility. Competent Acinetobacter isolates were found in all the hospitals tested. Furthermore, osmolarity was shown to influence the uptake of exogenous DNA by competent A. baumannii A118. Our study demonstrates that natural competence is common among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp., and hence likely an important trait for resistance acquisition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens)
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Open AccessCommunication Susceptibility of Virulent Yersinia pestis Bacteria to Predator Bacteria in the Lungs of Mice
Microorganisms 2019, 7(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7010002
Received: 10 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 18 December 2018 / Published: 21 December 2018
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Abstract
Multi-drug resistant bacterial infections are a serious threat to global public health. Changes in treatment modalities and prudent use of antibiotics can assist in reducing the threat, but new approaches are also required for untreatable cases. The use of predatory bacteria, such as [...] Read more.
Multi-drug resistant bacterial infections are a serious threat to global public health. Changes in treatment modalities and prudent use of antibiotics can assist in reducing the threat, but new approaches are also required for untreatable cases. The use of predatory bacteria, such as Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, is among the novel approaches being considered as possible therapeutics for antibiotic resistant and/or unidentified bacterial infections. Previous studies have examined the feasibility of using predatory bacteria to reduce colony-forming units (CFUs) in the lungs of rats exposed to lethal doses of Klebsiella pneumoniae; here we apply the approach to the Tier 1 select agent Yersinia pestis, and show that three doses of B. bacteriovorus introduced every six hours reduces the number of CFUs of Y. pestis in the lungs of inoculated mice by 86% after 24 h of infection. These experiments further demonstrate that predatory bacteria may serve to combat Gram negative bacterial infections, including those considered potential bioweapon agents, in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Plasmid-Mediated Colistin Resistance in Salmonella enterica: A Review
Microorganisms 2019, 7(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7020055
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
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Abstract
Colistin is widely used in food-animal production. Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic pathogen, which can pass from animal to human microbiota through the consumption of contaminated food, and cause disease, often severe, especially in young children, elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Recently, plasmid-mediated colistin [...] Read more.
Colistin is widely used in food-animal production. Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic pathogen, which can pass from animal to human microbiota through the consumption of contaminated food, and cause disease, often severe, especially in young children, elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Recently, plasmid-mediated colistin resistance was recognised; mcr-like genes are being identified worldwide. Colistin is not an antibiotic used to treat Salmonella infections, but has been increasingly used as one of the last treatment options for carbapenem resistant Enterobacteria in human infections. The finding of mobilizable mcr-like genes became a global concern due to the possibility of horizontal transfer of the plasmid that often carry resistance determinants to beta-lactams and/or quinolones. An understanding of the origin and dissemination of mcr-like genes in zoonotic pathogens such as S. enterica will facilitate the management of colistin use and target interventions to prevent further spread. The main objective of this review was to collect epidemiological data about mobilized colistin resistance in S. enterica, describing the mcr variants, identified serovars, origin of the isolate, country and other resistance genes located in the same genetic platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens)
Open AccessReview PES Pathogens in Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia
Microorganisms 2019, 7(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7020049
Received: 17 January 2019 / Revised: 9 February 2019 / Accepted: 9 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
Worldwide, there is growing concern about the burden of pneumonia. Severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is frequently complicated by pulmonary and extra-pulmonary complications, including sepsis, septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and acute cardiac events, resulting in significantly increased intensive care admission rates and [...] Read more.
Worldwide, there is growing concern about the burden of pneumonia. Severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is frequently complicated by pulmonary and extra-pulmonary complications, including sepsis, septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and acute cardiac events, resulting in significantly increased intensive care admission rates and mortality rates. Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus) remains the most common causative pathogen in CAP. However, several bacteria and respiratory viruses are responsible, and approximately 6% of cases are due to the so-called PES (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, extended-spectrum β-lactamase Enterobacteriaceae, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) pathogens. Of these, P. aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are the most frequently reported and require different antibiotic therapy to that for typical CAP. It is therefore important to recognize the risk factors for these pathogens to improve the outcomes in patients with CAP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens)
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Other

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Open AccessBrief Report Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance in Serratia spp. and Citrobacter spp. Isolates from Companion Animals in Japan: Nosocomial Dissemination of Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Citrobacter freundii
Microorganisms 2019, 7(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7030064
Received: 21 January 2019 / Revised: 27 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
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Abstract
In many countries including Japan, the status of emerging antimicrobial resistance among Serratia spp. and Citrobacter spp. in companion animals remains unknown because these genera are rarely isolated from animals. In this study, 30 Serratia spp. and 23 Citrobacter spp. isolates from companion [...] Read more.
In many countries including Japan, the status of emerging antimicrobial resistance among Serratia spp. and Citrobacter spp. in companion animals remains unknown because these genera are rarely isolated from animals. In this study, 30 Serratia spp. and 23 Citrobacter spp. isolates from companion animals underwent susceptibility testing for 10 antimicrobials. Phenotypic and genetic approaches were used to identify the mechanisms of extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC). Subsequently, ESC-resistant Citrobacter spp. strains underwent multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). A significantly higher rate (34.8%) of ESC resistance was observed in Citrobacter spp. isolates than in Serratia spp. isolates (0%). ESC resistance was detected in five C. freundii strains, two C. portucalensis strains, and one C. koseri strain. All of the ESC-resistant Citrobacter spp. strains harbored CMY-type and/or DHA-type AmpC β-lactamases. Three C. freundii strains harbored the CTX-M-3-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases. Notably, the three blaCTX-3-producing and two blaCMY-117-bearing C. freundii strains (obtained from different patients in one hospital) had the same sequence type (ST156 and ST18, respectively) and similar PFGE profiles. We believe that ESC-resistant Citrobacter spp. are important nosocomial pathogens in veterinary medicine. Therefore, infection control in animal hospitals is essential to prevent dissemination of these resistant pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens)
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