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Open AccessReview

Pathogenetic Impact of Bacterial–Fungal Interactions

by Filomena Nogueira 1,2,3,*, Shirin Sharghi 1,2,3, Karl Kuchler 3 and Thomas Lion 1,2,4,*
CCRI—St. Anna Children’s Cancer Research Institute, Vienna 1090, Austria
Labdia—Labordiagnostik GmbH, Vienna 1090, Austria
Center of Medical Biochemistry, Max Perutz Labs, Campus Vienna Biocenter, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1030, Austria
Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090, Austria
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 459;
Received: 13 June 2019 / Revised: 20 September 2019 / Accepted: 15 October 2019 / Published: 16 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Fungal Virulence and Commensalism)
Polymicrobial infections are of paramount importance because of the potential severity of clinical manifestations, often associated with increased resistance to antimicrobial treatment. The intricate interplay with the host and the immune system, and the impact on microbiome imbalance, are of importance in this context. The equilibrium of microbiota in the human host is critical for preventing potential dysbiosis and the ensuing development of disease. Bacteria and fungi can communicate via signaling molecules, and produce metabolites and toxins capable of modulating the immune response or altering the efficacy of treatment. Most of the bacterial–fungal interactions described to date focus on the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans and different bacteria. In this review, we discuss more than twenty different bacterial–fungal interactions involving several clinically important human pathogens. The interactions, which can be synergistic or antagonistic, both in vitro and in vivo, are addressed with a focus on the quorum-sensing molecules produced, the response of the immune system, and the impact on clinical outcome. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacterial–fungal interactions; microbiome; molecules; immune response; in vivo models bacterial–fungal interactions; microbiome; molecules; immune response; in vivo models
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Nogueira, F.; Sharghi, S.; Kuchler, K.; Lion, T. Pathogenetic Impact of Bacterial–Fungal Interactions. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 459.

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