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Cows Get Crohn’s Disease and They’re Giving Us Diabetes

1
McPherson Eye Research Institute, University of Wisconsin, 9431 WIMR, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53705, USA
2
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sassari, Viale San Pietro 43b, 07100 Sassari, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100466
Received: 10 September 2019 / Revised: 14 October 2019 / Accepted: 15 October 2019 / Published: 17 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycobacteria Infections and Autoimmune Diseases)
Increasingly, Johne’s disease of ruminants and human Crohn’s disease are regarded as the same infectious disease: paratuberculosis. Mycobacterium avium ss. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the cause of Johne’s and is the most commonly linked infectious cause of Crohn’s disease. Humans are broadly exposed to MAP in dairy products and in the environment. MAP has been found within granulomas such as Crohn’s disease and can stimulate autoantibodies in diseases such as type 1 diabetes (T1D) and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Moreover, beyond Crohn’s and T1D, MAP is increasingly associated with a host of autoimmune diseases. This article suggests near equivalency between paucibacillary Johne’s disease of ruminant animals and human Crohn’s disease and implicates MAP zoonosis beyond Crohn’s disease to include T1D. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mycobacterium avium ss. paratuberculosis; MAP; Crohn’s; Johne’s; zoonosis; CARD15; SLC11a1; type 1 diabetes mellitus; T1D; molecular mimicry; ZnT8; HSP65; HERV; TRIGR study; sarcoidosis; Blau syndrome; multiple sclerosis; Hashimoto’s thyroiditis; lupus; Parkinson’s disease; rheumatoid arthritis Mycobacterium avium ss. paratuberculosis; MAP; Crohn’s; Johne’s; zoonosis; CARD15; SLC11a1; type 1 diabetes mellitus; T1D; molecular mimicry; ZnT8; HSP65; HERV; TRIGR study; sarcoidosis; Blau syndrome; multiple sclerosis; Hashimoto’s thyroiditis; lupus; Parkinson’s disease; rheumatoid arthritis
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Dow, C.T.; Sechi, L.A. Cows Get Crohn’s Disease and They’re Giving Us Diabetes. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 466.

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