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Microorganisms, Volume 7, Issue 9 (September 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Over twenty years of research efforts have contributed to defining the structure and physiology of [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Changes in the Bacterial Community During the Fermentation of Traditional Chinese Fish Sauce (TCFS) and Their Correlation with TCFS Quality
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090371 - 19 Sep 2019
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Abstract
This study revealed for the first time the dynamic changes of the bacterial community during the fermentation of traditional Chinese fish sauce (TCFS) using high-throughput sequencing. In the early phase of TCFS fermentation, Shewanella (approximately 90%) within Proteobacteria was the dominant bacteria. Then, [...] Read more.
This study revealed for the first time the dynamic changes of the bacterial community during the fermentation of traditional Chinese fish sauce (TCFS) using high-throughput sequencing. In the early phase of TCFS fermentation, Shewanella (approximately 90%) within Proteobacteria was the dominant bacteria. Then, Halanaerobium (3%–86%) within Firmicutes rapidly replaced Shewanella as the dominant genus until the 12th month. Lactococcus (3.31%) and Bacillus (45.56%) belonging to Firmicutes were detected abundantly in the 3rd and 9th months after fermentation, respectively. In the late phase (12–15 months), Tetragenococcus within Firmicutes replaced Halanaerobium as the most dominant bacteria (29.54%). Many other genera including Pseudomonas, Psychrobacter, Tissierella, Carnobacterium and Gallicola were abundantly present in the 15th month after fermentation. Furthermore, the relationships between the bacterial community and major functional substances of TCFS, including amino nitrogen (AAN), free amino acids (FAAs), total soluble nitrogen (TSN), and trimethylamine (TMA), were investigated by partial least squares regression (PLSR). Tetragenococcus was positively correlated with the formation of TMA, while Halanaerobium showed the opposite result, suggesting that Tetragenococcus might be a good starter for TCFS fermentation. These results contribute to our knowledge about bacterial participation in the process of TCFS fermentation and will help improve the quality of fermented seafood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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Open AccessCommunication
Bioactive Compounds of Nigella Sativa Essential Oil as Antibacterial Agents against Chlamydia Trachomatis D
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090370 - 19 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Urogenital tract infection caused by obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis D (CtrD) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted diseases. Essential oil (EO) of Nigella sativa has a broad antimicrobial spectrum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial [...] Read more.
Urogenital tract infection caused by obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis D (CtrD) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted diseases. Essential oil (EO) of Nigella sativa has a broad antimicrobial spectrum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the bioactive compounds (p-cymene, thymoquinone, carvacrol, and thymol) of N. sativa EO against CtrD. The cytotoxic effects of the compounds were determined by MTT assay. In order to quantify the anti-chlamydial activity of the compounds, HeLa cells were infected with CtrD or CtrD treated previously with the compounds. The titer of the infectious CtrD was determined by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the compounds were evaluated by direct quantitative PCR. None of the compounds showed a cytotoxic effect on HeLa cells in the concentrations tested. According to the immunofluorescence assay, all of the compounds significantly inhibited the growth of CtrD. The quantitative PCR revealed that the minimum concentration that exerted anti-chlamydial activity was 3.12 µM in the case of thymoquinone and p-cymene, while that of carvacrol and thymol was 6.25 µM. Therefore, it can be concluded that bioactive compounds of N. sativa EO could be used as effective antimicrobial agents against CtrD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fighting Multidrug Resistance with Natural Antimicrobials)
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Open AccessArticle
Emergence of a Novel Ehrlichia minasensis Strain, Harboring the Major Immunogenic Glycoprotein trp36 with Unique Tandem Repeat and C-Terminal Region Sequences, in Haemaphysalis hystricis Ticks Removed from Free-Ranging Sheep in Hainan Province, China
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090369 - 19 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Ehrlichia minasensis, a recently described Ehrlichia species that is the most closely related to, but clearly distinct from, Ehrlichia canis, has been circulating in not only bovines, cervids, and dogs but also several tick species from Canada, Brazil, France, Pakistan, Ethiopia, and [...] Read more.
Ehrlichia minasensis, a recently described Ehrlichia species that is the most closely related to, but clearly distinct from, Ehrlichia canis, has been circulating in not only bovines, cervids, and dogs but also several tick species from Canada, Brazil, France, Pakistan, Ethiopia, and Israel. However, there are no reports of E. minasensis in China. The purpose of this study was to explore whether E. minasensis is present naturally in ticks in China. Through PCR targeting of the genus-conserved dsb gene, E. minasensis DNA was detected in Haemaphysalis hystricis ticks removed from free-ranging sheep in Hainan Province, South China in 2017. The partial sequence of the dsb, 16S rRNA, and groEL genes demonstrated that the Hainan strain shared 99% identity with the dsb gene of E. minasensis strain UFMG-EV (GenBank: JX629808), with the 16S rRNA of E. minasensis isolate E-2650 (MH500005) and with the groEL gene of E. minasensis strain UFMG-EV (JX629806), respectively. Moreover, sequence analysis of the major immunogenic tandem repeat protein (trp36) revealed that the Hainan strain harbored a unique tandem repeat sequence (APEAAPVSAPEAAPVSAPVS) and a C-terminal region that differed from those of other known E. minasensis strains. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis based on the entire amino acid sequence of trp36 revealed that the Hainan strain was closely related to a recently described E. minasensis strain from Brazil, of which the sister clade contained different strains of E. canis. The discovery of this novel Hainan strain in H. hystricis ticks represents the first known natural presence of E. minasensis in South China, highlighting the need for its constant surveillance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Vector Borne Infections: A Novel Threat for Global Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of CRISPR-Cas Systems in Serratia marcescens Isolated from Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090368 - 19 Sep 2019
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Abstract
The CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune system has been attracting increasing scientific interest for biological functions and biotechnological applications. Data on the Serratia marcescens system are scarce. Here, we report a comprehensive characterisation of CRISPR-Cas systems identified in S. marcescens strains isolated as secondary symbionts [...] Read more.
The CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune system has been attracting increasing scientific interest for biological functions and biotechnological applications. Data on the Serratia marcescens system are scarce. Here, we report a comprehensive characterisation of CRISPR-Cas systems identified in S. marcescens strains isolated as secondary symbionts of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, also known as Red Palm Weevil (RPW), one of the most invasive pests of major cultivated palms. Whole genome sequencing was performed on four strains (S1, S5, S8, and S13), which were isolated from the reproductive apparatus of RPWs. Subtypes I-F and I-E were harboured by S5 and S8, respectively. No CRISPR-Cas system was detected in S1 or S13. Two CRISPR arrays (4 and 51 spacers) were detected in S5 and three arrays (11, 31, and 30 spacers) were detected in S8. The CRISPR-Cas systems were located in the genomic region spanning from ybhR to phnP, as if this were the only region where CRISPR-Cas loci were acquired. This was confirmed by analyzing the S. marcescens complete genomes available in the NCBI database. This region defines a genomic hotspot for horizontally acquired genes and/or CRISPR-Cas systems. This study also supplies the first identification of subtype I-E in S. marcescens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Microbiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Sample Preservation and Storage Significantly Impact Taxonomic and Functional Profiles in Metaproteomics Studies of the Human Gut Microbiome
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090367 - 19 Sep 2019
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Abstract
With the technological advances of the last decade, it is now feasible to analyze microbiome samples, such as human stool specimens, using multi-omic techniques. Given the inherent sample complexity, there exists a need for sample methods which preserve as much information as possible [...] Read more.
With the technological advances of the last decade, it is now feasible to analyze microbiome samples, such as human stool specimens, using multi-omic techniques. Given the inherent sample complexity, there exists a need for sample methods which preserve as much information as possible about the biological system at the time of sampling. Here, we analyzed human stool samples preserved and stored using different methods, applying metagenomics as well as metaproteomics. Our results demonstrate that sample preservation and storage have a significant effect on the taxonomic composition of identified proteins. The overall identification rates, as well as the proportion of proteins from Actinobacteria were much higher when samples were flash frozen. Preservation in RNAlater overall led to fewer protein identifications and a considerable increase in the share of Bacteroidetes, as well as Proteobacteria. Additionally, a decrease in the share of metabolism-related proteins and an increase of the relative amount of proteins involved in the processing of genetic information was observed for RNAlater-stored samples. This suggests that great care should be taken in choosing methods for the preservation and storage of microbiome samples, as well as in comparing the results of analyses using different sampling and storage methods. Flash freezing and subsequent storage at −80 °C should be chosen wherever possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards Integrated Multi-omics Analyses of Environmental Microbiota)
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Open AccessArticle
Divergent Copies of a Cryptosporidium parvum-Specific Subtelomeric Gene
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090366 - 18 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Subtype families of Cryptosporidium parvum differ in host range, with IIa and IId being found in a broad range of animals, IIc in humans, and IIo and IIp in some rodents. Previous studies indicated that the subtelomeric cgd6_5520-5510 gene in C. parvum is [...] Read more.
Subtype families of Cryptosporidium parvum differ in host range, with IIa and IId being found in a broad range of animals, IIc in humans, and IIo and IIp in some rodents. Previous studies indicated that the subtelomeric cgd6_5520-5510 gene in C. parvum is lost in many Cryptosporidium species, and could potentially contribute to the broad host range of the former. In this study, we identified the presence of a second copy of the gene in some C. parvum subtype families with a broad host range, and showed sequence differences among them. The sequence differences in the cgd6_5520-5510 gene were not segregated by the sequence type of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene. Genetic recombination appeared to have played a role in generating divergent nucleotide sequences between copies and among subtype families. These data support the previous conclusion on the potential involvement of the insulinase-like protease encoded by the subtelomeric cgd6_5520-5510 gene in the broad host range of C. parvum IIa and IId subtypes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microbial Markers Profile in Anaerobic Mars Analogue Environments Using the LDChip (Life Detector Chip) Antibody Microarray Core of the SOLID (Signs of Life Detector) Platform
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090365 - 18 Sep 2019
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Abstract
One of the main objectives for astrobiology is to unravel and explore the habitability of environments beyond Earth, paying special attention to Mars. If the combined environmental stress factors on Mars are compatible with life or if they were less harsh in the [...] Read more.
One of the main objectives for astrobiology is to unravel and explore the habitability of environments beyond Earth, paying special attention to Mars. If the combined environmental stress factors on Mars are compatible with life or if they were less harsh in the past, to investigate the traces of past or present life is critical to understand its potential habitability. Essential for this research is the characterization of Mars analogue environments on Earth through the development of techniques for biomarker detection in them. Biosensing techniques based on fluorescence sandwich microarray immunoassays (FSMI) have shown to be a powerful tool to detect biosignatures and depict the microbial profiles of different environments. In this study, we described the microbial biomarker profile of five anoxic Mars analogues sites using the Life Detector Chip (LDChip), an antibody microarray for multiple microbial marker detection. Furthermore, we contributed to new targets by developing a new 26-polyclonal antibodies microarray using crude extracts from anaerobic sampling sites, halophilic microorganisms, and anaerobic isolates obtained in the framework of the European Mars Analogues for Space Exploration (MASE) project. The new subset of antibodies was characterized and implemented into a microarray platform (MASE-Chip) for microbial marker searching in salty and anaerobic environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaerobic Microorganisms in Mars)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Development of Salmonellosis as Affected by Bioactive Food Compounds
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090364 - 18 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Infections caused by Salmonella serovars are the leading cause of foodborne hospitalizations and deaths in Americans, extensively prevalent worldwide, and pose a considerable financial burden on public health infrastructure and private manufacturing. While a comprehensive review is lacking for delineating the role of [...] Read more.
Infections caused by Salmonella serovars are the leading cause of foodborne hospitalizations and deaths in Americans, extensively prevalent worldwide, and pose a considerable financial burden on public health infrastructure and private manufacturing. While a comprehensive review is lacking for delineating the role of dietary components on prevention of Salmonellosis, evidence for the role of diet for preventing the infection and management of Salmonellosis symptoms is increasing. The current study is an evaluation of preclinical and clinical studies and their underlying mechanisms to elaborate the efficacy of bioactive dietary components for augmenting the prevention of Salmonella infection. Studies investigating dietary components such as fibers, fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, phenolic compounds, and probiotics exhibited efficacy of dietary compounds against Salmonellosis through manipulation of host bile acids, mucin, epithelial barrier, innate and adaptive immunity and gut microbiota as well as impacting the cellular signaling cascades of the pathogen. Pre-clinical studies investigating synergism and/or antagonistic activities of various bioactive compounds, additional randomized clinical trials, if not curtailed by lack of equipoise and ethical concerns, and well-planned epidemiological studies could augment the development of a validated and evidence-based guideline for mitigating the public health burden of human Salmonellosis through dietary compounds. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Horizontal Gene Transfer and Its Association with Antibiotic Resistance in the Genus Aeromonas spp.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090363 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 452
Abstract
The evolution of multidrug resistant bacteria to the most diverse antimicrobials known so far pose a serious problem to global public health. Currently, microorganisms that develop resistant phenotypes to multiple drugs are associated with high morbidity and mortality. This resistance is encoded by [...] Read more.
The evolution of multidrug resistant bacteria to the most diverse antimicrobials known so far pose a serious problem to global public health. Currently, microorganisms that develop resistant phenotypes to multiple drugs are associated with high morbidity and mortality. This resistance is encoded by a group of genes termed ‘bacterial resistome’, divided in intrinsic and extrinsic resistome. The first one refers to the resistance displayed on an organism without previous exposure to an antibiotic not involving horizontal genetic transfer, and it can be acquired via mutations. The latter, on the contrary, is acquired exclusively via horizontal genetic transfer involving mobile genetic elements that constitute the ‘bacterial mobilome’. This transfer is mediated by three different mechanisms: transduction, transformation, and conjugation. Recently, a problem of public health due to implications in the emergence of multi-drug resistance in Aeromonas spp. strains in water environments has been described. This is derived from the genetic material transfer via conjugation events. This is important, since bacteria that have acquired antibiotic resistance in natural environments can cause infections derived from their ingestion or direct contact with open wounds or mucosal tissue, which in turn, by their resistant nature, makes their eradication complex. Implications of the emergence of resistance in Aeromonas spp. by horizontal gene transfer on public health are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue An Update on Aeromonas)
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Open AccessReview
Roles of Plant-Derived Secondary Metabolites during Interactions with Pathogenic and Beneficial Microbes under Conditions of Environmental Stress
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090362 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 307
Abstract
Under natural conditions, plants generate a vast array of secondary metabolites. Several of these accumulate at widely varying levels in the same plant species and are reportedly critical for plant adaptation to abiotic and/or biotic stresses. Some secondary metabolite pathways are required for [...] Read more.
Under natural conditions, plants generate a vast array of secondary metabolites. Several of these accumulate at widely varying levels in the same plant species and are reportedly critical for plant adaptation to abiotic and/or biotic stresses. Some secondary metabolite pathways are required for beneficial interactions with bacterial and fungal microbes and are also regulated by host nutrient availability so that beneficial interactions are enforced. These observations suggest an interplay between host nutrient pathways and the regulation of secondary metabolites that establish beneficial interactions with microbes. In this review, I introduce the roles of tryptophan-derived and phenylpropanoid secondary-metabolite pathways during plant interactions with pathogenic and beneficial microbes and describe how these pathways are regulated by nutrient availability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Control of Symbiotic Microbe Behavior and Reproduction)
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Open AccessArticle
The Structure and Species Co-Occurrence Networks of Soil Denitrifying Bacterial Communities Differ Between A Coniferous and A Broadleaved Forests
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090361 - 18 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Acacia mangium (AM) and Pinus massoniana (PM) are widely planted in tropical regions, whereas their effects on soil microbial communities remain unclear. We did a comprehensive investigation of soil denitrifying bacterial communities in AM and PM monoculture plantations in Southern China based on [...] Read more.
Acacia mangium (AM) and Pinus massoniana (PM) are widely planted in tropical regions, whereas their effects on soil microbial communities remain unclear. We did a comprehensive investigation of soil denitrifying bacterial communities in AM and PM monoculture plantations in Southern China based on the high throughput sequencing data of their functional genes: nirK, nirS, and nosZ. The average abundance of nosZ (1.3 × 107) was significantly higher than nirS (5.6 × 106) and nirK (4.9 × 105). Shannon estimator revealed a markedly higher α-diversity of nirS and nosZ communities in PM than in AM plantations. The AM and PM plantations were dominated by different nirS and nosZ taxa belonging to proteobacteria, actinobacteria, thermoleophilia, chloroflexia, and acidobacteria, while the dominant nirK taxa were mainly categorized into proteobacteria in both types of plantations. The structure of nirS and nosZ communities shifted substantially from AM to PM plantations with changes in soil moisture, NH4+, and microbial biomass nitrogen content. The species co-occurrence network of nirK community was better organized in a more modular manner compared to nirS and nosZ communities, and the network keystone species mostly occurred in PM plantations. These results indicated a highly species corporation of nirK community in response to environmental changes, especially in PM plantations. AM and PM plantations can form different soil denitrifying microbial communities via altering soil physicochemical properties, which may further affect soil N transformations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Microbiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Streptomyces sporangiiformans sp. nov., a Novel Soil Actinomycete with Antibacterial Activity against Ralstonia solanacearum
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090360 - 17 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Ralstonia solanacearum is a major phytopathogenic bacterium that attacks many crops and other plants around the world. In this study, a novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-SSA 1T, which exhibited antibacterial activity against Ralstonia solanacearum, was isolated from soil collected from [...] Read more.
Ralstonia solanacearum is a major phytopathogenic bacterium that attacks many crops and other plants around the world. In this study, a novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-SSA 1T, which exhibited antibacterial activity against Ralstonia solanacearum, was isolated from soil collected from Mount Song and characterized using a polyphasic approach. Morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of the strain coincided with those of the genus Streptomyces. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolate was most closely related to Streptomyces aureoverticillatus JCM 4347T (97.9%). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the strain formed a cluster with Streptomyces vastus JCM4524T (97.4%), S. cinereus DSM43033T (97.2%), S. xiangluensis NEAU-LA29T (97.1%) and S. flaveus JCM3035T (97.1%). The cell wall contained LL-diaminopimelic acid and the whole-cell hydrolysates were ribose, mannose and galactose. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), hydroxy-phosphatidylethanolamine (OH-PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), two phosphatidylinositol mannosides (PIMs) and an unidentified phospholipid (PL). The menaquinones were MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6), and MK-9(H8). The major fatty acids were iso-C17:0, C16:0 and C17:1 ω9c. The DNA G+C content was 69.9 mol %. However, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on five other house-keeping genes (atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB, and trpB), DNA–DNA relatedness, and physiological and biochemical data showed that the strain could be distinguished from its closest relatives. Therefore, it is proposed that strain NEAU-SSA 1T should be classified as representatives of a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces sporangiiformans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-SSA 1T (=CCTCC AA 2017028T = DSM 105692T). Full article
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Open AccessReview
MicroRNAs in Ocular Infection
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090359 - 17 Sep 2019
Viewed by 372
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding, regulatory RNA molecules and constitute a newly recognized, important layer of gene-expression regulation at post-transcriptional levels. miRNAs quantitatively fine tune the expression of their downstream genes in a cell type- and developmental stage-specific fashion. miRNAs have been proven [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding, regulatory RNA molecules and constitute a newly recognized, important layer of gene-expression regulation at post-transcriptional levels. miRNAs quantitatively fine tune the expression of their downstream genes in a cell type- and developmental stage-specific fashion. miRNAs have been proven to play important roles in the normal development and function as well as in the pathogenesis of diseases in all tissues and organ systems. miRNAs have emerged as new therapeutic targets and biomarkers for treatment and diagnosis of various diseases. Although miRNA research in ocular infection remains in its early stages, a handful of pioneering studies have provided insight into the roles of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of parasitic, fungal, bacterial, and viral ocular infections. Here, we review the current status of research in miRNAs in several major ocular infectious diseases. We predict that the field of miRNAs in ocular infection will greatly expand with the discovery of novel miRNA-involved molecular mechanisms that will inform development of new therapies and identify novel diagnostic biomarkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insights Into The Molecular Pathogenesis of Ocular Infections)
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Open AccessArticle
A Discovery of Relevant Hepatoprotective Effects and Underlying Mechanisms of Dietary Clostridium butyricum Against Corticosterone-Induced Liver Injury in Pekin Ducks
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090358 - 16 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Clostridium butyricum (C. butyricum) can attenuate oxidative stress, inflammation, and hepatic fatty deposition in poultry, however, the underlying mechanisms for this in Pekin ducks remain unclear. This study evaluated these hepatoprotective effects and the underlying mechanisms in a corticosterone (CORT)-induced liver [...] Read more.
Clostridium butyricum (C. butyricum) can attenuate oxidative stress, inflammation, and hepatic fatty deposition in poultry, however, the underlying mechanisms for this in Pekin ducks remain unclear. This study evaluated these hepatoprotective effects and the underlying mechanisms in a corticosterone (CORT)-induced liver injury model in Pekin ducks fed a C. butyricum intervention diet. A total of 500 Pekin ducks were randomly divided into five groups: one group (CON group) was only provided with a basal diet, three groups were provided a basal diet with 200 mg/kg (LCB group), 400 mg/kg (MCB group), or 600 mg/kg (HCB group) C. butyricum, respectively, and one group was provided a basal diet with 150 mg/kg aureomycin (ANT group) for 42 d. At 37 days-old, all ducks received daily intraperitoneal injections of CORT for five days to establish a liver injury model. C. butyricum intervention alleviated liver injury by decreasing the liver organ indices, hepatic steatosis and hepatocyte necrosis, and improving liver function, antioxidant capacity, and inflammatory factors. Hepatic RNA-seq revealed 365 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the MCB and CON groups, with 229 up- and 136 down-regulated DEGs in the MCB group. Between the MCB and ANT groups, 407 DEGs were identified, including 299 up- and 108 down-regulated genes in MCB group. Some DEGs in the MCB group related to oxidative stress and inflammatory responses such as Sod3, Tlr2a/b, and Il10, which were up-regulated, while Apoa1, Cyp7a1, Acsl1/5, Fasn, Ppar-γ, and Scd, which are involved in lipid metabolism, were down-regulated, indicating that these genes were responsive to dietary C. butyricum for the alleviation of corticosterone-induced hepatic injury. Toll-like receptor signaling, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway, adipocytokine and glycerophospholipid metabolism signaling pathway were significantly enriched in the MCB group. These findings indicate that C. butyricum intervention can protect Pekin ducks from corticosterone-induced liver injury by the modulation of immunoregulatory- and lipid metabolism-related genes and pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Applied Microbiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Microbial Profiles in Heavy-Metal-Contaminated Soil from Full-Length 16S rRNA Reads Sequenced by a PacBio System
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090357 - 16 Sep 2019
Viewed by 348
Abstract
Heavy metal pollution is a serious environmental problem as it adversely affects crop production and human activity. In addition, the microbial community structure and composition are altered in heavy-metal-contaminated soils. In this study, using full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained by a PacBio [...] Read more.
Heavy metal pollution is a serious environmental problem as it adversely affects crop production and human activity. In addition, the microbial community structure and composition are altered in heavy-metal-contaminated soils. In this study, using full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained by a PacBio RS II system, we determined the microbial diversity and community structure in heavy-metal-contaminated soil. Furthermore, we investigated the microbial distribution, inferred their putative functional traits, and analyzed the environmental effects on the microbial compositions. The soil samples selected in this study were heavily and continuously contaminated with various heavy metals due to closed mines. We found that certain microorganisms (e.g., sulfur or iron oxidizers) play an important role in the biogeochemical cycle. Using phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) analysis, we predicted Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) functional categories from abundances of microbial communities and revealed a high proportion belonging to transport, energy metabolism, and xenobiotic degradation in the studied sites. In addition, through full-length analysis, Conexibacter-like sequences, commonly identified by environmental metagenomics among the rare biosphere, were detected. In addition to microbial composition, we confirmed that environmental factors, including heavy metals, affect the microbial communities. Unexpectedly, among these environmental parameters, electrical conductivity (EC) might have more importance than other factors in a community description analysis. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Nanomaterials as Delivery Vehicles and Components of New Strategies to Combat Bacterial Infections: Advantages and Limitations
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090356 - 16 Sep 2019
Viewed by 335
Abstract
Life-threatening bacterial infections have been well-controlled by antibiotic therapies and this approach has greatly improved the health and lifespan of human beings. However, the rapid and worldwide emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria has forced researchers to find alternative treatments for MDR infections [...] Read more.
Life-threatening bacterial infections have been well-controlled by antibiotic therapies and this approach has greatly improved the health and lifespan of human beings. However, the rapid and worldwide emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria has forced researchers to find alternative treatments for MDR infections as MDR bacteria can sometimes resist all the present day antibiotic therapies. In this respect, nanomaterials have emerged as innovative antimicrobial agents that can be a potential solution against MDR bacteria. The present review discusses the advantages of nanomaterials as potential medical means and carriers of antibacterial activity, the types of nanomaterials used for antibacterial agents, strategies to tackle toxicity of nanomaterials for clinical applications, and limitations which need extensive studies to overcome. The current progress of using different types of nanomaterials, including new emerging strategies for the single purpose of combating bacterial infections, is also discussed in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens)
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Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue: Recombinant Protein Expression in Microorganisms
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090355 - 16 Sep 2019
Viewed by 274
Abstract
Microorganisms are widely used in industrial biotechnology as cell factories for the sustainable production of a wide range of compounds and chemicals [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recombinant Protein Expression in Microorganisms)
Open AccessArticle
Genome Insights into the Novel Species Microvirga brassicacearum, a Rapeseed Endophyte with Biotechnological Potential
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090354 - 14 Sep 2019
Viewed by 464
Abstract
Plants harbor a diversity of microorganisms constituting the plant microbiome. Many bioinoculants for agricultural crops have been isolated from plants. Nevertheless, plants are an underexplored niche for the isolation of microorganisms with other biotechnological applications. As a part of a collection of canola [...] Read more.
Plants harbor a diversity of microorganisms constituting the plant microbiome. Many bioinoculants for agricultural crops have been isolated from plants. Nevertheless, plants are an underexplored niche for the isolation of microorganisms with other biotechnological applications. As a part of a collection of canola endophytes, we isolated strain CDVBN77T. Its genome sequence shows not only plant growth-promoting (PGP) mechanisms, but also genetic machinery to produce secondary metabolites, with potential applications in the pharmaceutical industry, and to synthesize hydrolytic enzymes, with potential applications in biomass degradation industries. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of strain CDVBN77T shows that it belongs to the genus Microvirga, its closest related species being M. aerophila DSM 21344T (97.64% similarity) and M. flavescens c27j1T (97.50% similarity). It contains ubiquinone 10 as the predominant quinone, C19:0 cycloω8c and summed feature 8 as the major fatty acids, and phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine as the most abundant polar lipids. Its genomic DNA G+C content is 62.3 (mol %). Based on phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic, and phenotypic analyses, we suggest the classification of strain CDVBN77T within a new species of the genus Microvirga and propose the name Microvirga brassicacearum sp. nov. (type strain CDVBN77T = CECT 9905T = LMG 31419T). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Microbial Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle
Nitric Oxide Donor Modulates a Multispecies Oral Bacterial Community—An In Vitro Study
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090353 - 14 Sep 2019
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Abstract
The deterioration of human oral microbiota is known to not only cause oral diseases but also to affect systemic health. Various environmental factors are thought to influence the disruption and restoration of the oral ecosystem. In this study, we focused on the effect [...] Read more.
The deterioration of human oral microbiota is known to not only cause oral diseases but also to affect systemic health. Various environmental factors are thought to influence the disruption and restoration of the oral ecosystem. In this study, we focused on the effect of nitric oxide (NO) produced by denitrification and NO synthase enzymes on dental plaque microbiota. Interdental plaques collected from 10 subjects were exposed to NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and then cultured in a specialized growth medium. Depending on the concentration of exposed SNP, a decrease in α-diversity and a continuous change in β-diversity in the dental plaque community were shown by sequencing bacterial 16S rRNA genes. We also identified eight operational taxonomic units that were significantly altered by NO exposure. Among them, the exposure of NO donors to Fusobacterium nucleatum cells showed a decrease in survival rate consistent with the results of microbiota analysis. Meanwhile, in addition to NO tolerance, an increase in the tetrazolium salt-reducing activity of Campylobacter concisus cells was confirmed by exposure to SNP. This study provides an overview of how oral plaque microbiota shifts with exposure to NO and may contribute to the development of a method for adjusting the balance of the oral microbiome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medical Microbiology)
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Open AccessArticle
The Architecture of Monospecific Microalgae Biofilms
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090352 - 13 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Microalgae biofilms have been proposed as an alternative to suspended cultures in commercial and biotechnological fields. However, little is known about their architecture that may strongly impact biofilm behavior, bioprocess stability, and productivity. In order to unravel the architecture of microalgae biofilms, four [...] Read more.
Microalgae biofilms have been proposed as an alternative to suspended cultures in commercial and biotechnological fields. However, little is known about their architecture that may strongly impact biofilm behavior, bioprocess stability, and productivity. In order to unravel the architecture of microalgae biofilms, four species of commercial interest were cultivated in microplates and characterized using a combination of confocal laser scanning microscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. In all the species, the biofilm biovolume and thickness increased over time and reached a plateau after seven days; however, the final biomass reached was very different. The roughness decreased during maturation, reflecting cell division and voids filling. The extracellular polymeric substances content of the matrix remained constant in some species, and increased over time in some others. Vertical profiles showed that young biofilms presented a maximum cell density at 20 μm above the substratum co-localized with matrix components. In mature biofilms, the maximum density of cells moved at a greater distance from the substratum (30–40 μm), whereas the maximum coverage of matrix components remained in a deeper layer. Carbohydrates and lipids were the main macromolecules changing during biofilm maturation. Our results revealed that the architecture of microalgae biofilms is species-specific. However, time similarly affects the structural and biochemical parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Cultivation and Analysis in Microsystems)
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Open AccessReview
Disparate Entry of Adenoviruses Dictates Differential Innate Immune Responses on the Ocular Surface
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090351 - 13 Sep 2019
Viewed by 420
Abstract
Human adenovirus infection of the ocular surface is associated with severe keratoconjunctivitis and the formation of subepithelial corneal infiltrates, which may persist and impair vision for months to years following infection. Long term pathology persists well beyond the resolution of viral replication, indicating [...] Read more.
Human adenovirus infection of the ocular surface is associated with severe keratoconjunctivitis and the formation of subepithelial corneal infiltrates, which may persist and impair vision for months to years following infection. Long term pathology persists well beyond the resolution of viral replication, indicating that the prolonged immune response is not virus-mediated. However, it is not clear how these responses are sustained or even initiated following infection. This review discusses recent work from our laboratory and others which demonstrates different entry pathways specific to both adenovirus and cell type. These findings suggest that adenoviruses may stimulate specific pattern recognition receptors in an entry/trafficking-dependent manner, leading to distinct immune responses dependent on the virus/cell type combination. Additional work is needed to understand the specific connections between adenoviral entry and the stimulation of innate immune responses by the various cell types present on the ocular surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insights Into The Molecular Pathogenesis of Ocular Infections)
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Open AccessArticle
Vδ2 T-Cells Kill ZIKV-Infected Cells by NKG2D-Mediated Cytotoxicity
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090350 - 12 Sep 2019
Viewed by 327
Abstract
An expansion of effector/activated Vδ2 T-cells was recently described in acute Zika virus (ZIKV)-infected patients, but their role in the protective immune response was not clarified. The aim of this study was to define the antiviral activity of Vδ2 T-cells against ZIKV-infected cells. [...] Read more.
An expansion of effector/activated Vδ2 T-cells was recently described in acute Zika virus (ZIKV)-infected patients, but their role in the protective immune response was not clarified. The aim of this study was to define the antiviral activity of Vδ2 T-cells against ZIKV-infected cells. The Vδ2 T-cells expansion and their cytotoxic activity against ZIKV-infected cells were tested in vitro and analyzed by RT-PCR and flow cytometry. We found that ZIKV infection was able to induce Vδ2 T-cells expansion and sensitized A549 cells to Vδ2-mediated killing. Indeed, expanded Vδ2 T-cells killed ZIKV-infected cells through degranulation and perforin release. Moreover, ZIKV infection was able to increase the expression on A549 cells of NKG2D ligands (NKG2DLs), namely MICA, MICB, and ULBP2, at both the mRNA and protein levels, suggesting the possible involvement of these molecules in the recognition by NKG2D-expressing Vδ2 T-cells. Indeed, the killing of ZIKV-infected cells by expanded Vδ2 T-cells was mediated by NKG2D/NKG2DL interaction as NKG2D neutralization abrogated Vδ2 cytotoxicity. Our data showed a strong antiviral activity of Vδ2 T-cells against ZIKV-infected cells, suggesting their involvement in the protective immune response. Other studies are necessary to investigate whether the lack of Vδ2 T-cells expansion in vivo may be associated with disease complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Vector Borne Infections: A Novel Threat for Global Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Site-Specific Microbial Decomposer Communities Do Not Imply Faster Decomposition: Results from a Litter Transplantation Experiment
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090349 - 12 Sep 2019
Viewed by 274
Abstract
Microbes drive leaf litter decomposition, and their communities are adapted to the local vegetation providing that litter. However, whether these local microbial communities confer a significant home-field advantage in litter decomposition remains unclear, with contrasting results being published. Here, we focus on a [...] Read more.
Microbes drive leaf litter decomposition, and their communities are adapted to the local vegetation providing that litter. However, whether these local microbial communities confer a significant home-field advantage in litter decomposition remains unclear, with contrasting results being published. Here, we focus on a litter transplantation experiment from oak forests (home site) to two away sites without oak in South Tyrol (Italy). We aimed to produce an in-depth analysis of the fungal and bacterial decomposer communities using Illumina sequencing and qPCR, to understand whether local adaptation occurs and whether this was associated with litter mass loss dynamics. Temporal shifts in the decomposer community occurred, reflecting changes in litter chemistry over time. Fungal community composition was site dependent, while bacterial composition did not differ across sites. Total litter mass loss and rates of litter decomposition did not change across sites. Litter quality influenced the microbial community through the availability of different carbon sources. Additively, our results do not support the hypothesis that locally adapted microbial decomposers lead to a greater or faster mass loss. It is likely that high functional redundancy within decomposer communities regulated the decomposition, and thus greater future research attention should be given to trophic guilds rather than taxonomic composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Feature Papers in Environmental Microbiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Arsenic Tolerance in Triticum aestivum Inoculated with Arsenic-Resistant and Plant Growth Promoter Microorganisms from a Heavy Metal-Polluted Soil
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090348 - 12 Sep 2019
Viewed by 251
Abstract
In soils multi-contaminated with heavy metal and metalloids, the establishment of plant species is often hampered due to toxicity. This may be overcome through the inoculation of beneficial soil microorganisms. In this study, two arsenic-resistant bacterial isolates, classified as Pseudomonas gessardii and Brevundimonas [...] Read more.
In soils multi-contaminated with heavy metal and metalloids, the establishment of plant species is often hampered due to toxicity. This may be overcome through the inoculation of beneficial soil microorganisms. In this study, two arsenic-resistant bacterial isolates, classified as Pseudomonas gessardii and Brevundimonas intermedia, and two arsenic-resistant fungi, classified as Fimetariella rabenhortii and Hormonema viticola, were isolated from contaminated soil from the Puchuncaví valley (Chile). Their ability to produce indoleacetic acid and siderophores and mediate phosphate solubilization as plant growth-promoting properties were evaluated, as well as levels of arsenic resistance. A real time PCR applied to Triticum aestivum that grew in soil inoculated with the bacterial and fungal isolates was performed to observe differences in the relative expression of heavy metal stress defense genes. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the bacterial strains to arsenate was up to 7000 mg·L−1 and that of the fungal strains was up to 2500 mg·L−1. P. gessardi was able to produce siderophores and solubilize phosphate; meanwhile, B. intermedia and both fungi produced indoleacetic acid. Plant dry biomass was increased and the relative expression of plant metallothionein, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and phytochelatin synthase genes were overexpressed when P. gessardii plus B. intermedia were inoculated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Stress Response to Toxic Metal(loid)s)
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Open AccessArticle
The Cellulosome Paradigm in An Extreme Alkaline Environment
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090347 - 12 Sep 2019
Viewed by 251
Abstract
Rapid decomposition of plant biomass in soda lakes is associated with microbial activity of anaerobic cellulose-degrading communities. The alkaliphilic bacterium, Clostridium alkalicellulosi, is the single known isolate from a soda lake that demonstrates cellulolytic activity. This microorganism secretes cellulolytic enzymes that degrade [...] Read more.
Rapid decomposition of plant biomass in soda lakes is associated with microbial activity of anaerobic cellulose-degrading communities. The alkaliphilic bacterium, Clostridium alkalicellulosi, is the single known isolate from a soda lake that demonstrates cellulolytic activity. This microorganism secretes cellulolytic enzymes that degrade cellulose under anaerobic and alkaliphilic conditions. A previous study indicated that the protein fraction of cellulose-grown cultures showed similarities in composition and size to known components of the archetypical cellulosome Clostridium thermocellum. Bioinformatic analysis of the C. alkalicellulosi draft genome sequence revealed 44 cohesins, organized into 22 different scaffoldins, and 142 dockerin-containing proteins. The modular organization of the scaffoldins shared similarities to those of C. thermocellum and Acetivibrio cellulolyticus, whereas some exhibited unconventional arrangements containing peptidases and oxidative enzymes. The binding interactions among cohesins and dockerins assessed by ELISA, revealed a complex network of cellulosome assemblies and suggested both cell-associated and cell-free systems. Based on these interactions, C. alkalicellulosi cellulosomal systems have the genetic potential to create elaborate complexes, which could integrate up to 105 enzymatic subunits. The alkalistable C. alkalicellulosi cellulosomal systems and their enzymes would be amenable to biotechnological processes, such as treatment of lignocellulosic biomass following prior alkaline pretreatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Feature Papers in Microbial Biotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle
Mode of Action of Dietary Dexamethasone May Not Be Dependent Upon Microbial Mechanisms in Broilers
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090346 - 12 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Dexamethasone (Dex), a synthetic glucocorticoid (GC), in feed has been shown to increase gut permeability via stress-mediated mechanisms, but the exact mode of action on gut barrier function is not fully understood. Stress has been reported to alter the profile and virulence of [...] Read more.
Dexamethasone (Dex), a synthetic glucocorticoid (GC), in feed has been shown to increase gut permeability via stress-mediated mechanisms, but the exact mode of action on gut barrier function is not fully understood. Stress has been reported to alter the profile and virulence of intestinal flora predisposing for opportunistic disease. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between dietary Dex and recoverable intestinal microbial profile in broilers to better understand mode of action and refine future uses of the model. Three experiments were conducted that administered Dex-treated feed for one week in conjunction with the antibiotics BMD (bacitracin methylene disalicylate) or Baytril® (enrofloxacin) to evaluate if enteric microbial mechanisms were important in Dex-induced permeability. Serum fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-d) and bacterial translocation (BT) have been reported to increase after Dex treatment and were used to assess gut epithelial leakage. Shifts in bacterial profiles were also measured on selective agar. Combining Dex with BMD or Baytril resulted in increased (P < 0.05) serum FITC-d versus Dex-only. Additionally, Baytril did not reduce aerobic BT and bacterial profiles remained similar after Dex. These results suggest a minimal role of intestinal microbes in Dex-induced changes to intestinal barrier function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Health in Poultry Production)
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Biofilm Effect of Selected Essential Oils and Main Components on Mono- and Polymicrobic Bacterial Cultures
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090345 - 12 Sep 2019
Viewed by 440
Abstract
Biofilms are surface-associated microbial communities resistant to sanitizers and antimicrobials. Various interactions that can contribute to increased resistance occur between the populations in biofilms. These relationships are the focus of a range of studies dealing with biofilm-associated infections and food spoilage. The present [...] Read more.
Biofilms are surface-associated microbial communities resistant to sanitizers and antimicrobials. Various interactions that can contribute to increased resistance occur between the populations in biofilms. These relationships are the focus of a range of studies dealing with biofilm-associated infections and food spoilage. The present study investigated the effects of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), marjoram (Origanum majorana), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) essential oils (EOs) and their main components, i.e., trans-cinnamaldehyde, terpinen-4-ol, and thymol, respectively, on single- and dual-species biofilms of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas putida, and Staphylococcus aureus. In dual-species biofilms, L. monocytogenes was paired with each of the other three bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for the individual bacteria ranged between 0.25 and 20 mg/mL, and trans-cinnamaldehyde and cinnamon showed the highest growth inhibitory effect. Single-species biofilms of L. monocytogenes, P. putida, and S. aureus were inhibited by the tested EOs and their components at sub-lethal concentrations. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the three-dimensional structure of mature biofilms embedded in the exopolysaccharide matrix disappeared or was limited to micro-colonies with a simplified structure. In most dual-species biofilms, to eliminate living cells from the matrix, concentrations exceeding the MIC determined for individual bacteria were required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Alternatives against Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of mcr-1-Harboring Plasmids from Pan Drug-Resistant Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Retail Raw Chicken in South Korea
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090344 - 12 Sep 2019
Viewed by 335
Abstract
A number of studies from different countries have characterized mcr-1-harboring plasmids isolated from food; however, nothing has been reported about it in South Korea. In this study, we report the characterization of mcr-1 plasmids from pan drug-resistant (PDR) Escherichia coli strains isolated [...] Read more.
A number of studies from different countries have characterized mcr-1-harboring plasmids isolated from food; however, nothing has been reported about it in South Korea. In this study, we report the characterization of mcr-1 plasmids from pan drug-resistant (PDR) Escherichia coli strains isolated from retail food in the country. Colistin-resistant E. coli strains were isolated from retail raw chicken, and PCR was carried out to detect the mcr-1 gene. Whole genome sequencing of the mcr-1-positive strains was performed for further characterization. The results of whole genome sequencing revealed that all mcr-1 plasmids belonged to the IncI2 type. In addition to the mcr-1 plasmids, all of the isolates also carried additional plasmids possessing multiple antibiotic resistance genes, and the PDR was mediated by resistant plasmids except for fluoroquinolone resistance resulting from mutations in gyrA and parC. Interestingly, the mcr-1 plasmids were transferred by conjugation to other pathogenic strains including enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), Salmonella, and Klebsiella at the frequencies of 10−3−10−6, 10−2−10−5, 10−4−10−5, 10−4−10−6, and 10−5−10−6, respectively. The results showed that mcr-1 plasmids can be easily transmitted to pathogenic bacteria by conjugation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microbiota Composition and Functional Profiling Throughout the Gastrointestinal Tract of Commercial Weaning Piglets
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090343 - 12 Sep 2019
Viewed by 311
Abstract
Dietary, environmental, and social stresses induced by weaning transition in pig production are associated with alterations of gut microbiota, diarrhea, and enteric infections. With the boom of -omic technologies, numerous studies have investigated the dynamics of fecal bacterial communities of piglets throughout weaning [...] Read more.
Dietary, environmental, and social stresses induced by weaning transition in pig production are associated with alterations of gut microbiota, diarrhea, and enteric infections. With the boom of -omic technologies, numerous studies have investigated the dynamics of fecal bacterial communities of piglets throughout weaning but much less research has been focused on the composition and functional properties of microbial communities inhabiting other gastrointestinal segments. The objective of the present study was to bring additional information about the piglet bacterial and archaeal microbiota throughout the entire digestive tract, both at the structural level by using quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing, and on functionality by measurement of short-chain fatty acids and predictions using Tax4Fun tool. Our results highlighted strong structural and functional differences between microbial communities inhabiting the fore and the lower gut as well as a quantitatively important archaeal community in the hindgut. The presence of opportunistic pathogens was also noticed throughout the entire digestive tract and could trigger infection emergence. Understanding the role of the intestinal piglet microbiota at weaning could provide further information about the etiology of post-weaning infections and lead to the development of effective preventive solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Feature Papers in Gut Microbiota)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects on Gene Transcription Profile and Fatty Acid Composition by Genetic Modification of Mevalonate Diphosphate Decarboxylase MVD/Erg19 in Aspergillus Oryzae
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090342 - 11 Sep 2019
Viewed by 323
Abstract
Mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase MVD/Erg19 is required for ergosterol biosynthesis, growth, sporulation, and stress tolerance in Aspergillus oryzae. In this study, RNA-seq was used to analyze the gene transcription profile in AoErg19 overexpression (OE) and RNAi strains. There were 256 and 74 differentially [...] Read more.
Mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase MVD/Erg19 is required for ergosterol biosynthesis, growth, sporulation, and stress tolerance in Aspergillus oryzae. In this study, RNA-seq was used to analyze the gene transcription profile in AoErg19 overexpression (OE) and RNAi strains. There were 256 and 74 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in AoErg19 OE and RNAi strains, respectively, compared with the control strain (CK). The most common DEGs were transport- and metabolism-related genes. Only 22 DEGs were obtained that were regulated in both OE and RNAi strains. The transcriptomic comparison between CK and AoErg19 overexpression strain (CK vs. OE), and between CK and AoErg19 RNAi strain (CK vs. RNAi) revealed that the greatest difference existed in the number of genes belonging to the cytochrome P450 family; 12 were found in CK vs. OE, whereas 1 was found in CK vs. RNAi. The expression patterns of lipid biosynthesis and metabolism related genes were altered in OE and RNAi strains, either by gene induction or suppression. Moreover, the total fatty acid content in the RNAi strain was 12.1% greater than the control strain, but no difference in total acid content was found between the overexpression strain and the control strain. Therefore, this study highlights the gene expression regulation within mevalonate (MVA), ergosterol biosynthesis, and fatty acid biosynthesis pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Safety of Fermented Products)
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