Special Issue "Advances in Prevention of Foodborne Pathogens of Public Health Concern during Manufacturing"

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Aliyar Fouladkhah

Public Health Microbiology Laboratory, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN 37209, USA
Website | E-Mail
Guest Editor
Prof. Bledar Bisha

Department of Animal Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: food microbiology and microbial safety of foods; ecology of foodborne pathogens; rapid diagnostics; sample preparation; study of microorganisms at the single cell level; antimicrobial resistance; microbial source tracking

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

According to a report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), achieving safe and healthier foods is one of the top ten achievements of public health in the 20th century. However, considerable persisting challenges currently exists in developed nations and transition economies for further assuring the safety and security of the food chain. According to CDC estimates, as many as 3000 American adults, as an example, and based on a recent epidemiological estimate of the World Health Organization, around 420,000 individuals around the globe, lose their lives every year due to foodborne diseases. This emphasizes the need for innovative and emerging interventions, for further prevention or mitigation of the risk of foodborne microbial pathogens during food processing and manufacturing.

The current Special Issue will publish recent advancements and progress in the elimination and decontamination of microbial pathogens during various stages of manufacturing and production. Special emphasis will be placed on hurdle validation studies, investigating decontamination of serovars of non-typhoidal Salmonella, various serogroups of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, public health significant serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic species of Vibrio, and various species of Campylobacter, Cronobacter sakazakii, and Norovirus. Researchers and practitioners conducting original laboratory studies, epidemiological research, and critical review papers are cordially invited to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue of Microorganisms.

Dr. Aliyar Fouladkhah
Dr. Bledar Bisha
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Microorganisms is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Microbial Food Safety
  • Public Health Microbiology
  • Food Microbiology
  • Food Manufacturing and Processing
  • Foodborne Diseases

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Biofilm Formation by Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli on Stainless Steel Coupons as Affected by Temperature and Incubation Time
Microorganisms 2019, 7(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7040095
Received: 2 March 2019 / Revised: 24 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 31 March 2019
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Abstract
Forming biofilm is a strategy utilized by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) to survive and persist in food processing environments. We investigated the biofilm-forming potential of STEC strains from 10 clinically important serogroups on stainless steel at 22 °C or 13 °C after [...] Read more.
Forming biofilm is a strategy utilized by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) to survive and persist in food processing environments. We investigated the biofilm-forming potential of STEC strains from 10 clinically important serogroups on stainless steel at 22 °C or 13 °C after 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation. Results from crystal violet staining, plate counts, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) identified a single isolate from each of the O113, O145, O91, O157, and O121 serogroups that was capable of forming strong or moderate biofilms on stainless steel at 22 °C. However, the biofilm-forming strength of these five strains was reduced when incubation time progressed. Moreover, we found that these strains formed a dense pellicle at the air-liquid interface on stainless steel, which suggests that oxygen was conducive to biofilm formation. At 13 °C, biofilm formation by these strains decreased (P < 0.05), but gradually increased over time. Overall, STEC biofilm formation was most prominent at 22 °C up to 24 h. The findings in this study identify the environmental conditions that may promote STEC biofilm formation in food processing facilities and suggest that the ability of specific strains to form biofilms contributes to their persistence within these environments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Presence of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in Fresh Beef Marketed in 13 Regions of ITALY (2017)
Microorganisms 2018, 6(4), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms6040126
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 6 December 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in fresh beef marketed in 2017 in 13 regions of Italy, to evaluate the potential risk to human health. According to the ISO/TS 13136:2012 standard, 239 samples were [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in fresh beef marketed in 2017 in 13 regions of Italy, to evaluate the potential risk to human health. According to the ISO/TS 13136:2012 standard, 239 samples were analysed and nine were STEC positive, from which 20 strains were isolated. The STEC-positive samples were obtained from Calabria (n = 1), Campania (n = 1), Lazio (n = 2), Liguria (n = 1), Lombardia (n = 1) and Veneto (n = 3). All STEC strains were analysed for serogroups O26, O45, O55, O91, O103, O104, O111, O113, O121, O128, O145, O146 and O157, using Real-Time PCR. Three serogroups were identified amongst the 20 strains: O91 (n = 5), O113 (n = 2), and O157 (n = 1); the O-group for each of the 12 remaining STEC strains was not identified. Six stx subtypes were detected: stx1a, stx1c, stx2a, stx2b, stx2c and stx2d. Subtype stx2c was the most common, followed by stx2d and stx2b. Subtype stx2a was identified in only one eae-negative strain and occurred in combination with stx1a, stx1c and stx2b. The presence in meat of STEC strains being potentially harmful to human health shows the importance, during harvest, of implementing additional measures to reduce contamination risk. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synergism of Mild Heat and High-Pressure Pasteurization Against Listeria monocytogenes and Natural Microflora in Phosphate-Buffered Saline and Raw Milk
Microorganisms 2018, 6(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms6040102
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 28 September 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 3 October 2018
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Abstract
As many as 99% of illnesses caused by Listeria monocytogenes are foodborne in nature, leading to 94% hospitalizations, and are responsible for the collective annual deaths of 266 American adults. The current study is a summary of microbiological hurdle validation studies to investigate [...] Read more.
As many as 99% of illnesses caused by Listeria monocytogenes are foodborne in nature, leading to 94% hospitalizations, and are responsible for the collective annual deaths of 266 American adults. The current study is a summary of microbiological hurdle validation studies to investigate synergism of mild heat (up to 55 °C) and elevated hydrostatic pressure (up to 380 MPa) for decontamination of Listeria monocytogenes and natural background microflora in raw milk and phosphate-buffered saline. At 380 MPa, for treatments of 0 to 12 min, d-values of 3.47, 3.15, and 2.94 were observed for inactivation of the pathogen at 4, 25, and 50 °C. Up to 3.73 and >4.26 log CFU/mL reductions (p < 0.05) of habituated Listeria monocytogenes were achieved using pressure at 380 MPa for 3 and 12 min, respectively. Similarly, background microflora counts were reduced (p < 0.05) by 1.3 and >2.4 log CFU/mL after treatments at 380 MPa for 3 and 12 min, respectively. Treatments below three min were less efficacious (p ≥ 0.05) against the pathogen and background microflora, in the vast majority of time and pressure combinations. Results of this study could be incorporated as part of a risk-based food safety management system and risk assessment analyses for mitigating the public health burden of listeriosis. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Outbreak History, Biofilm Formation, and Preventive Measures for Control of Cronobacter sakazakii in Infant Formula and Infant Care Settings
Microorganisms 2019, 7(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7030077
Received: 18 January 2019 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 9 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
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Abstract
Previously known as Enterobacter sakazakii from 1980 to 2007, Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic bacterium that survives and persists in dry and low-moisture environments, such as powdered infant formula. Although C. sakazakii causes disease in all age groups, infections caused by this pathogen [...] Read more.
Previously known as Enterobacter sakazakii from 1980 to 2007, Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic bacterium that survives and persists in dry and low-moisture environments, such as powdered infant formula. Although C. sakazakii causes disease in all age groups, infections caused by this pathogen are particularly fatal in infants born premature and those younger than two months. The pathogen has been isolated from various environments such as powdered infant formula manufacturing facilities, healthcare settings, and domestic environments, increasing the chance of infection through cross-contamination. The current study discusses the outbreak history of C. sakazakii and the ability of the microorganism to produce biofilms on biotic and abiotic surfaces. The study further discusses the fate of the pathogen in low-moisture environments, articulates preventive measures for healthcare providers and nursing parents, and delineates interventions that could be utilized in infant formula manufacturing to minimize the risk of contamination with Cronobacter sakazakii. Full article
Open AccessReview Role of Natural Volatiles and Essential Oils in Extending Shelf Life and Controlling Postharvest Microorganisms of Small Fruits
Microorganisms 2018, 6(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms6040104
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 30 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 5 October 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (260 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Small fruits are a multi-billion dollar industry in the US, and are economically important in many other countries. However, they are perishable and susceptible to physiological disorders and biological damage. Food safety and fruit quality are the major concerns of the food chain [...] Read more.
Small fruits are a multi-billion dollar industry in the US, and are economically important in many other countries. However, they are perishable and susceptible to physiological disorders and biological damage. Food safety and fruit quality are the major concerns of the food chain from farm to consumer, especially with increasing regulations in recent years. At present, the industry depends on pesticides and fungicides to control food spoilage organisms. However, due to consumer concerns and increasing demand for safer produce, efforts are being made to identify eco-friendly compounds that can extend the shelf life of small fruits. Most volatiles and essential oils produced by plants are safe for humans and the environment, and lots of research has been conducted to test the in vitro efficacy of single-compound volatiles or multi-compound essential oils on various microorganisms. However, there are not many reports on their in vivo (in storage) and In situ (in the field) applications. In this review, we discuss the efficacy, minimum inhibitory concentrations, and mechanisms of action of volatiles and essential oils that control microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) on small fruits such as strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, blackberries, and grapes under the three conditions. Full article
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