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Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Healthy Turkeys in Egypt: First Report of Linezolid Resistance

1
Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Institute of Bacterial Infections and Zoonoses, Naumburger Str. 96a, 07743 Jena, Germany
2
Mansoura Provincial Laboratory, Animal Health Research Institute, Mansoura 35516, Egypt
3
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt
4
Institute for Animal Hygiene and Environmental Health, Free University Berlin, Robert-von Ostertag-Str. 7-13, 14163 Berlin, Germany
5
Institute for Poultry Diseases, Free University Berlin, Königsweg 63, 14163 Berlin, Germany
6
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh 33516, Egypt
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100476
Received: 24 September 2019 / Revised: 18 October 2019 / Accepted: 19 October 2019 / Published: 22 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance)
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gaining much attention as causative agents of serious nosocomial infections in humans. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and phenotypic antimicrobial resistance of CoNS as well as the presence of resistance-associated genes in CoNS isolated from turkey farms in Egypt. Two hundred and fifty cloacal swabs were collected from apparently healthy turkeys in Egypt. Suspected isolates were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The susceptibility testing of CoNS isolates against 20 antimicrobial agents was performed using the broth microdilution test. The presence of resistance-associated genes like mecA, vanA, blaZ, erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), aac-aphD, optrA, valS, and cfr was determined. Thirty-nine CoNS were identified. All isolates were phenotypically resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, penicillin, ampicillin, and tetracycline. The resistance rates to erythromycin, chloramphenicol, oxacillin, daptomycin, and tigecycline were 97.4%, 94.9%, 92.3%, 89.7%, and 87.2%, respectively. Thirty-one isolates were resistant to linezolid (79.5%). Low resistance rate was detected for both imipenem and vancomycin (12.8%). The erm(C) gene was identified in all erythromycin phenotypically resistant isolates, whereas two resistant isolates possessed three resistance-conferring genes erm(A), erm(B), and erm(C). The cfr and optrA genes were detected in 11 (35.5%) and 12 (38.7%) of the 31 linezolid-resistant isolates. The mecA, aac-aphD, and blaZ genes were identified in 22.2%, 41.9%, and 2.6% of phenotypically resistant isolates to oxacillin, gentamicin, and penicillin, respectively. This is the first study revealing the correlation between linezolid resistance and presence of cfr and optrA genes in CoNS isolates from Egypt, and it can help to improve knowledge about the linezolid resistance mechanism. View Full-Text
Keywords: staphylococci; linezolid; CoNS; Turkey; Egypt staphylococci; linezolid; CoNS; Turkey; Egypt
MDPI and ACS Style

Moawad, A.A.; Hotzel, H.; Awad, O.; Roesler, U.; Hafez, H.M.; Tomaso, H.; Neubauer, H.; El-Adawy, H. Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Healthy Turkeys in Egypt: First Report of Linezolid Resistance. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 476.

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