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Water, Volume 10, Issue 2 (February 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Waste stabilisation pond (WSP) performance is significantly affected by poor hydraulic control. [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Long-Term Hydropower Generation of Cascade Reservoirs under Future Climate Changes in Jinsha River in Southwest China
Water 2018, 10(2), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020235
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 15 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, the impact of future climate changes on long-term hydropower generation (LTHG) of cascade hydropower stations in the lower reaches of the Jinsha River is discussed. Global climate models (GCM) were used to estimate the impacts of future climate changes, the
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In this paper, the impact of future climate changes on long-term hydropower generation (LTHG) of cascade hydropower stations in the lower reaches of the Jinsha River is discussed. Global climate models (GCM) were used to estimate the impacts of future climate changes, the Xinanjiang model (XAJ) was applied to project the streamflow of the hydropower stations, and then gravitational search algorithm (GSA) was adopted to solve the LTHG problem. In case studies, the validation of the XAJ model shows that it perform well in the projection of streamflow in the Jinsha River. Moreover, the future hydropower generation is simulated based on five different GCMs under three climate change scenarios. Finally, the GSA algorithm is used to obtain a set of schemes under the influence of climate change. The results show that future climate changes are expected to have different impact on power generation of cascade reservoirs in the downstream of the Jinsha River when the climate change scenarios are different. These findings can provide decision support for future water resources management of the Jinsha River. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Adaptation Tipping Points of a Wetland under a Drying Climate
Water 2018, 10(2), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020234
Received: 12 January 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 20 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Wetlands experience considerable alteration to their hydrology, which typically contributes to a decline in their overall ecological integrity. Wetland management strategies aim to repair wetland hydrology and attenuate wetland loss that is associated with climate change. However, decision makers often lack the data
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Wetlands experience considerable alteration to their hydrology, which typically contributes to a decline in their overall ecological integrity. Wetland management strategies aim to repair wetland hydrology and attenuate wetland loss that is associated with climate change. However, decision makers often lack the data needed to support complex social environmental systems models, making it difficult to assess the effectiveness of current or past practices. Adaptation Tipping Points (ATPs) is a policy-oriented method that can be useful in these situations. Here, a modified ATP framework is presented to assess the suitability of ecosystem management when rigorous ecological data are lacking. We define the effectiveness of the wetland management strategy by its ability to maintain sustainable minimum water levels that are required to support ecological processes. These minimum water requirements are defined in water management and environmental policy of the wetland. Here, we trial the method on Forrestdale Lake, a wetland in a region experiencing a markedly drying climate. ATPs were defined by linking key ecological objectives identified by policy documents to threshold values for water depth. We then used long-term hydrologic data (1978–2012) to assess if and when thresholds were breached. We found that from the mid-1990s, declining wetland water depth breached ATPs for the majority of the wetland objectives. We conclude that the wetland management strategy has been ineffective from the mid-1990s, when the region’s climate dried markedly. The extent of legislation, policies, and management authorities across different scales and levels of governance need to be understood to adapt ecosystem management strategies. Empirical verification of the ATP assessment is required to validate the suitability of the method. However, in general we consider ATPs to be a useful desktop method to assess the suitability of management when rigorous ecological data are lacking. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Forecasting Quarterly Inflow to Reservoirs Combining a Copula-Based Bayesian Network Method with Drought Forecasting
Water 2018, 10(2), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020233
Received: 4 January 2018 / Revised: 11 February 2018 / Accepted: 21 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
Especially for periods of drought, the higher the accuracy of reservoir inflow forecasting is, the more reliable the water supply from a dam is. This article focuses on the probabilistic forecasting of quarterly inflow to reservoirs, which determines estimates from the probabilistic quarterly
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Especially for periods of drought, the higher the accuracy of reservoir inflow forecasting is, the more reliable the water supply from a dam is. This article focuses on the probabilistic forecasting of quarterly inflow to reservoirs, which determines estimates from the probabilistic quarterly inflow according to drought forecast results. The probabilistic quarterly inflow was forecasted by a copula-based Bayesian network employing a Gaussian copula function. Drought forecasting was performed by calculation of the standardized inflow index value. The calendar year is divided into four quarters, and the total inflow volume of water to a reservoir for three months is referred to as the quarterly inflow. Quarterly inflow forecasting curves, conforming to drought stages, produce estimates of probabilistic quarterly inflow according to the drought forecast results. The forecasted estimates of quarterly inflow were calculated by using the inflow records of Soyanggang and Andong dams in the Republic of Korea. After the probability distribution of the quarterly inflow was determined, a lognormal distribution was found to be the best fit to the quarterly inflow volumes in the case of the Andong dam, except for those of the third quarter. Under the threshold probability of drought occurrences ranging from 50% to 55%, the forecasted quarterly inflows reasonably matched the corresponding drought records. Provided the drought forecasting is accurate, combining drought forecasting with quarterly inflow forecasting can produce reasonable estimates of drought inflow based on the probabilistic forecasting of quarterly inflow to a reservoir. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Domain 2.5D Method for Multiple Water Level Hydrodynamics
Water 2018, 10(2), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020232
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 21 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
The mean water surface (interface) under the air cushion of a surface effect ship (SES) or an air cushion supported platform (ACSP) is generally lower than the outside water surface due to the overpressure of the air cushion. To precisely analyze the hydrodynamics
[...] Read more.
The mean water surface (interface) under the air cushion of a surface effect ship (SES) or an air cushion supported platform (ACSP) is generally lower than the outside water surface due to the overpressure of the air cushion. To precisely analyze the hydrodynamics under the air cushion, multiple water levels should be considered in numerical models. However, when using free surface Green’s functions as numerical methods, the water level difference cannot be taken into account, because free surface Green’s functions normally require users to set in the whole water domain a unique datum water surface that completely separates the air domain and the water domain. To overcome this difficulty, a multi-domain approach is incorporated into a 2.5D method that is based on a time domain free surface Green’s function with viscous dissipation effects in this paper. In the novel multi-domain 2.5D method, the water domain is partitioned into inner and outer domains, and the interface is located in the inner domain while the outside water surface is placed in the outer domain. In each domain there exists only one unique water level, while water levels in different domains are allowed to be different. Benefited from this characteristic, the multi-domain 2.5D method is able to precisely consider the water level difference and its influence on hydrodynamics. The newly proposed multi-domain 2.5D method is employed to predict the hydrodynamics of an SES, and it is confirmed that the multi-domain 2.5D method can give better numerical results than the single-domain one for the given case. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluating Temporal and Spatial Variation in Nitrogen Sources along the Lower Reach of Fenhe River (Shanxi Province, China) Using Stable Isotope and Hydrochemical Tracers
Water 2018, 10(2), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020231
Received: 20 November 2017 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 11 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
Nitrate is one of the most common pollutants in river systems. This study takes the lower reach of Fenhe River as a case study, combined with a multi-isotope and hydrochemical as the tracers to identify nitrate sources in river system. The results show
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Nitrate is one of the most common pollutants in river systems. This study takes the lower reach of Fenhe River as a case study, combined with a multi-isotope and hydrochemical as the tracers to identify nitrate sources in river system. The results show that all samples in the industrial region (IR) and urban region (UR) and 68.8% of the samples in the agriculture region (AR) suffer from nitrate pollution. NO3–N is the main existing form of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), followed by NH4+–N, which account for 57.9% and 41.9% of the DIN, respectively. The temporal variation in nitrogenous species concentration is clear over the whole hydrological year. The spatial variation is smaller among different sampling sites in the same region but greater among different regions. The main source of nitrogenous species is from anthropogenic rather than natural effects. Multi-isotope analysis shows that denitrification is found in some water samples. Combined with the apportionment of nitrate sources by the IsoSource model and the analysis of the Cl content, the main source of nitrate in the IR, UR and AR are industrial sewage and manure, domestic sewage and manure, and chemical fertilizers, respectively. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is also a source of nitrate in the study area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isotopes in Hydrology and Hydrogeology)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Generalized Semi-Analytical Solution for the Dispersive Henry Problem: Effect of Stratification and Anisotropy on Seawater Intrusion
Water 2018, 10(2), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020230
Received: 11 January 2018 / Revised: 15 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
The Henry problem (HP) continues to play a useful role in theoretical and practical studies related to seawater intrusion (SWI) into coastal aquifers. The popularity of this problem is attributed to its simplicity and precision to the existence of semi-analytical (SA) solutions. The
[...] Read more.
The Henry problem (HP) continues to play a useful role in theoretical and practical studies related to seawater intrusion (SWI) into coastal aquifers. The popularity of this problem is attributed to its simplicity and precision to the existence of semi-analytical (SA) solutions. The first SA solution has been developed for a high uniform diffusion coefficient. Several further studies have contributed more realistic solutions with lower diffusion coefficients or velocity-dependent dispersion. All the existing SA solutions are limited to homogenous and isotropic domains. This work attempts to improve the realism of the SA solution of the dispersive HP by extending it to heterogeneous and anisotropic coastal aquifers. The solution is obtained using the Fourier series method. A special hydraulic conductivity–depth model describing stratified heterogeneity is used for mathematical convenience. An efficient technique is developed to solve the flow and transport equations in the spectral space. With this technique, we show that the HP can be solved in the spectral space with the salt concentration as primary unknown. Several examples are generated, and the SA solutions are compared against an in-house finite element code. The results provide high-quality data assessed by quantitative indicators that can be effectively used for code verification in realistic configurations of heterogeneity and anisotropy. The SA solution is used to explain contradictory results stated in the previous works about the effect of anisotropy on the saltwater wedge. It is also used to investigate the combined influence of stratification and anisotropy on relevant metrics characterizing SWI. At a constant gravity number, anisotropy leads to landward migration of the saltwater wedge, more intense saltwater flux, a wider mixing zone and shallower groundwater discharge zone to the sea. The influence of stratified heterogeneity is more pronounced in highly anisotropic aquifers. The stratification rate and anisotropy have complementary effects on all SWI metrics, except for the depth of the discharge zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seawater Intrusion: Simulation and Control)
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Open AccessArticle Sequencing Infrastructure Investments under Deep Uncertainty Using Real Options Analysis
Water 2018, 10(2), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020229
Received: 8 January 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 12 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
The adaptation tipping point and adaptation pathway approach developed to make decisions under deep uncertainty do not shed light on which among the multiple available pathways should be chosen as the preferred pathway. This creates the need to extend these approaches by means
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The adaptation tipping point and adaptation pathway approach developed to make decisions under deep uncertainty do not shed light on which among the multiple available pathways should be chosen as the preferred pathway. This creates the need to extend these approaches by means of suitable tools that can help sequence actions and subsequently enable the outlining of relevant policies. This paper presents two sequencing approaches, namely, the “Build to Target” and “Build Up” approach, to aid in sub-selecting a set of preferred pathways. Both approaches differ in the levels of flexibility they offer. They are exemplified by means of two case studies wherein the Net Present Valuation and the Real Options Analysis are employed as selection criterions. The results demonstrate the benefit of these two approaches when used in conjunction with the adaptation pathways and show how the pathways selected by means of a Build to Target approach generally have a value greater than, or at least the same as, the pathways selected by the Build Up approach. Further, this paper also demonstrates the capacity of Real Options to quantify and capture the economic value of flexibility, which cannot be done by traditional valuation approaches such as Net Present Valuation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Low Frequency Waves Detected in a Large Wave Flume under Irregular Waves with Different Grouping Factor and Combination of Regular Waves
Water 2018, 10(2), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020228
Received: 26 January 2018 / Revised: 17 February 2018 / Accepted: 19 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
This paper describes a set of experiments undertaken at Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya in the large wave flume of the Maritime Engineering Laboratory. The purpose of this study is to highlight the effects of wave grouping and long-wave short-wave combinations regimes on low
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This paper describes a set of experiments undertaken at Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya in the large wave flume of the Maritime Engineering Laboratory. The purpose of this study is to highlight the effects of wave grouping and long-wave short-wave combinations regimes on low frequency generations. An eigen-value decomposition has been performed to discriminate low frequencies. In particular, measured eigen modes, determined through the spectral analysis, have been compared with calculated modes by means of eigen analysis. The low frequencies detection appears to confirm the dependence on groupiness of the modal amplitudes generated in the wave flume. Some evidence of the influence of low frequency waves on runup and transport patterns are shown. In particular, the generation and evolution of secondary bedforms are consistent with energy transferred between the standing wave modes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Experiential Learning through Role-Playing: Enhancing Stakeholder Collaboration in Water Safety Plans
Water 2018, 10(2), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020227
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 1 February 2018 / Accepted: 15 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
Improved water safety management, as addressed by the Sustainable Development Goals, can be aided by Water Safety Planning, a risk-assessment and risk-management approach introduced by the World Health Organization and implemented to date in 93 countries around the globe. Yet, this approach still
[...] Read more.
Improved water safety management, as addressed by the Sustainable Development Goals, can be aided by Water Safety Planning, a risk-assessment and risk-management approach introduced by the World Health Organization and implemented to date in 93 countries around the globe. Yet, this approach still encounters some challenges in practice, including that of securing collaboration among the broad range of stakeholders involved. This paper presents a role-playing game designed to foster stakeholder collaboration in Water Safety Plans (WSP). In this role-play, participants take on different stakeholders’ roles during a collective (team-based) decision-making process to improve water supply safety in a fictive town. The game is the result of a transdisciplinary initiative aimed at integrating knowledge across technical and governance aspects of WSPs into an active learning experience for water sector actors from diverse backgrounds. It exposes participants to the four phases of Kolb’s experiential learning cycle: concrete experience, reflective observation, conceptualization and active experimentation. This paper discusses potential impacts of the WSP role-play, including skills and knowledge development among participants, which can support cross-sectoral integration and dealing with complexity in decision-making. These are capacity assets strongly needed to address water safety management challenges in a sustainable way. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Environmental Taxes to Finance Wastewater Treatment in Spain: An Opportunity for Regeneration?
Water 2018, 10(2), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020226
Received: 25 January 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 20 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
The treatment of wastewater, financed through environmental taxes, is key to the development of a sustainable economy. The objective of this study is to verify whether the tax loads on wastewater discharges applied in Spain are effective, allowing the costs of secondary and
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The treatment of wastewater, financed through environmental taxes, is key to the development of a sustainable economy. The objective of this study is to verify whether the tax loads on wastewater discharges applied in Spain are effective, allowing the costs of secondary and tertiary treatments to be financed. First, the revenues collected from taxes related to the discharge of wastewater in the different Spanish regions, which reach an average value of 0.72 €/m3, are analysed. Second, the costs of secondary wastewater treatment, prolonged aeration, activated sludge with nutrient removal, and activated sludge without nutrient removal are studied. Additionally, the costs of tertiary treatments, with environmental objectives and for reuse purposes, are considered. The analysis carried out reveals high heterogeneity in the amounts collected through taxes in the different Autonomous Communities. In some cases, these amounts do not cover the costs of the treatments. An urgent review is therefore required of the financing systems applied in order to secure a level of income that can cover all the exploitation and investment costs incurred. Full article
Open AccessArticle Preliminary Numerical Analysis of the Efficiency of a Central Lake Reservoir in Enhancing the Flood and Drought Resistance of Dongting Lake
Water 2018, 10(2), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020225
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 16 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
During the past few decades, the ecosystems of lakes have been reshaped greatly by global climate change and expanding human activities. As the second largest freshwater lake in China, Dongting Lake is the most important regulating lake in the Yangtze River Basin because
[...] Read more.
During the past few decades, the ecosystems of lakes have been reshaped greatly by global climate change and expanding human activities. As the second largest freshwater lake in China, Dongting Lake is the most important regulating lake in the Yangtze River Basin because it has extensive flood storage capacity. The dynamic characteristics of its circulation and sediment transport are significantly affected by the scheduling and interception of control reservoirs at the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. In this paper, a central lake reservoir is proposed to improve the flood and drought resistance of Dongting Lake. The efficiency of the central lake reservoir is investigated numerically by developing a two-dimensional shallow water model. We demonstrate that current velocity and water elevation during flood and drought events can be influenced significantly by the construction of the central lake reservoir. The flood storage capacity of the central lake reservoir can reduce the peak flood elevation significantly in West Dongting Lake, which would enhance its flood resistance. The water replenishment of the central lake reservoir in the dry season can also efficiently increase the lake water elevation to enhance the drought resistance in the area surrounding the lake. Our findings have important implications for policy makers and their management of Dongting Lake. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Water Security in Kathmandu Valley before and after Water Transfer from another Basin
Water 2018, 10(2), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020224
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL) has planned to harness water from outside the valley from Melamchi as an inter-basin project to supply water inside the ring road (core valley area) of the Kathmandu Valley (KV). The project, called the “Melamchi Water Supply Project
[...] Read more.
Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL) has planned to harness water from outside the valley from Melamchi as an inter-basin project to supply water inside the ring road (core valley area) of the Kathmandu Valley (KV). The project, called the “Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP)”, is expected to have its first phase completed by the end of September 2018 and its second phase completed by the end of 2023 to supply 170 MLD (million liters a day) through the first phase and an additional 340 MLD through the second phase. The area has recently faced a severe water deficit and KUKL’s existing infrastructure has had a limited capability, supplying only 19% of the water that is demanded in its service areas during the dry season and 31% during the wet season. In this context, this study aims to assess the temporal trends and spatial distribution of household water security index (WSI), defined as a ratio of supply to demand for domestic water use for basic human water requirements (50 L per capita per day (lpcd)) and economic growth (135 lpcd) as demand in pre- and post-MWSP scenarios. For this purpose, data on water demand and supply with infrastructure were used to map the spatial distribution of WSI and per capita water supply using ArcMap. Results show a severe water insecurity condition in the year 2017 in all KUKL service areas (SAs), which is likely to improve after completion of the MWSP. It is likely that recent distribution network and strategies may lead to inequality in water distribution within the SAs. This can possibly be addressed by expanding existing distribution networks and redistributing potable water, which can serve an additional 1.21 million people in the area. Service providers may have to develop strategies to strengthen a set of measures including improving water supply infrastructures, optimizing water loss, harnessing additional water from hills, and managing water within and outside the KUKL SAs in the long run to cover the entire KV. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Responses of Bed Morphology to Vegetation Growth and Flood Discharge at a Sharp River Bend
Water 2018, 10(2), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020223
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 16 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
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Abstract
In this study, we conducted simulations using a two-dimensional, depth-averaged river flow and river morphology model to investigate the effect of vegetation growth and degree of flow discharge on a shallow meandering channel. To consider the effects of these factors, it was assumed
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In this study, we conducted simulations using a two-dimensional, depth-averaged river flow and river morphology model to investigate the effect of vegetation growth and degree of flow discharge on a shallow meandering channel. To consider the effects of these factors, it was assumed that vegetation growth stage is changed by water flow and bed erosion. The non-uniformity of the vegetation growth was induced by the non-uniform and unsteady profile of the water depth due to the irregular shape of the bed elevation and the unsteady flow model reliant on hydrographs to evaluate three types of peak discharges: moderate flow, annual average maximum flow, and extreme flow. To compare the effects of non-uniform growing vegetation, the change in channel patterns was quantified using the Active Braiding Index (ABI), which indicates the average number of channels with flowing water at a cross section and the Bed Relief Index (BRI), which quantifies the degree of irregularity of the cross-sectional shape. Two types of erosion were identified: local erosion (due to increased flow velocity near a vegetation area) and global erosion (due to the discharge approaching peak and the large depth of the channel). This paper demonstrated that the growth of vegetation increases both the ABI and BRI when the peak discharge is lower than the annual average discharge, whereas the growth of vegetation reduces the BRI when the peak discharge is extreme. However, under extreme discharge, the ABI decreases because global erosion is dominant. The conclusions from this study help to deepen the understanding of the interactions between curved river channels and vegetation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hydrological Responses to Various Land Use, Soil and Weather Inputs in Northern Lake Erie Basin in Canada
Water 2018, 10(2), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020222
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 18 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 19 February 2018
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Abstract
In the last decade, Lake Erie, one of the great lakes bordering Canada and the USA has been under serious threat due to increased phosphorus levels originating from agricultural fields. Large scale watersheds contributing to Lake Erie from the USA side are being
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In the last decade, Lake Erie, one of the great lakes bordering Canada and the USA has been under serious threat due to increased phosphorus levels originating from agricultural fields. Large scale watersheds contributing to Lake Erie from the USA side are being simulated using hydrological and water quality (H/WQ) models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the results from the model are being used by policy and decision makers to implement better management decisions to solve emerging phosphorus issues. On the Canadian side, modeling applications are limited to either small watersheds or one major watershed contributing to Lake Erie. To the best of our knowledge, no efforts have been made to model the entire contributing watersheds to Lake Erie from Canada. This study applied the SWAT model for Northern Lake Erie Basin (NLEB; entire contributing basin to Lake Erie). Various provincial, national and global inputs of weather, land use and soil at various resolutions was assessed to evaluate the effects of input data types on the simulation of hydrological processes and streamflows. Twelve scenarios were developed using the input combinations and selected scenarios were evaluated at selected locations along the Grand and Thames Rivers using model performance statistics, and graphical comparisons of time variable plots and flow duration curves (FDCs). In addition, various hydrological components such as surface runoff, water yield, and evapotranspiration were also evaluated. Global level coarse resolution weather and soil did not perform better compared to fine resolution national data. Interestingly, in the case of land use, global and national/provincial land use were close, however, fine resolution provincial data performed slightly better. This study found that interpolated weather data from Environment Canada climate station observations performed slightly better compared to the measured data and therefore could be a good choice to use for large-scale H/WQ modeling studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Multivariate Hybrid Modelling of Future Wave-Storms at the Northwestern Black Sea
Water 2018, 10(2), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020221
Received: 16 November 2017 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 19 February 2018
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Abstract
The characterization of future wave-storms and their relationship to large-scale climate can provide useful information for environmental or urban planning at coastal areas. A hybrid methodology (process-based and statistical) was used to characterize the extreme wave-climate at the northwestern Black Sea. The Simulating
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The characterization of future wave-storms and their relationship to large-scale climate can provide useful information for environmental or urban planning at coastal areas. A hybrid methodology (process-based and statistical) was used to characterize the extreme wave-climate at the northwestern Black Sea. The Simulating WAve Nearshore spectral wave-model was employed to produce wave-climate projections, forced with wind-fields projections for two climate change scenarios: Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5. A non-stationary multivariate statistical model was built, considering significant wave-height and peak-wave-period at the peak of the wave-storm, as well as storm total energy and storm-duration. The climate indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic Pattern, and Scandinavian Pattern have been used as covariates to link to storminess, wave-storm threshold, and wave-storm components in the statistical model. The results show that, first, under both RCP scenarios, the mean values of significant wave-height and peak-wave-period at the peak of the wave-storm remain fairly constant over the 21st century. Second, the mean value of storm total energy is more markedly increasing in the RCP4.5 scenario than in the RCP8.5 scenario. Third, the mean value of storm-duration is increasing in the RCP4.5 scenario, as opposed to the constant trend in the RCP8.5 scenario. The variance of each wave-storm component increases when the corresponding mean value increases under both RCP scenarios. During the 21st century, the East Atlantic Pattern and changes in its pattern have a special influence on wave-storm conditions. Apart from the individual characteristics of each wave-storm component, wave-storms with both extreme energy and duration can be expected in the 21st century. The dependence between all the wave-storm components is moderate, but grows with time and, in general, the severe emission scenario of RCP8.5 presents less dependence between storm total energy and storm-duration and among wave-storm components. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources of the Bheri River Basin, Nepal
Water 2018, 10(2), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020220
Received: 19 November 2017 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 7 February 2018 / Published: 18 February 2018
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Abstract
Streamflow alteration is one of the most noticeable effects of climate change. This study explored the effects of climate change on streamflow in the Bheri River using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. Three General Circulation Models (GCMs) under two Representative
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Streamflow alteration is one of the most noticeable effects of climate change. This study explored the effects of climate change on streamflow in the Bheri River using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. Three General Circulation Models (GCMs) under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs; 4.5 and 8.5) for the periods of 2020–2044, 2045–2069, and 2070–2099 were used to investigate the impact of climate change. Based on the ensemble of the three models, we observed an increasing trend in maximum and minimum temperatures at the rate of 0.025 °C/year and 0.033 °C/year, respectively, under RCP 4.5, and 0.065 °C/year and 0.071 °C/year under RCP 8.5 in the future. Similarly, annual rainfall will increase by 6.8–15.2% in the three future periods. The consequences of the increment in rainfall and temperature are reflected in the annual streamflow that is projected to increase by 6–12.5% when compared to the historical data of 1975–2005. However, on a monthly scale, runoff will decrease in July and August by up to 20% and increase in the dry period by up to 70%, which is favorable for water users. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Trophic State and Oxygen Conditions of Waters Aerated with Pulverising Aerator: The Results from Seven Lakes in Poland
Water 2018, 10(2), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020219
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 18 February 2018
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Abstract
Eutrophic lakes of all types are marked by oxygen shortage in the bottom waters during the summer season, which results in excessive release of phosphorus load. Therefore, numerous restoration activities (chemical precipitation, aeration) are being taken based on bottom-up control, which consists of
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Eutrophic lakes of all types are marked by oxygen shortage in the bottom waters during the summer season, which results in excessive release of phosphorus load. Therefore, numerous restoration activities (chemical precipitation, aeration) are being taken based on bottom-up control, which consists of limiting the nutrient pool available to lower trophic levels. The present study provides an efficiency analysis of pulverising aeration of waters in two stratified and five unstratified lakes located in Poland. The assessment was based on monitoring data (dissolved oxygen concentration (DO), % oxygen saturation (DO%), visibility of the Secchi disc (ZSD), the concentrations of: chlorophyll a (CHL), total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN)) obtained before and after installation of the aerator on the lakes. The study was conducted during the spring and the summer seasons. Throughout the study period, the stratified lakes exhibited oxygen saturation <0.1%. Having completed the restoration activities, TN:TP ratio was found to gradually increase in all analysed lakes, which indicates that aeration may decrease phosphate content in the water column. In three lakes, the ratio was > 17, so phosphorus became the most growth-limiting nutrient. The restoration activities on four unstratified lakes had no significant effect on the changes of the Carlson trophic state indices (TSI). Either individual values of the TSI(TP), TSI(CHL) and TSI(ZSD) were comparable, or the value of TSI(TP) was higher than one or both of the remaining indices for all of the lakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication of Waterways: An Old Problem with Modern Consequences)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Study on the Palatability Impacts of Potable Water as a Hydronic Medium
Water 2018, 10(2), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020218
Received: 17 January 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 17 February 2018
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Abstract
Hydronic systems installed in buildings utilize water to transport thermal energy within the building for heating and cooling purposes. These systems can be closed loop, where the water is chemically treated and circulated indefinitely, or they can be open loop, where the water
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Hydronic systems installed in buildings utilize water to transport thermal energy within the building for heating and cooling purposes. These systems can be closed loop, where the water is chemically treated and circulated indefinitely, or they can be open loop, where the water is not treated and is effluxed as a result of occupant activities, such as bathing or cooking. Water in an open loop system may circulate within the system for a limited time before it is extracted from the system by occupant activities and replaced with new water from the local water supply. The implementation of open loop hydronic systems is becoming more common in multi-unit residential buildings, even though a number of questions regarding the use of such systems remain unanswered. One concern regarding the use of circulated potable water for heating purposes is the potential effects on the occupant perceptions of the palatability of the service water being delivered to their suites. In an open-loop HVAC system (Heating Ventilating, Air Conditioning System), heating water is subject to repeated thermal cycles and continuous recirculation, which creates the potential for chemical alterations of the materials present in the water or leaching of materials from the equipment and piping. Through the use of Flavor Profile Analysis (FPA) established by the American Water Works Association, and a multi-unit HVAC system constructed in a controlled environment, the palatability effects of the operational system were evaluated for a number of scenarios. The collected feedback from the study participants was then tabulated to quantify the impacts of using potable water as a recirculating heating medium on the perceptions of the occupants. The resulting observations led us to conclude that utilizing potable water as a heating medium has a negligible effect on the palatability of water in the system for average retention times under one day, and a non-objectionable, but noticeable, effect for higher average retention times. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Sediment Impact on the Risk of River Diversion during Dam Construction: A Simulation-Based Project Study on the Jing River, China
Water 2018, 10(2), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020217
Received: 28 January 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 17 February 2018
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Abstract
Dams are vital for water resource utilization, and river diversion is key for dam construction safety. As sandy river basins are important exploitation areas that have special diversion features, the impact of sediment on the risk of river diversion during dam construction should
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Dams are vital for water resource utilization, and river diversion is key for dam construction safety. As sandy river basins are important exploitation areas that have special diversion features, the impact of sediment on the risk of river diversion during dam construction should be assessed. Diversion uncertainty is the origin of diversion risk, and sediment uncertainty changes the storage and discharge patterns of the diversion system. Two Gumbel–Hougaard (GH) copula functions are adopted to couple the random variables of flood and sediment, so that the sediment impacts on diversion storage and discharge can be obtained by the sampling of flood peaks. Based on variable coupling and sediment amendment, a method of Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) with a water balance calculation can quantitatively assess the risk of sandy river diversion, by evaluating the probability of upstream cofferdam overtopping. By introducing one diversion project on the Jing River in China with a clear water contrast, the risk values of dam construction diversion with or without sediment impacts can be obtained. Results show that the MCS method is feasible for diversion risk assessment; sediment has a negative impact on the risk of river diversion during dam construction, and this degradation effect is more evident for high-assurance diversion schemes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Comparative Analysis of Exceptional Flood Events in the Context of Heavy Rains in the Summer of 2010: Siret Basin (NE Romania) Case Study
Water 2018, 10(2), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020216
Received: 8 January 2018 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 12 February 2018 / Published: 17 February 2018
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Abstract
The Siret River crosses northeastern (NE) Romania from the north to the south, and it discharges into the Danube, near the city of Galati. Between 17 June and 10 July 2010, significant amounts of precipitations in the mountainous basin of Siret were recorded.
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The Siret River crosses northeastern (NE) Romania from the north to the south, and it discharges into the Danube, near the city of Galati. Between 17 June and 10 July 2010, significant amounts of precipitations in the mountainous basin of Siret were recorded. The floods comprised two periods with four bimodal cycles, and they were counted as among the strongest on the Romanian territory. The exceptional floods occurred in the rivers of Siret, Suceava, Moldova, Bistrita, Trotus, and so on. The most important compound flood wave was determined by the precipitations, which fell between 29 June and 1 July 2010, when significant amounts of rain were recorded, sometimes exceeding 80 mm/day. The high discharges on the Bistrita River—downstream from the Bicaz Reservoir—were controlled by complex hydro-technical works. The maximum discharge for summer floods in the year 2010 was recorded at the Dragesti hydrometric station: 2884 m3/s (historic discharge) compared with the preceding historic discharge (2850 m3/s) of the year 2008. The effects of floods were strongest in the counties of Suceava, Neamt, and Bacau. The floods on the main course of the Siret River were analyzed in correlation with the tributaries within the mountainous sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Climate on Hydrological Extremes)
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Open AccessArticle Economic Feasibility of Underwater Adduction of Rivers for Metropolises in Semiarid Coastal Environments: Case Studies
Water 2018, 10(2), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020215
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 25 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
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Abstract
The supply of raw water to the inhabitants of metropolises is not a trivial problem, and involves many challenges, both in terms of the quantity and quality of this water. When these metropolises are located in semiarid regions, this challenge takes on enormous
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The supply of raw water to the inhabitants of metropolises is not a trivial problem, and involves many challenges, both in terms of the quantity and quality of this water. When these metropolises are located in semiarid regions, this challenge takes on enormous proportions, and in many situations, there are no sustainable solutions, especially in times of global climate change. One hypothesis to try to mitigate this problem in coastal cities is the underwater adduction of rivers. The objective of this paper was to make the abstraction of drinking water in the mouths of great rivers near semi-arid regions. This water would be led by a pipeline below the water level and would follow the route of the seacoast, where the energy to move the water would be supplied by an axial hydraulic pump embedded in the pipeline by water-cooled electric motors driven by the energy generated from offshore wind turbines. Estimates have been made for the four metropolises in semi-arid regions: Fortaleza-Brazil, Dalian-China, Tel Aviv-Israel, and Gaza-Palestine, where it was possible to calculate economic viability through the Present Worth Value, the internal rate of return, and payback. The results indicated that Fortaleza had economic viability under restrictions. Dalian proved the ideal result. Tel Aviv and Gaza both had great economic viability, but only if Egypt agreed to supply water from the Nile. This paper proved that the management of the water supply for human consumption through the underwater adduction of rivers could be achieved with real clearance for any deficits in the volume of water that due to global climate change are becoming more frequent. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Skin Effect of Fresh Water Measured Using Distributed Temperature Sensing
Water 2018, 10(2), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020214
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 11 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
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Abstract
A phenomenon known as the skin effect—a layer of surface water that is colder than the water beneath it—was previously described in oceanography and verified in lab measurements. Only a few measurements have been done on the skin effect in field conditions, and
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A phenomenon known as the skin effect—a layer of surface water that is colder than the water beneath it—was previously described in oceanography and verified in lab measurements. Only a few measurements have been done on the skin effect in field conditions, and therefore this phenomenon is relatively unknown. This paper presents measurements of the skin effect for three fresh water bodies in the Netherlands, Israel and Ghana. Using Distributed Temperature Sensing, high temporal and spatial resolution measurements were made below, at and above the air–water surface. Measurements presented in this study suggest that the skin effect of fresh water bodies is predominantly a daytime phenomenon and only occurs during low to zero wind speeds. The thickness of the skin effect was measured to be an order of magnitude larger than the previously assumed less than 1 mm. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Validation of Satellite Estimates (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, TRMM) for Rainfall Variability over the Pacific Slope and Coast of Ecuador
Water 2018, 10(2), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020213
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
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Abstract
A dense rain-gauge network within continental Ecuador was used to evaluate the quality of various products of rainfall data over the Pacific slope and coast of Ecuador (EPSC). A cokriging interpolation method is applied to the rain-gauge data yielding a gridded product at
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A dense rain-gauge network within continental Ecuador was used to evaluate the quality of various products of rainfall data over the Pacific slope and coast of Ecuador (EPSC). A cokriging interpolation method is applied to the rain-gauge data yielding a gridded product at 5-km resolution covering the period 1965–2015. This product is compared with the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) dataset, the Climatic Research Unit–University of East Anglia (CRU) dataset, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM/TMPA 3B43 Version 7) dataset and the ERA-Interim Reanalysis. The analysis reveals that TRMM data show the most realistic features. The relative bias index (Rbias) indicates that TRMM data is closer to the observations, mainly over lowlands (mean Rbias of 7%) but have more limitations in reproducing the rainfall variability over the Andes (mean Rbias of −28%). The average RMSE and Rbias of 68.7 and −2.8% of TRMM are comparable with the GPCC (69.8 and 5.7%) and CRU (102.3 and −2.3%) products. This study also focuses on the rainfall inter-annual variability over the study region which experiences floods that have caused high economic losses during extreme El Niño events. Finally, our analysis evaluates the ability of TRMM data to reproduce rainfall events during El Niño years over the study area and the large basins of Esmeraldas and Guayas rivers. The results show that TRMM estimates report reasonable levels of heavy rainfall detection (for the extreme 1998 El Niño event) over the EPSC and specifically towards the center-south of the EPSC (Guayas basin) but present underestimations for the moderate El Niño of 2002–2003 event and the weak 2009–2010 event. Generally, the rainfall seasonal features, quantity and long-term climatology patterns are relatively well estimated by TRMM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of Remote Sensing in Hydrology) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Calibration of Spatially Distributed Hydrological Processes and Model Parameters in SWAT Using Remote Sensing Data and an Auto-Calibration Procedure: A Case Study in a Vietnamese River Basin
Water 2018, 10(2), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020212
Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, evapotranspiration (ET) and leaf area index (LAI) were used to calibrate the SWAT model, whereas remotely sensed precipitation and other climatic parameters were used as forcing data for the 6300 km2 Day Basin, a tributary of the Red River
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In this paper, evapotranspiration (ET) and leaf area index (LAI) were used to calibrate the SWAT model, whereas remotely sensed precipitation and other climatic parameters were used as forcing data for the 6300 km2 Day Basin, a tributary of the Red River in Vietnam. The efficacy of the Sequential Uncertainty Fitting (SUFI-2) parameter sensitivity and optimization model was tested with area specific remote sensing input parameters for every Hydrological Response Units (HRU), rather than with measurements of river flow representing a large set of HRUs, i.e., a bulk calibration. Simulated monthly ET correlations with remote sensing estimates showed an R2 = 0.71, Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency NSE = 0.65, and Kling Gupta Efficiency KGE = 0.80 while monthly LAI showed correlations of R2 = 0.59, NSE = 0.57 and KGE = 0.83 over a five-year validation period. Accumulated modelled ET over the 5-year calibration period amounted to 5713 mm compared to 6015 mm of remotely sensed ET, yielding a difference of 302 mm (5.3%). The monthly flow at two flow measurement stations were adequately estimated (R2 = 0.78 and 0.55, NSE = 0.71 and 0.63, KGE = 0.59 and 0.75 for Phu Ly and Ninh Binh, respectively). This outcome demonstrates the capability of SWAT model to obtain spatial and accurate simulation of eco-hydrological processes, also when rivers are ungauged and the water withdrawal system is complex. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Integrated Assessment of Novel Urban Water Infrastructures in Frankfurt am Main and Hamburg, Germany
Water 2018, 10(2), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020211
Received: 24 November 2017 / Revised: 1 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
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Abstract
Existing urban water infrastructures need to be modified if they are to cope with such challenges as demographic change, energy sufficiency and resource efficiency. It is believed that less centralised and hence more flexible systems adapt better to changing conditions. The main goal
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Existing urban water infrastructures need to be modified if they are to cope with such challenges as demographic change, energy sufficiency and resource efficiency. It is believed that less centralised and hence more flexible systems adapt better to changing conditions. The main goal of this paper is to compare conventional and novel urban water infrastructures in five model areas in two German cities with regard to their sustainability. The novel technical options comprise modules such as blackwater and greywater separation, treatment and reuse as well as heat recovery, which are believed to be much more resource efficient than conventional systems. An assessment framework was developed which is able to comprehend corresponding transformation processes. An integrated assessment was conducted using multi-criteria decision analysis. The assessment results show that no particular technical option prevails over all the others and that the performance of the various options in the assessment is influenced by the general conditions found in the model areas. However, it can be concluded that novel water infrastructures can compete with or even perform better than conventional ones, especially when ecological and social criteria are emphasized. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effective Removal of Lead Ions from Aqueous Solution Using Nano Illite/Smectite Clay: Isotherm, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic Modeling of Adsorption
Water 2018, 10(2), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020210
Received: 14 January 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
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Abstract
Illite-smectite clay is a new mixed mineral of illite and montmorillonite. The ability of nano illite/smectite clay to remove Pb(II) from slightly polluted aqueous solutions has been investigated. The effects of pH, contact time, initial concentration of Pb(II), nano illite/smectite clay dosage, and
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Illite-smectite clay is a new mixed mineral of illite and montmorillonite. The ability of nano illite/smectite clay to remove Pb(II) from slightly polluted aqueous solutions has been investigated. The effects of pH, contact time, initial concentration of Pb(II), nano illite/smectite clay dosage, and temperature on the adsorption process were studied. The nano illite/smectite clay was characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that Pb(II) was adsorbed efficiently by nano illite/smectite clay in aqueous solution. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model best described the kinetic of the adsorption, and the adsorption capacity of nano illite/smectite (I-Sm) clay was found to be 256.41 μg·g−1 for Pb(II). The adsorption patterns followed the Langmuir isotherm model. Thermodynamic parameters, including the Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS) changes, indicated that the present adsorption process was feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic in the temperature range of 298–333 K. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Irrigated Agriculture Vulnerability under Climate Change in Southern Italy
Water 2018, 10(2), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020209
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 11 February 2018 / Published: 15 February 2018
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Abstract
Climate change in Mediterranean countries is anticipated to have a strong impact on water availability by exacerbating drought conditions and water scarcity. In this context, efficient irrigation practices are becoming essential for sustaining crop production. This work assesses vulnerability of irrigated agriculture for
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Climate change in Mediterranean countries is anticipated to have a strong impact on water availability by exacerbating drought conditions and water scarcity. In this context, efficient irrigation practices are becoming essential for sustaining crop production. This work assesses vulnerability of irrigated agriculture for six irrigation districts and their associated reservoirs in Mediterranean areas across Italy under climate change (1976–2005 versus 2036–2065; RCP 4.5 and 8.5), evaluating changes in irrigation requirements, evaporation from reservoirs, and the availability of freshwater supplies. Irrigation requirements are estimated through a crop water model (SIMETAW_R) integrated into a GIS platform, while inflows to reservoirs are hydrologically modelled as partitioning of precipitation contributing to runoff. Results are aggregated into indicators that show the general decreasing resilience and increasing vulnerability of irrigated agriculture under climate change conditions in each case study. The highest percentage of allowable water losses for irrigation is estimated in the Cuga-Alto Temo system, during the prolonged drought period, to be able to satisfy irrigation demand for less than a year. Climate change may only partially affect irrigation in resilient systems, in which storage capacity and the water level entering into the reservoir are considerably higher than the water distribution volumes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Management in Agriculture under Global Change)
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Open AccessArticle Redrawing Soil Salinity Innovation-Focused Stakeholder Interaction for Sustainable Land Management in Khorezm Province, Uzbekistan
Water 2018, 10(2), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020208
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 28 December 2017 / Accepted: 29 December 2017 / Published: 15 February 2018
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Abstract
Addressing soil salinity in irrigated drylands is tightly linked with water and land management decisions thus requiring interdisciplinary engagement. The salinity mapping approaches in Central Asia are undertaken through field sampling and laboratory analysis, which is a time consuming process. As a consequence,
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Addressing soil salinity in irrigated drylands is tightly linked with water and land management decisions thus requiring interdisciplinary engagement. The salinity mapping approaches in Central Asia are undertaken through field sampling and laboratory analysis, which is a time consuming process. As a consequence, salinity maps are not available on time to estimate water requirements to cope with varying levels of soil salinity. Reducing the time lag between assessment and delivery of such maps would enable authorities to determine in advance appropriate water volumes for leaching the salts before and during the growing season. Research initiated in Uzbekistan context explored transdisciplinary and participatory approach to innovation development with local stakeholders. As one of the innovations, an electromagnetic induction meter (EM), a tool for rapid salinity assessment, was chosen and jointly with local salinity mapping related institutions tested, validated, and local capacities for its use developed. This paper redraws this process of innovation-focused stakeholder interaction and transdisciplinary research and discusses it with reference to ongoing debates on participatory and/or transdisciplinary innovation research. The existence of strong path dependencies within implementation oriented organizations could be observed, meaning that the innovation demands many changes to the existing system. Furthermore, the encountered challenges of participatory, transdisciplinary research in the hierarchically shaped setting of post-soviet Uzbekistan are illustrated in selected qualitative field notes and assessed. For improved joint learning and research in a transdisciplinary team, feedback cycles of mutual learning and critical reflection of how to theoretically and practically work in a transdisciplinary manner turned out to be crucial and not to be underestimated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Water Conservation: Dynamics and Impact)
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Open AccessArticle The Significance of the Spatial Variability of Rainfall on the Numerical Simulation of Urban Floods
Water 2018, 10(2), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020207
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 15 February 2018
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Abstract
The growth of urban population, combined with an increase of extreme events due to climate change call for a better understanding and representation of urban floods. The uncertainty in rainfall distribution is one of the most important factors that affects the watershed response
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The growth of urban population, combined with an increase of extreme events due to climate change call for a better understanding and representation of urban floods. The uncertainty in rainfall distribution is one of the most important factors that affects the watershed response to a given precipitation event. However, most of the investigations on this topic have considered theoretical scenarios, with little reference to case studies in the real world. This paper incorporates the use of spatially-variable precipitation data from a long-range radar in the simulation of the severe floods that impacted the city of Hull, U.K., in June 2007. This radar-based rainfall field is merged with rain gauge data using a Kriging with External Drift interpolation technique. The utility of this spatially-variable information is investigated through the comparison of computed flooded areas (uniform and radar) against those registered by public authorities. Both results show similar skills at reproducing the real event, but differences in the total precipitated volumes, water depths and flooded areas are illustrated. It is envisaged that in urban areas and with the advent of higher resolution radars, these differences will be more important and call for further investigation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Filtering Capability of Porous Asphalt Pavements
Water 2018, 10(2), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020206
Received: 11 January 2018 / Revised: 4 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 15 February 2018
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Abstract
The objective of this study is to assess the filtering capability of porous asphalt pavement models and the quality of rainwater filtered by such models. Three slabs of porous asphalt mixtures and two models composed of porous layers that resulted in porous pavement
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The objective of this study is to assess the filtering capability of porous asphalt pavement models and the quality of rainwater filtered by such models. Three slabs of porous asphalt mixtures and two models composed of porous layers that resulted in porous pavement structures were produced. Data were collected in two phases: using rainwater directly from the sky and then using stormwater runoff collected from a street. Parameters such as pH, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, phosphorus, nitrite, aluminium, chromium, copper, zinc, and iron were measured. For both rainwater and stormwater runoff quality analyses, there was an increase in the concentration of the following parameters: phosphorus, iron, aluminium, zinc, nitrite, chromium, copper, and pH; there was no significant variation in the concentration of dissolved oxygen; and there was a decrease in ammonia in one of the models. However, the concentrations of only phosphorus and aluminium exceeded the limits established by the Brazilian National Environmental Council and National Water Agency for the use of non-potable water. The models were capable of filtering rainwater and stormwater runoff, and reducing the concentration of ammonia. It can be concluded that it is possible to collect stormwater runoff from porous asphalt surfaces and porous asphalt pavements. Porous asphalt pavements are able to filter out certain pollutants from stormwater runoff and rainwater, and were shown to be an alternative to supply rainwater for non-potable uses and to recharge the water table. Full article
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