Next Article in Journal
Preliminary Numerical Analysis of the Efficiency of a Central Lake Reservoir in Enhancing the Flood and Drought Resistance of Dongting Lake
Previous Article in Journal
Responses of Bed Morphology to Vegetation Growth and Flood Discharge at a Sharp River Bend
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2018, 10(2), 224;

Evaluation of Water Security in Kathmandu Valley before and after Water Transfer from another Basin

Interdisciplinary Research Center for River Basin Environment (ICRE), University of Yamanashi, Takeda 4-3-11, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511, Japan
International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Nepal Office, Durbar Tole, Pulchowk-3, Lalitpur, G. P. O. Box 8975, EPC 416, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal
Kathmanu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL), Tripureshowr, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal
Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University, Pulchowk, Lalitpur 44700, Nepal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [3050 KB, uploaded 23 February 2018]   |  


Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL) has planned to harness water from outside the valley from Melamchi as an inter-basin project to supply water inside the ring road (core valley area) of the Kathmandu Valley (KV). The project, called the “Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP)”, is expected to have its first phase completed by the end of September 2018 and its second phase completed by the end of 2023 to supply 170 MLD (million liters a day) through the first phase and an additional 340 MLD through the second phase. The area has recently faced a severe water deficit and KUKL’s existing infrastructure has had a limited capability, supplying only 19% of the water that is demanded in its service areas during the dry season and 31% during the wet season. In this context, this study aims to assess the temporal trends and spatial distribution of household water security index (WSI), defined as a ratio of supply to demand for domestic water use for basic human water requirements (50 L per capita per day (lpcd)) and economic growth (135 lpcd) as demand in pre- and post-MWSP scenarios. For this purpose, data on water demand and supply with infrastructure were used to map the spatial distribution of WSI and per capita water supply using ArcMap. Results show a severe water insecurity condition in the year 2017 in all KUKL service areas (SAs), which is likely to improve after completion of the MWSP. It is likely that recent distribution network and strategies may lead to inequality in water distribution within the SAs. This can possibly be addressed by expanding existing distribution networks and redistributing potable water, which can serve an additional 1.21 million people in the area. Service providers may have to develop strategies to strengthen a set of measures including improving water supply infrastructures, optimizing water loss, harnessing additional water from hills, and managing water within and outside the KUKL SAs in the long run to cover the entire KV. View Full-Text
Keywords: household water security index; Kathmandu Valley; Melamchi water supply project; Nepal; water security household water security index; Kathmandu Valley; Melamchi water supply project; Nepal; water security

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Thapa, B.R.; Ishidaira, H.; Pandey, V.P.; Bhandari, T.M.; Shakya, N.M. Evaluation of Water Security in Kathmandu Valley before and after Water Transfer from another Basin. Water 2018, 10, 224.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top