Next Article in Journal
A Comparative Analysis of Exceptional Flood Events in the Context of Heavy Rains in the Summer of 2010: Siret Basin (NE Romania) Case Study
Previous Article in Journal
Economic Feasibility of Underwater Adduction of Rivers for Metropolises in Semiarid Coastal Environments: Case Studies
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2018, 10(2), 214;

Skin Effect of Fresh Water Measured Using Distributed Temperature Sensing

Department of Water Management, Water Resources Section, Delft University of Technology, Stevinweg 1, 2628CN, Delft, The Netherlands
Deltares, P.O. Box 177, 2600 MH Delft, The Netherlands
Department of Biological and Ecological Engineering, Oregon State University, 116 Gilmore Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 11 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [2481 KB, uploaded 20 February 2018]   |  


A phenomenon known as the skin effect—a layer of surface water that is colder than the water beneath it—was previously described in oceanography and verified in lab measurements. Only a few measurements have been done on the skin effect in field conditions, and therefore this phenomenon is relatively unknown. This paper presents measurements of the skin effect for three fresh water bodies in the Netherlands, Israel and Ghana. Using Distributed Temperature Sensing, high temporal and spatial resolution measurements were made below, at and above the air–water surface. Measurements presented in this study suggest that the skin effect of fresh water bodies is predominantly a daytime phenomenon and only occurs during low to zero wind speeds. The thickness of the skin effect was measured to be an order of magnitude larger than the previously assumed less than 1 mm. View Full-Text
Keywords: water surface temperature; hydrology; surface energy balance; measurements water surface temperature; hydrology; surface energy balance; measurements

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Solcerova, A.; Van Emmerik, T.; Van de Ven, F.; Selker, J.; Van de Giesen, N. Skin Effect of Fresh Water Measured Using Distributed Temperature Sensing. Water 2018, 10, 214.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top