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Nutrients, Volume 14, Issue 6 (March-2 2022) – 191 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Oxidative stress is an imbalance between the generation of reactive oxygen species and the ability to deactivate them. Oxidative stress is known to play a central role in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases. Controversial results have been obtained from several clinical trials conducted to investigate the effectiveness of plant-based multivitamin/mineral supplements in reducing the risk of chronic disease. Our meta-analysis that combines these independently conducted studies supports the general benefits of plant-based multivitamin/mineral/phytonutrient supplements in relieving oxidative stress by providing free radical scavenging nutrients to the general population with a habitually low intake of fruit and vegetables. View this paper
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Review
Cows’ Milk Allergy-Associated Constipation: When to Look for It? A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1317; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061317 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1304
Abstract
Constipation is a very common disorder, mostly functional in nature, that may persist for years in up to 35–52% of children. Food allergy prevalence, severity and persistence are increasing over time, and cows’ milk protein is the commonest food allergen recognised to affect [...] Read more.
Constipation is a very common disorder, mostly functional in nature, that may persist for years in up to 35–52% of children. Food allergy prevalence, severity and persistence are increasing over time, and cows’ milk protein is the commonest food allergen recognised to affect gastrointestinal motility in children. There is mounting evidence of the role of cows’ milk (CM) allergy (CMA) in children with constipation. With this narrative review, we aim to provide clinicians with an updated and critical overview of food allergy-associated constipation. We searched Embase, Medline and the Cochrane Library, using keywords related to the topic. Only reviews and studies including children aged 0–17 years that were published in English were considered. Constipation has been reported in 4.6% of infants with CMA; the prevalence of food allergy underlying chronic constipation in children resistant to conventional treatment and presenting to tertiary clinics ranges between 28% and 78%. The identification of predisposing risk factors and of a specific phenotype of food allergy-induced constipation remains elusive. No allergic tests, radiological or motility investigations achieve sufficient sensitivity and specificity to screen children for CMA-related constipation. A 4-week cows’ milk protein (CMP) elimination diet may be considered for children with chronic constipation resistant to conventional treatment and who lack alarm sign/symptoms of organic diseases. In subjects with ameliorated symptoms on CMP elimination, the diagnosis of CMA should be confirmed by a food challenge to avoid an unnecessary protracted diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Management of Gastrointestinal Dysfunction in Children)
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Article
The Acute Effect of a Novel Miso-Type Sauce, Enhanced with a Carotenoid-Rich Extract from Fruit By-Products, on Postprandial Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1316; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061316 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 985
Abstract
Several fruit by-products may exert a beneficial role on oxidative stress and inflammation modulation, providing essential bioactive components, such as polyphenols and carotenoids. Recently, the potential bioactivity of miso has been reported. The aim of this dietary intervention–clinical study was to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Several fruit by-products may exert a beneficial role on oxidative stress and inflammation modulation, providing essential bioactive components, such as polyphenols and carotenoids. Recently, the potential bioactivity of miso has been reported. The aim of this dietary intervention–clinical study was to evaluate the acute effect of a novel, functional miso-type sauce based on legumes, on postprandial biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation. In this randomized, cross-over design, intervention–clinical trial, 14 healthy volunteers, aged 20–30 years old, consumed a rice meal rich in fat and carbohydrates (258 g), containing a legume-based sauce. After a 1-week washout period, the same subjects consumed the same meal, containing the novel fermented miso-type sauce, enhanced with 50% carotenoid-rich, fruit peel extract. Differences in postprandial total plasma antioxidant capacity according to the FRAP method, serum lipids, glucose, uric acid levels, and antithrombotic activity in platelet-rich plasma were evaluated before, 30 min, 1.5 h, and 3 h after consumption. The results showed that, in comparison to the control group, consumption of the novel sauce resulted in a significantly increased total plasma antioxidant capacity 3 h after consumption (p < 0.05). In addition, we observed a significant attenuation of triglycerides concentration increase in the last 1.5 h in the functional group (p < 0.05). A significant decrease in serum aggregation was found at 30 min and 3 h after functional sauce intake in comparison with the baseline (p < 0.05). Finally, LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly reduced 3 h after the functional meal consumption, in comparison with baseline values (p < 0.05). The remaining biomarkers did not show statistically significant differences (p > 0.05). Further investigation is needed in order to validate the current results. Full article
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Article
Factors Associated with Underweight, Overweight, and Eating Disorders in Young Korean Women: A Population-Based Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1315; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061315 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 924
Abstract
Both underweight (UW) and overweight (OW) conditions are problematic in young women. The aim of this study was to examine the factors associated with extreme weight status and eating disorders (EDs) in young Korean women. A total of 808 women (mean age 22.3 [...] Read more.
Both underweight (UW) and overweight (OW) conditions are problematic in young women. The aim of this study was to examine the factors associated with extreme weight status and eating disorders (EDs) in young Korean women. A total of 808 women (mean age 22.3 ± 3.4 years) participated, including 144 with UW [Body Mass Index (BMI) < 18.5kg/m2], 364 with NW, and 137 with OW or obesity (BMI ≥ 25kg/m2), and 63 patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and 100 with bulimia nervosa (BN). Participants completed questionnaires regarding nutrients consumed, eating behaviors, health behaviors, body image, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms with face to face interviews. The associations between the status of participants and the data were analyzed with NW group as a reference. OW status was associated with overeating and with frequent eating. UW status was associated with less frequent overeating and with longer sleep duration. AN status was associated with less frequent consumption of alcohol. BN status was associated with a larger discrepancy between the ideal and current body shape. Both OW status and BN were associated with more obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The results suggested that certain dietary, health, and psychological factors are associated with extreme weight conditions and EDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Appetite, Eating Behaviors and Obesity)
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Article
Associations of Calcium Intake and Calcium from Various Sources with Blood Lipids in a Population of Older Women and Men with High Calcium Intake
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1314; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061314 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1252
Abstract
Promoting calcium intake is a cornerstone for osteoporosis management. Some individuals limit dairy product consumption, a major calcium source, due to their high content in saturated fats and their perceived negative impact on lipid profiles. This study explored the associations of calcium from [...] Read more.
Promoting calcium intake is a cornerstone for osteoporosis management. Some individuals limit dairy product consumption, a major calcium source, due to their high content in saturated fats and their perceived negative impact on lipid profiles. This study explored the associations of calcium from various sources with blood lipids in community-dwelling elderly (n = 717) from the GERICO cohort. Dietary calcium intake was assessed at several timepoints using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and calcium supplement use was recorded. Blood lipids were treated as categorical variables to distinguish those with normal and abnormal levels. Increasing total calcium intake was associated with lower risks for high total cholesterol (p = 0.038) and triglycerides (p = 0.007), and low HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.010). Dairy calcium (p = 0.031), especially calcium from milk (p = 0.044) and milk-based desserts (p = 0.039), i.e., low-fat (p = 0.022) and non-fermented (p = 0.005) dairy products, were associated with a lower risk of high total cholesterol. Greater calcium intakes from total dairies (p = 0.020), milk (p = 0.020) and non-fermented dairies (p = 0.027) were associated with a lower risk of hypertriglyceridemia. No association was observed between calcium from non-dairy sources, cheese or high-fat dairies and blood lipids. Increasing calcium through supplements was associated with lower risks for hypertriglyceridemia (p = 0.022) and low HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.001), but not after adjustments. Our results suggest that higher calcium intakes from dietary sources or supplements are not adversely associated with blood lipids in the elderly, whilst total, and particularly low-fat, dairy products are valuable calcium sources potentially related to favorable lipid profiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium and Human Health)
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Article
Curcumin Enhances Fed-State Muscle Microvascular Perfusion but Not Leg Glucose Uptake in Older Adults
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1313; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061313 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 796
Abstract
Therapeutic interventions aimed at enhancing blood flow may combat the postprandial vascular and metabolic dysfunction that manifests with chronological ageing. We compared the effects of acute curcumin (1000 mg) coupled with an oral nutritional supplement (ONS, 7.5 g protein, 24 g carbohydrate and [...] Read more.
Therapeutic interventions aimed at enhancing blood flow may combat the postprandial vascular and metabolic dysfunction that manifests with chronological ageing. We compared the effects of acute curcumin (1000 mg) coupled with an oral nutritional supplement (ONS, 7.5 g protein, 24 g carbohydrate and 6 g fat) versus a placebo and ONS (control) on cerebral and leg macrovascular blood flow, leg muscle microvascular blood flow, brachial artery endothelial function, and leg insulin and glucose responses in healthy older adults (n = 12, 50% male, 73 ± 1 year). Curcumin enhanced m. tibialis anterior microvascular blood volume (MBV) at 180 and 240 min following the ONS (baseline: 1.0 vs. 180 min: 1.08 ± 0.02, p = 0.01 vs. 240 min: 1.08 ± 0.03, p = 0.01), and MBV was significantly higher compared with the control at both time points (p < 0.05). MBV increased from baseline in the m. vastus lateralis at 240 min after the ONS in both groups (p < 0.05), and there were no significant differences between groups. Following the ONS, leg blood flow and leg vascular conductance increased, and leg vascular resistance decreased similarly in both conditions (p < 0.05). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and middle cerebral artery blood flow were unchanged in both conditions (p > 0.05). Similarly, the curcumin and control groups demonstrated comparable increases in glucose uptake and insulin in response to the ONS. Thus, acute curcumin supplementation enhanced ONS-induced increases in m. tibialis anterior MBV without potentiating m. vastus lateralis MBV, muscle glucose uptake, or systemic endothelial or macrovascular function in healthy older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements and Musculoskeletal Health and Function)
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Review
Mechanisms of Feedback Regulation of Vitamin A Metabolism
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1312; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061312 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1257
Abstract
Vitamin A is an essential nutrient required throughout life. Through its various metabolites, vitamin A sustains fetal development, immunity, vision, and the maintenance, regulation, and repair of adult tissues. Abnormal tissue levels of the vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid, can result in detrimental [...] Read more.
Vitamin A is an essential nutrient required throughout life. Through its various metabolites, vitamin A sustains fetal development, immunity, vision, and the maintenance, regulation, and repair of adult tissues. Abnormal tissue levels of the vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid, can result in detrimental effects which can include congenital defects, immune deficiencies, proliferative defects, and toxicity. For this reason, intricate feedback mechanisms have evolved to allow tissues to generate appropriate levels of active retinoid metabolites despite variations in the level and format, or in the absorption and conversion efficiency of dietary vitamin A precursors. Here, we review basic mechanisms that govern vitamin A signaling and metabolism, and we focus on retinoic acid-controlled feedback mechanisms that contribute to vitamin A homeostasis. Several approaches to investigate mechanistic details of the vitamin A homeostatic regulation using genomic, gene editing, and chromatin capture technologies are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Retinoid Research: Implications for Human Health)
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Article
Cardiometabolic and Nutritional Morbidities of a Large, Adult, PKU Cohort from Andalusia
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1311; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061311 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1047
Abstract
The establishment of national neonatal screening systems has resulted in improved quality of life and life expectancy in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). This has led to the development of multidisciplinary treatment units for adult patients with PKU. We present a retrospective descriptive study [...] Read more.
The establishment of national neonatal screening systems has resulted in improved quality of life and life expectancy in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). This has led to the development of multidisciplinary treatment units for adult patients with PKU. We present a retrospective descriptive study of a cohort of 90 adult patients (>16 years) with PKU under active follow-up in two reference centers in Andalusia. We analyzed disease severity, treatment type, demographic variables, cardiovascular risk factors, vitamin and hormone profiles, and bone metabolism. The median (interquartile range)age was 29 (23–38) years, 47 (52.2%) were women and 43 (47.8%) were men. Eighty (88.9%) had classical PKU, five (5.6%) moderate PKU, and five (5.6%) mild PKU. Diagnosis was by neonatal screening in 62 (68.9%) of the patients. The rest had late diagnosis. Treatment with sapropterin was given to 18 (20%) patients and diet and nutrition therapy to 72 (80%). There was adequate metabolic control according to Phe levels in 43 (47.78%) patients. Body mass index was 26.61 (22.7–31.1) kg/m2. Twenty-six (29.2%) patients had obesity, 7 (7.9%) hypertension, 2 (2.2%) type 2 diabetes, 26 (28.89%) dyslipidemia, 14 (15.6%) elevated total cholesterol, 9 (15.8%) decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and 16 (17.8%) hypertriglyceridemia. Seven (10.3%) patients had osteoporosis and 28 (41.17%) osteopenia. Twenty-six (30.6%) had vitamin D (25OH) deficiency and four (4.5%) vitamin B12 deficiency. Although we observed no differences with most vascular risk factors, we found a high prevalence of obesity in relation to the age of the cohort. A continued evaluation of comorbidities in these patients is therefore needed, despite adequate metabolic control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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Article
Malnutrition Increases Hospital Length of Stay and Mortality among Adult Inpatients with COVID-19
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1310; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061310 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1325
Abstract
Background: Malnutrition has been linked to adverse health economic outcomes. There is a paucity of data on malnutrition in patients admitted with COVID-19. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study consisting of 4311 COVID-19 adult (18 years and older) inpatients at 5 Johns [...] Read more.
Background: Malnutrition has been linked to adverse health economic outcomes. There is a paucity of data on malnutrition in patients admitted with COVID-19. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study consisting of 4311 COVID-19 adult (18 years and older) inpatients at 5 Johns Hopkins-affiliated hospitals between 1 March and 3 December 2020. Malnourishment was identified using the malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST), then confirmed by registered dietitians. Statistics were conducted with SAS v9.4 (Cary, NC, USA) software to examine the effect of malnutrition on mortality and hospital length of stay among COVID-19 inpatient encounters, while accounting for possible covariates in regression analysis predicting mortality or the log-transformed length of stay. Results: COVID-19 patients who were older, male, or had lower BMIs had a higher likelihood of mortality. Patients with malnutrition were 76% more likely to have mortality (p < 0.001) and to have a 105% longer hospital length of stay (p < 0.001). Overall, 12.9% (555/4311) of adult COVID-19 patients were diagnosed with malnutrition and were associated with an 87.9% increase in hospital length of stay (p < 0.001). Conclusions: In a cohort of COVID-19 adult inpatients, malnutrition was associated with a higher likelihood of mortality and increased hospital length of stay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene, Diet, Inflammation and Gut Health)
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Article
Short Video Viewing, and Not Sedentary Time, Is Associated with Overweightness/Obesity among Chinese Women
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1309; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061309 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1097
Abstract
Previous studies have found that the relationship between sedentary time (ST) and overweightness/obesity is unclear. The association between sedentary behavior and overweightness/obesity may depend on the type of sedentary behavior engaged in. Nowadays, in older Chinese adults, especially females, short video viewing (SVV) [...] Read more.
Previous studies have found that the relationship between sedentary time (ST) and overweightness/obesity is unclear. The association between sedentary behavior and overweightness/obesity may depend on the type of sedentary behavior engaged in. Nowadays, in older Chinese adults, especially females, short video viewing (SVV) is the most popular leisure sedentary behavior. However, the association between SVV and overweightness/obesity remains to be determined. This study aimed to examine the associations between ST and SVV and overweightness/obesity in Chinese community-dwelling older women. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Physical Activity and Health in Older Women Study was carried out in this study. A total of 1105 older Chinese women aged 60–70 years were included. SVV was estimated using a self-reported questionnaire, and ST was objectively measured using a tri-axial accelerometer. Overweightness/obesity indicators, including body fat ratio (BFR), fat mass (FM), visceral fat mass (VFM), subcutaneous fat mass (SFM), trunk fat mass (TFM), and limb fat mass (LFM), were assessed using multi-frequency bioimpedance analysis. The covariates included socio-demographic data and a range of health-related factors. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the association between ST and SVV and overweightness/obesity. ST was significantly positively associated with all indicators of overweightness/obesity; however, the associations disappeared after adjusting for moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). A higher SVV time was associated with a higher body mass index (BMI) (β = 0.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.05 to 0.32), BFR (β = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.56), FM (β = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.61), VFM (β = 0.09, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.16), SFM (β = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.45), TFM (β = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.39), and LFM (β = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.00 to 0.23) in the fully adjusted models. Compared with non-food short videos, short food videos had a greater effect on overweightness/obesity. SVV was an independent risk factor for overweightness/obesity. A reduction in SVV (especially the food category) rather than ST might be an effective way to prevent overweightness/obesity when incorporated in future public health policy formulations. Full article
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Article
Heat-Killed Enterococcus faecalis Prevents Adipogenesis and High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity by Inhibition of Lipid Accumulation through Inhibiting C/EBP-α and PPAR-γ in the Insulin Signaling Pathway
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1308; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061308 - 20 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 974
Abstract
Increasing consumption of food with high caloric density and a sedentary lifestyle have influenced the increasing obesity prevalence worldwide. The recent pandemic has contributed to this problem. Obesity refers to a state in which lipid accumulates excessively in adipocytes and adipose tissues. Dried [...] Read more.
Increasing consumption of food with high caloric density and a sedentary lifestyle have influenced the increasing obesity prevalence worldwide. The recent pandemic has contributed to this problem. Obesity refers to a state in which lipid accumulates excessively in adipocytes and adipose tissues. Dried heat-killed Enterococcus faecalis (EF-2001) prevents allergic mechanisms, inflammation, and tumor progression. In the present study, we investigated the effects of EF-2001 on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. The degree of obesity in experimental rats was reduced after 6 weeks of oral administration of 3 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg dosages of EF-2001, indicating regulating effects in rats with HFD-induced obesity. We found that EF-2001 decreased the amounts of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and non-high density lipoprotein (HDL) in HFD-induced obese rats. The effects of EF-2001 on 3T3-L1 adipocytes stained with Oil red O stain are shown in reductions of lipid accumulation, respectively. In addition, we examined the relationships between EF-2001 treatment and mechanisms for the insulin signaling of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. EF-2001 induced down-regulation in phosphorylation of Erk, JNK, and Akt through the inhibition of insulin receptor phosphorylation. EF-2001 inhibits the expressions of C/EBP-α and PPAR-γ, a lipid metabolism-related transcription factor through confocal microscope observation and Western blot on 3T3-L1 adipocytes and HFD-induced obese rats. Based on our results, intake of EF-2001 significantly prevented HFD-induced obesity in rats through inhibition of C/EBP-α and PPAR-γ in the insulin signaling pathway on lipid accumulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Lipids)
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Article
Selected Organ and Endocrine Complications According to BMI and the Metabolic Category of Obesity: A Single Endocrine Center Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1307; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061307 - 20 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1023
Abstract
Obesity is a chronic and complex disease associated with metabolic, organ and endocrine complications. In the study, we analyzed a group of 105 patients suffering from obesity without any other previously recognized serious disorders who had been referred to a single endocrine center. [...] Read more.
Obesity is a chronic and complex disease associated with metabolic, organ and endocrine complications. In the study, we analyzed a group of 105 patients suffering from obesity without any other previously recognized serious disorders who had been referred to a single endocrine center. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of selected organ and endocrine complications by subdividing the group, firstly according to body mass index (BMI) and secondly with regard to metabolic syndrome (MetS), pre-MetS and the metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) category. We have observed that in our groups, the prevalence of hyperlipidemia, hypertension, asthma, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) depended on BMI category, whereas the incidence of hyperlipidemia, hypertension, OSA, hypothyroidism, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes was related to the metabolic category. We concluded that the distribution of particular organ and endocrine complications change significantly with increased BMI and with the shift from MHO to pre-MetS and MetS. Thus, to determine the risk of organ and endocrine complications more effectively, BMI and metabolic status should be assessed during the examination of patients with obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Endocrine Disorders)
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Article
Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Symptoms of Emotional Dysregulation in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: The MADDY Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1306; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061306 - 20 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1486
Abstract
The association of household food insecurity with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and emotional dysregulation in children was examined in this study. We utilized baseline data from 134 children aged 6–12 years who were enrolled in a clinical trial investigating multinutrient [...] Read more.
The association of household food insecurity with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and emotional dysregulation in children was examined in this study. We utilized baseline data from 134 children aged 6–12 years who were enrolled in a clinical trial investigating multinutrient supplementation as a treatment for ADHD and emotional dysregulation. Household food security status was assessed using the 18-item US Household Food Security Survey Module. The symptoms of ADHD and emotional dysregulation disorders (oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD)) were assessed using the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-5 and other comorbid emotional dysregulation symptoms were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Multiple linear regression determined associations between household food security status and symptoms of ADHD, ODD and DMDD, emotional symptoms and conduct problems. Household food insecurity was associated with more severe emotional symptoms (β = 2.30; 95% CI = 0.87–3.73; p = 0.002), conduct problems (β = 1.15; 95% CI = 0.01–2.30; p = 0.049) and total difficulties scores (β = 4.59; 95% CI = 1.82–7.37; p = 0.001) after adjusting for covariates (child’s sex, parent marital status, household income, parental anxiety and other parental psychopathology). In unadjusted analyses, household food insecurity was also associated with increased ODD (β = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.21–0.95; p = 0.003) and DMDD symptoms (β = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.20–1.19; p = 0.006), but these associations attenuated to non-significance after adjusting for all covariates. Household food insecurity was associated with more severe emotional dysregulation symptoms. Discussing and addressing food insecurity may be appropriate initial steps for youths with ADHD and emotional dysregulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and NutritionaI Intervention in Childhood Chronic Diseases)
Review
Dietary Recommendations for Post-COVID-19 Syndrome
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1305; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061305 - 20 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 8792
Abstract
At the beginning of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, global efforts focused on containing the spread of the virus and avoiding contagion. Currently, it is evident that health professionals should deal with the overall health status of COVID-19 survivors. Indeed, novel findings have [...] Read more.
At the beginning of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, global efforts focused on containing the spread of the virus and avoiding contagion. Currently, it is evident that health professionals should deal with the overall health status of COVID-19 survivors. Indeed, novel findings have identified post-COVID-19 syndrome, which is characterized by malnutrition, loss of fat-free mass, and low-grade inflammation. In addition, the recovery might be complicated by persistent functional impairment (i.e., fatigue and muscle weakness, dysphagia, appetite loss, and taste/smell alterations) as well as psychological distress. Therefore, the appropriate evaluation of nutritional status (assessment of dietary intake, anthropometrics, and body composition) is one of the pillars in the management of these patients. On the other hand, personalized dietary recommendations represent the best strategy to ensure recovery. Therefore, this review aimed to collect available evidence on the role of nutrients and their supplementation in post-COVID-19 syndrome to provide a practical guideline to nutritionists to tailor dietary interventions for patients recovering from COVID-19 infections. Full article
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Review
Plant-Based Diets and Peritoneal Dialysis: A Review
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1304; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061304 - 19 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1194
Abstract
Whole food plant-based diets are gaining popularity as a preventative and therapeutic modality for numerous chronic health conditions, including chronic kidney disease, but their role and safety in end-stage kidney disease patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) is unclear. Given the general public’s increased [...] Read more.
Whole food plant-based diets are gaining popularity as a preventative and therapeutic modality for numerous chronic health conditions, including chronic kidney disease, but their role and safety in end-stage kidney disease patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) is unclear. Given the general public’s increased interest in this dietary pattern, it is likely that clinicians will encounter individuals on PD who are either consuming, considering, or interested in learning more about a diet with more plants. This review explores how increasing plant consumption might affect those on PD, encompassing potential benefits, including some specific to the PD population, and potential concerns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Habits, Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease)
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Article
Dietary Complex and Slow Digestive Carbohydrates Promote Bone Mass and Improve Bone Microarchitecture during Catch-Up Growth in Rats
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1303; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061303 - 19 Mar 2022
Viewed by 650
Abstract
Catch-up growth is a process that promotes weight and height gains to recover normal growth patterns after a transient period of growth inhibition. Accelerated infant growth is associated with reduced bone mass and quality characterized by poor bone mineral density (BMD), content (BMC), [...] Read more.
Catch-up growth is a process that promotes weight and height gains to recover normal growth patterns after a transient period of growth inhibition. Accelerated infant growth is associated with reduced bone mass and quality characterized by poor bone mineral density (BMD), content (BMC), and impaired microarchitecture. The present study evaluated the effects of a diet containing slow (SDC) or rapid (RDC) digestible carbohydrates on bone quality parameters during the catch-up growth period in a model of diet-induced stunted rats. The food restriction period negatively impacted BMD, BMC, and microarchitecture of appendicular and axial bones. The SDC diet was shown to improve BMD and BMC of appendicular and axial bones after a four-week refeeding period in comparison with the RDC diet. In the same line, the micro-CT analysis revealed that the trabecular microarchitecture of tibiae and vertebrae was positively impacted by the dietary intervention with SDC compared to RDC. Furthermore, features of the cortical microstructure of vertebra bones were also improved in the SDC group animals. Similarly, animals allocated to the SDC diet displayed modest improvements in growth plate thickness, surface, and volume compared to the RDC group. Diets containing the described SDC blend might contribute to an adequate bone formation during catch-up growth thus increasing peak bone mass, which could be linked to reduced fracture risk later in life in individuals undergoing transient undernutrition during early life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Carbohydrates)
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Article
The Association between Diet Quality and Health Status in Mobile Food Pantry Users in Northeastern Connecticut
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1302; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061302 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 805
Abstract
Low-income Americans tend to have poor diet quality and disease prevalence overall. Mobile food pantries aim to improve these outcomes, and have rarely been studied. This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between diet quality and health status in mobile food pantry [...] Read more.
Low-income Americans tend to have poor diet quality and disease prevalence overall. Mobile food pantries aim to improve these outcomes, and have rarely been studied. This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between diet quality and health status in mobile food pantry users. Data were collected from two mobile food pantry sites in Northeastern Connecticut (n = 83). Sociodemographic food security and diet quality data were collected. Overall, diet quality was low among all participants with intakes of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains of concern. Participant adherence to the 2020–2025 US Dietary Guidelines were low, with no participants meeting recommendations for whole grains. Obesity, diabetes, and hypertension prevalence in this population exceeded national averages. After adjusting for covariates, hypertension was associated with higher dairy and added sugar intake, as well as a greater intake of added sugar from sugar-sweetened beverages (p < 0.05). Although results were not statistically significant, participants with obesity, diabetes, and hypertension showed a trend of having lower adherence to the guidelines than those without these chronic diseases. Questions assessing participant interest in changing their diets were also posed, indicating overall high interest in learning about current diet quality and weight improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet Quality, Food Environment and Diet Diversity)
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Article
Validity of the Adult Eating Behavior Questionnaire and Its Relationship with Parent-Reported Eating Behaviors among Adolescents in Portugal
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1301; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061301 - 19 Mar 2022
Viewed by 697
Abstract
The Adult Eating Behavior Questionnaire (AEBQ) is a tool developed in the UK, used in the investigation of appetitive traits in adults and adolescents, and later validated in a number of countries. To date, the validity of the AEBQ has not been tested [...] Read more.
The Adult Eating Behavior Questionnaire (AEBQ) is a tool developed in the UK, used in the investigation of appetitive traits in adults and adolescents, and later validated in a number of countries. To date, the validity of the AEBQ has not been tested on Portuguese-speaking popula-tions. The aim of this study was to validate the AEBQ in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Participants were 4483 13-year-olds enrolled in the population-based cohort study Generation XXI. Appetitive traits were self-reported by adolescents through the AEBQ and parents also reported adolescent eating behaviors. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were conducted. Construct validity was tested through correlations between AEBQ subscales and parent-reported eating behaviors, and linear regressions between AEBQ subscales and adolescent body mass index z-scores were performed. Adequate internal consistency and several associations with parent-reported eating behaviors and measured adolescent body mass index z-scores were found. This study supports the validity of a five-factor AEBQ (Food Responsiveness and Enjoyment of Food; Slowness in Eating; Food Fussiness; Emotional Over- and Undereating) to measure appetitive traits among Portuguese adolescents and provides a convenient and easy-to-use tool to be used in large-scale research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Policies and Education for Health Promotion)
Article
How to Measure Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet in Dental Studies: Is a Short Adherence Screener Enough? A Comparative Analysis
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1300; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061300 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1040 | Correction
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) in a study investigating the anti-inflammatory effect of a 6-week Mediterranean diet intervention on periodontal parameters. Data from a randomized clinical trial were analyzed for correlations between the MEDAS score and oral [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) in a study investigating the anti-inflammatory effect of a 6-week Mediterranean diet intervention on periodontal parameters. Data from a randomized clinical trial were analyzed for correlations between the MEDAS score and oral inflammatory parameters (bleeding on probing (BOP), gingival index (GI), and periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA)) and select nutrient intakes estimated by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a 24-h dietary recall (24dr). A mixed model, calculations of Spearman ρ, Lin’s Concordance Coefficient (CC), and Mann–Whitney U test were used for the statistical analyses. The MEDAS score was significantly negatively correlated with periodontal inflammation (BOP: CoE −0.391, p < 0.001; GI −0.407, p < 0.001; PISA −0.348, p = 0.001) and positively correlated with poly unsaturated fatty acids/total fat, vitamin C, and fiber intake estimates obtained from the FFQ and 24dr (ρ 0.38–0.77). The FFQ and 24dr produced heterogeneously comparable intake results for most nutrients (CC 0–0.79, Spearman ρ 0.16–0.65). Within the limitations of this study, the MEDAS was able to indicate nutritional habits associated with different levels of periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, the MEDAS can be a sufficient and useful diet screener in dental studies. Due to its correlation with oral inflammatory parameters, the MEDAS might also be useful in dental practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Human Oral Health)
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Article
Oxidative Stress and Left Ventricular Performance in Patients with Different Glycometabolic Phenotypes
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1299; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061299 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 708
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible correlation between oxidative stress and subclinical myocardial damage, assessed with speckle tracking echocardiography (STE), in normal glucose tolerance (NGT) patients with one-hour plasma glucose values ≥ 155 mg/dL (NGT ≥ 155), comparing [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible correlation between oxidative stress and subclinical myocardial damage, assessed with speckle tracking echocardiography (STE), in normal glucose tolerance (NGT) patients with one-hour plasma glucose values ≥ 155 mg/dL (NGT ≥ 155), comparing them to NGT < 155 subjects, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) newly diagnosed patients. We enrolled 100 Caucasian patients. All subjects underwent OGTT. The serum values of oxidative stress markers (8-isoprostane and Nox-2) were assessed with an ELISA test. Echocardiographic recordings were performed using an E-95 Pro ultrasound system. We observed significant differences, among the four groups, for fasting plasma glucose (p < 0.0001), one-hour postload (p < 0.0001), and two-hour postload plasma glucose (p < 0.0001). As compared with NGT < 155, NGT ≥ 155 exhibited significantly worse insulin sensitivity and higher values of hs-CRP. No significant differences were observed between NGT ≥ 155 and IGT patients. There was a significant increase in 8-isoprostane (p < 0.0001) and Nox-2 (p < 0.0001), from the first to fourth group, indicating an increase in oxidative stress with the worsening of the metabolic status. Serum levels of 8-isoprostane and Nox-2 were significantly increased in NGT ≥ 155 compared to the NGT < 155 group, but similar to IGT. The global longitudinal strain (GLS) appeared progressively lower proceeding from the NGT < 155 to T2DM group (p < 0.0001). For similar values of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), NGT ≥ 155 exhibited reduced GLS compared to NGT < 155 (p = 0.001), but similar to IGT patients. Our study demonstrated that NGT ≥ 155 subjects exhibit early functional impairment of myocardial contractile fibres, these alterations are correlated with increased oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Carbohydrates)
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Review
Nutrition in Advanced Thyroid Cancer Patients
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1298; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061298 - 18 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1231
Abstract
In the last decade, multikinase inhibitors (MKIs) have changed the paradigm of treatment of advanced and progressive thyroid cancer. Compared with the traditional treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, these new drugs have shown a good efficacy in controlling the neoplastic disease, and also [...] Read more.
In the last decade, multikinase inhibitors (MKIs) have changed the paradigm of treatment of advanced and progressive thyroid cancer. Compared with the traditional treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, these new drugs have shown a good efficacy in controlling the neoplastic disease, and also a different toxicity profile compared to traditional chemotherapy, milder but still present and involving mainly the nutritional profile. Weight loss, nausea, anorexia, stomatitis, diarrhea may be associated with malnutrition and cancer-related cachexia. The latter is characteristic of the advanced cancer stage and may be present before starting MKIs, or may develop afterwards. Adverse events with nutritional impact may cause a significant impairment of quality of life, often requiring dose reduction and sometimes drug discontinuation, but with a lower efficacy on the neoplastic disease. The aim of this paper was to discuss the role of nutritional therapy in advanced thyroid cancer and the importance of prevention, early recognition and careful management of malnutrition and cachexia during systemic therapy with MKIs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Insight in Thyroid Diseases and Endocrinology)
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Article
Relation of Alcohol Intake to Kidney Function and Mortality Observational, Population-Based, Cohort Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1297; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061297 - 18 Mar 2022
Viewed by 720
Abstract
Data are conflicting about the effects of alcohol intake on kidney function. This population-based study investigated associations of alcohol intake with kidney function and mortality. The study cohort included adult participants in Exam-1, Exam-2 (6-year follow-up), and Exam-3 (20-year follow-up) of the Gubbio [...] Read more.
Data are conflicting about the effects of alcohol intake on kidney function. This population-based study investigated associations of alcohol intake with kidney function and mortality. The study cohort included adult participants in Exam-1, Exam-2 (6-year follow-up), and Exam-3 (20-year follow-up) of the Gubbio study. Kidney function was evaluated as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, CKD-Epi equation, mL/min × 1.73 m2). Daily habitual alcohol intake was assessed by questionnaires. Wine intake accounted for >94% of total alcohol intake at all exams. Alcohol intake significantly tracked over time (R > 0.66, p < 0.001). Alcohol intake distribution was skewed at all exams (skewness > 2) and was divided into four strata for analyses (g/day = 0, 1–24, 25–48, and >48). Strata of alcohol intake differed substantially for lab markers of alcohol intake (p < 0.001). In multivariable regression, strata of alcohol intake related cross-sectionally to eGFR at all exams (Exam-1: B = 1.70, p < 0.001; Exam-2: B = 1.03, p < 0.001; Exam-3: B = 0.55, p = 0.010) and related longitudinally to less negative eGFR change from Exam-1 to Exam-2 (B = 0.133, p = 0.002) and from Exam-2 to Exam-3 (B = 0.065, p = 0.004). In multivariable Cox models, compared to no intake, intakes > 24 g/day were not associated with different mortality while an intake of 1–24 g/day was associated with lower mortality in the whole cohort (HR = 0.77, p = 0.003) and in the subgroup with eGFR < 60 mL/min × 1.73 m2 (HR = 0.69, p = 0.033). These data indicate a positive independent association of alcohol intake with kidney function not due to a mortality-related selection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
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Article
Efficacy of FODMAP Elimination and Subsequent Blinded Placebo-Controlled Provocations in a Randomised Controlled Study in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis in Remission and Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Feasibility Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1296; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061296 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1161
Abstract
Background: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may be intolerant to fermentable carbohydrates (FODMAPs). The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of eliminating and subsequently reintroducing FODMAPs in patients with IBS symptoms as [...] Read more.
Background: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may be intolerant to fermentable carbohydrates (FODMAPs). The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of eliminating and subsequently reintroducing FODMAPs in patients with IBS symptoms as part of the IBD manifestation and to compare the severity of IBS symptoms and pain, bloating and quality of life (QoL). Methods: An eight-week randomised open-label FODMAP elimination with double-blinded, crossover provocations of FODMAP and placebo. Diet patients were on a low-FODMAP diet for eight weeks with blinded two-week provocations after two and six weeks. Questionnaires, blood and stool samples were collected. Results: Patient enrolment was challenging. Nineteen participants were included in the study. Eliminating low FODMAP for two weeks resulted in significant decreases in pain and bloating scores (p < 0.003), whereas there were no statistical differences in pain scores between diet patients and controls. Pain and bloating scores increased, returning to baseline levels after two weeks of double-blinded provocations with placebo, (p > 0.05). Conclusions: The results document the possibility of performing a randomised controlled study following the gold standard for testing food intolerance with blinding of the Low FODMAP diet. Recruitment of participants was challenging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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Review
The Impact on the Clinical Prognosis of Low Serum Selenium Level in Patients with Severe Trauma: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061295 - 18 Mar 2022
Viewed by 794
Abstract
This study was designed to examine the most up-to-date evidence about how low plasma selenium (Se) concentration affects clinical outcomes, such as mortality, infectious complications, and length of ICU or hospital stay, in patients with major trauma. We searched three databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, [...] Read more.
This study was designed to examine the most up-to-date evidence about how low plasma selenium (Se) concentration affects clinical outcomes, such as mortality, infectious complications, and length of ICU or hospital stay, in patients with major trauma. We searched three databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science) with the following keywords: “injury”, “trauma”, “selenium”, and “trace element”. Only records written in English published between 1990 and 2021 were included for analysis. Four studies were eligible for meta-analyses. The results of the meta-analysis showed that a low serum selenium level did not exert a negative effect on the mortality rate (OR 1.07, 95% CI: 0.32, 3.61, p = 0.91, heterogeneity, I2 = 44%). Regarding the incidence of infectious complications, there was no statistically significant deficit after analyses of the four studies (OR 1.61, 95% CI: 0.64, 4.07, p = 0.31, heterogeneity, I2 = 70%). There were no differences in the days spent in the ICU (difference in means (MD) 1.53, 95% CI: −2.15, 5.22, p = 0.41, heterogeneity, I2 = 67%) or the hospital length of stay (MD 6.49, 95% CI: −4.05, 17.02, p = 0.23, heterogeneity, I2 = 58%) in patients with low serum Se concentration. A low serum selenium level after trauma is not uncommon. However, it does not negatively affect mortality and infection rate. It also does not increase the overall length of ICU and hospital stays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Selenium Intake and Human Health)
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Article
Lactobacillus paracasei CCFM1229 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCFM1228 Alleviated Depression- and Anxiety-Related Symptoms of Chronic Stress-Induced Depression in Mice by Regulating Xanthine Oxidase Activity in the Brain
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1294; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061294 - 18 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1080
Abstract
Depression is a common mood disorder that affects around 350 million people worldwide. We studied the effect of supplementation with Lactobacillus strains for the treatment of depression. Except for control group (n = 8), C57BL/6J mice were treated with Lactobacillus during six [...] Read more.
Depression is a common mood disorder that affects around 350 million people worldwide. We studied the effect of supplementation with Lactobacillus strains for the treatment of depression. Except for control group (n = 8), C57BL/6J mice were treated with Lactobacillus during six weeks of chronic unpredictable stress (depression group: n = 9, Lactobacillus intervention group: n = 7). L. paracasei CCFM1229 and L. rhamnosus CCFM1228 significantly reduced depressive behaviour in the forced swimming test and tail suspension test, significantly reduced anxiety behaviour in the open field test, and reduced anxiety behaviour in the marble burying test and light/dark box test. L. paracasei CCFM1229 and L. rhamnosus CCFM1228 significantly increased the brain serotonin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations, and CCFM1229 significantly decreased the serum corticosterone concentration, all of which are closely associated with the relief of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, CCFM1229 and CCFM1228 were shown to regulate purine metabolism in mice, as indicated by decreases in brain xanthine oxidase activity and an increase in liver adenosine deaminase activity. Anxiety- and depression-related indicators were significantly associated with xanthine oxidase activity in the cerebral cortex. The strains CCFM1229 and CCFM1228 reduced anxiety- and depression-related behaviour in a mouse model of chronic stress-induced depression, which may be achieved by regulating the activity of brain xanthine oxidase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Nutrition on Brain Metabolism and Disease)
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Review
Function of Retinoic Acid in Development of Male and Female Gametes
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1293; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061293 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 807
Abstract
Retinoic acid, an active metabolite of vitamin A, is necessary for many developmental processes in mammals. Much of the field of reproduction has looked toward retinoic acid as a key transcriptional regulator and catalyst of differentiation events. This review focuses on the effects [...] Read more.
Retinoic acid, an active metabolite of vitamin A, is necessary for many developmental processes in mammals. Much of the field of reproduction has looked toward retinoic acid as a key transcriptional regulator and catalyst of differentiation events. This review focuses on the effects of retinoic acid on male and female gamete formation and regulation. Within spermatogenesis, it has been well established that retinoic acid is necessary for the proper formation of the blood–testis barrier, spermatogonial differentiation, spermiation, and assisting in meiotic completion. While many of the roles of retinoic acid in male spermatogenesis are known, investigations into female oogenesis have provided differing results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Retinoid Research: Implications for Human Health)
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Review
Taurine Supplementation as a Neuroprotective Strategy upon Brain Dysfunction in Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1292; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061292 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1390
Abstract
Obesity, type 2 diabetes, and their associated comorbidities impact brain metabolism and function and constitute risk factors for cognitive impairment. Alterations to taurine homeostasis can impact a number of biological processes, such as osmolarity control, calcium homeostasis, and inhibitory neurotransmission, and have been [...] Read more.
Obesity, type 2 diabetes, and their associated comorbidities impact brain metabolism and function and constitute risk factors for cognitive impairment. Alterations to taurine homeostasis can impact a number of biological processes, such as osmolarity control, calcium homeostasis, and inhibitory neurotransmission, and have been reported in both metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders. Models of neurodegenerative disorders show reduced brain taurine concentrations. On the other hand, models of insulin-dependent diabetes, insulin resistance, and diet-induced obesity display taurine accumulation in the hippocampus. Given the possible cytoprotective actions of taurine, such cerebral accumulation of taurine might constitute a compensatory mechanism that attempts to prevent neurodegeneration. The present article provides an overview of brain taurine homeostasis and reviews the mechanisms by which taurine can afford neuroprotection in individuals with obesity and diabetes. We conclude that further research is needed for understanding taurine homeostasis in metabolic disorders with an impact on brain function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Diet Composition on Insulin Resistance)
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Systematic Review
Rapid Nontranscriptional Effects of Calcifediol and Calcitriol
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1291; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061291 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 993
Abstract
Classically, a secosteroid hormone, vitamin D, has been implicated in calcium and phosphate homeostasis and has been associated with the pathogenesis of rickets and osteomalacia in patients with severe nutritional vitamin D deficiency. The spectrum of known vitamin D-mediated effects has been expanded [...] Read more.
Classically, a secosteroid hormone, vitamin D, has been implicated in calcium and phosphate homeostasis and has been associated with the pathogenesis of rickets and osteomalacia in patients with severe nutritional vitamin D deficiency. The spectrum of known vitamin D-mediated effects has been expanded in recent years. However, the mechanisms of how exactly this hormone elicits its biological function are still not fully understood. The interaction of this metabolite with the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and, subsequently, with the vitamin D-responsive element in the region of specific target genes leading to the transcription of genes whose protein products are involved in the traditional function of calcitriol (known as genomic actions). Moreover, in addition to these transcription-dependent mechanisms, it has been recognized that the biologically active form of vitamin D3, as well as its immediate precursor metabolite, calcifediol, initiate rapid, non-genomic actions through the membrane receptors that are bound as described for other steroid hormones. So far, among the best candidates responsible for mediating rapid membrane response to vitamin D metabolites are membrane-associated VDR (VDRm) and protein disulfide isomerase family A member 3 (Pdia3). The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the rapid, non-genomic effects of calcifediol and calcitriol, whose elucidation could improve the understanding of the vitamin D3 endocrine system. This will contribute to a better recognition of the physiological acute functions of vitamin D3, and it could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets able to modulate these actions. Full article
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Article
Quality and Presence of Behaviour Change Techniques in Mobile Apps for the Mediterranean Diet: A Content Analysis of Android Google Play and Apple App Store Apps
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1290; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061290 - 18 Mar 2022
Viewed by 817
Abstract
Smartphone apps might represent an opportunity to promote adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). This study aimed to evaluate the quality of commercially available apps for the MedDiet and the presence of behavioural change techniques (BCTs) used by these apps. A systematic search [...] Read more.
Smartphone apps might represent an opportunity to promote adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). This study aimed to evaluate the quality of commercially available apps for the MedDiet and the presence of behavioural change techniques (BCTs) used by these apps. A systematic search was conducted on the Apple App and Google Play stores in November 2021. Apps were included if they provided information on the MedDiet or if their objective was to promote a healthy lifestyle through adherence to the MedDiet. Eligible apps were independently evaluated by two reviewers with regard to their quality (engagement, functionality, aesthetics and information quality) using the 5-point Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS; with higher scores indicating higher quality), and the presence of BCTs using an established 26-item BCT taxonomy. Of the 55 analysed apps, 52 (94.5%) were free, 50 (90.9%) provided recipe ideas, 29 (52.7%) provided meal plans, and 22 (40%) provided information on the health benefits of the MedDiet. The overall quality mean MARS score was 2.84 (standard deviation (SD) = 0.42), with functionality being the highest scored MARS domain (mean = 3.58, SD = 0.44) and engagement the lowest (mean = 2.29, SD = 0.61). The average number of BCTs in the analysed apps was 2.3 (SD = 1.4; range: 0–6 per app). The number of BCTs was positively correlated with app information quality (rrho = 0.269, p = 0.047), overall MARS score (rrho = 0.267, p = 0.049), app subjective quality (rrho = 0.326, p = 0.015) and app-specific quality (rrho = 0.351, p = 0.009). These findings suggest that currently available apps might provide information on the MedDiet, but the incorporation of more BCTs is warranted to maximise the potential for behaviour change towards the MedDiet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
Orthorexia Nervosa and Disordered Eating Attitudes, Self-Esteem and Physical Activity among Young Adults
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1289; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061289 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1094
Abstract
A relation between Orthorexia Nervosa (ON) and increased frequency of physical activity has been put in evidence by recent studies. It is well known that intense physical exercises are typically related to eating disorders, but its relationship with ON is still a subject [...] Read more.
A relation between Orthorexia Nervosa (ON) and increased frequency of physical activity has been put in evidence by recent studies. It is well known that intense physical exercises are typically related to eating disorders, but its relationship with ON is still a subject of debate. Other transdiagnostic features could be necessary to conceptualize and understand ON; in this way, low self-esteem is related to eating behavior but is not still extensively investigated in ON, and, to date, data are so heterogeneous that they do not allow us to understand if this is a psychological feature somehow associated with ON. The current study aimed to assess whether disordered eating attitudes, self-esteem, and physical activity are associated with ON in young adults from Poland and Italy. Moreover, we investigated the differences by comparing lower and higher ON levels related to disordered eating attitudes, self-esteem, and physical activity. Our results indicated that a great concern about dieting significantly predicted problems associated with healthy eating, knowledge about healthy eating, and feeling positive about healthy eating. In addition, young adults with a high level of ON demonstrated higher levels of disordered eating attitudes and vigorous-intensity physical activity than young adults with a low level of ON. Future studies are needed to assess the direct effect of physical activity and self-esteem on ON. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Disorders, and Nutritional Beliefs, Trends or Practices)
Review
Weight Gain and Nutrition during Pregnancy: An Analysis of Clinical Practice Guidelines in the Asia-Pacific Region
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1288; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061288 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 960
Abstract
Nutrition and weight gain during pregnancy can influence the life-course health of offspring. Clinical practice guidelines play an important role in ensuring appropriate nutrition and weight gain among pregnant women. This study aims to identify clinical practice guidelines on gestational weight gain and/or [...] Read more.
Nutrition and weight gain during pregnancy can influence the life-course health of offspring. Clinical practice guidelines play an important role in ensuring appropriate nutrition and weight gain among pregnant women. This study aims to identify clinical practice guidelines on gestational weight gain and/or maternal nutrition across the Asia-Pacific region and to determine the quality of the guidelines and variability in the recommendations. Through a systematic search of grey literature from 38 Asia-Pacific countries, 23 published guidelines were obtained. Of these, 10 eligible clinical practice guidelines reporting nutrition- or/and weight-related recommendations for pregnant women were selected and reviewed. Guideline quality was determined using the Assessment of Guidelines for Research Evaluation II (AGREE II) instrument. Of the 10 guidelines, 90% were classified as low-quality in the AGREE II appraisal. Several variations were found with respect to recommendations on gestational weight gain, including those specific to Asian populations. The recommendations on dietary advice, additional energy intake, and nutritional supplementation during pregnancy were varied. Clinical practice guidelines on weight gain and nutrition in pregnancy across the Asia-Pacific region are generally of poor quality, reflecting significant variation, and need to be improved to ensure pregnant women receive appropriate advice. (PROSPERO registration no. CRD42021291395). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Education in the Perinatal Period)
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