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Nutrients, Volume 14, Issue 7 (April-1 2022) – 214 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image):

Nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain in diabetic patients are often attributed to gastropathy (DG).

Jejunal nutrition (JN) may improve nutrition and symptoms in difficult cases.

The J4G study tested this hypothesis. DG patients with moderate-to-severe symptoms, diabetic and healthy controls were entered into a randomized, double-blind controlled trial. JN with liquid nutrient or water (placebo) was infused prior to oral ingestion of the mixed solid/liquid “Nottingham Test Meal”.

Post-prandial symptoms were reduced after JN in DG patients. The mechanism is not primarily mediated by specific effects on GE but involved other aspects of GI function, including visceral sensitivity. View this paper

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Review
Lansium domesticum—A Fruit with Multi-Benefits: Traditional Uses, Phytochemicals, Nutritional Value, and Bioactivities
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1531; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071531 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 877
Abstract
Lansium domesticum (Langsat, Meliaceae) is a tropical fruit mainly found in Southeast Asian countries, particularly in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Traditionally, it is utilized as a folk treatment for eye inflammation, ulcers, diarrhea, dysentery, fever, spasms, flatulence, worms, insect bites, scorpion [...] Read more.
Lansium domesticum (Langsat, Meliaceae) is a tropical fruit mainly found in Southeast Asian countries, particularly in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Traditionally, it is utilized as a folk treatment for eye inflammation, ulcers, diarrhea, dysentery, fever, spasms, flatulence, worms, insect bites, scorpion stings, and malaria. Additionally, it is utilized as a mosquito repellent, skin moisturizer and whitening agent. Pharmacological research showed that the plant has a wide array of bioactivities, including antimalarial, antifeedant, anti-aging, wound healing, antioxidant, cytotoxic, analgesic, antibacterial, antimutagenic, insecticidal, and larvicidal. The most commonly described activities were attributed to the presence of terpenoids and phenolics. Further, some studies reported the preparation of nanoparticles and pharmaceutical formulations from the plant. This review highlights the potential of L. domesticum as herbal medicine. It provides an overview about the reported data on L. domesticum from 1931 to November 2021, including nutritional value, traditional uses, phytoconstituents, and bioactivities, as well as nanoparticles and pharmaceutical formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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Review
Macronutrients and Micronutrients in Parenteral Nutrition for Preterm Newborns: A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1530; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071530 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Preterm neonates display a high risk of postnatal malnutrition, especially at very low gestational ages, because nutritional stores are less in younger preterm infants. For this reason nutrition and growth in early life play a pivotal role in the establishment of the long-term [...] Read more.
Preterm neonates display a high risk of postnatal malnutrition, especially at very low gestational ages, because nutritional stores are less in younger preterm infants. For this reason nutrition and growth in early life play a pivotal role in the establishment of the long-term health of premature infants. Nutritional care for preterm neonates remains a challenge in clinical practice. According to the recent and latest recommendations from ESPGHAN, at birth, water intake of 70–80 mL/kg/day is suggested, progressively increasing to 150 mL/kg/day by the end of the first week of life, along with a calorie intake of 120 kcal/kg/day and a minimum protein intake of 2.5–3 g/kg/day. Regarding glucose intake, an infusion rate of 3–5 mg/kg/min is recommended, but VLBW and ELBW preterm neonates may require up to 12 mg/kg/min. In preterm infants, lipid emulsions can be started immediately after birth at a dosage of 0.5–1 g/kg/day. However, some authors have recently shown that it is not always possible to achieve optimal and recommended nutrition, due to the complexity of the daily management of premature infants, especially if extremely preterm. It would be desirable if multicenter randomized controlled trials were designed to explore the effect of early nutrition and growth on long-term health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Macronutrients and Micronutrients in Parenteral Nutrition)
Article
Sulfur Amino Acid Supplementation Abrogates Protective Effects of Caloric Restriction for Enhancing Bone Marrow Regrowth Following Ionizing Radiation
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1529; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071529 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 765
Abstract
Radiation therapy damages and depletes total bone marrow (BM) cellularity, compromising safety and limiting effective dosing. Aging also strains total BM and BM hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) renewal and function, resulting in multi-system defects. Interventions that preserve BM and BM HSPC [...] Read more.
Radiation therapy damages and depletes total bone marrow (BM) cellularity, compromising safety and limiting effective dosing. Aging also strains total BM and BM hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) renewal and function, resulting in multi-system defects. Interventions that preserve BM and BM HSPC homeostasis thus have potential clinical significance. Here, we report that 50% calorie restriction (CR) for 7-days or fasting for 3-days prior to irradiation improved mouse BM regrowth in the days and weeks post irradiation. Specifically, one week of 50% CR ameliorated loss of total BM cellularity post irradiation compared to ad libitum-fed controls. CR-mediated BM protection was abrogated by dietary sulfur amino acid (i.e., cysteine, methionine) supplementation or pharmacological inhibition of sulfur amino acid metabolizing and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) producing enzymes. Up to 2-fold increased proliferative capacity of ex vivo-irradiated BM isolated from food restricted mice relative to control mice indicates cell autonomy of the protective effect. Pretreatment with H2S in vitro was sufficient to preserve proliferative capacity by over 50% compared to non-treated cells in ex vivo-irradiated BM and BM HSPCs. The exogenous addition of H2S inhibited Ten eleven translocation 2 (TET2) activity in vitro, thus providing a potential mechanism of action. Short-term CR or fasting therefore offers BM radioprotection and promotes regrowth in part via altered sulfur amino acid metabolism and H2S generation, with translational implications for radiation treatment and aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Macronutrients in Frailty and Aging)
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Review
CRABP1 in Non-Canonical Activities of Retinoic Acid in Health and Diseases
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1528; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071528 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 562
Abstract
In this review, we discuss the emerging role of Cellular Retinoic Acid Binding Protein 1 (CRABP1) as a mediator of non-canonical activities of retinoic acid (RA) and relevance to human diseases. We first discuss the role of CRABP1 in regulating MAPK activities and [...] Read more.
In this review, we discuss the emerging role of Cellular Retinoic Acid Binding Protein 1 (CRABP1) as a mediator of non-canonical activities of retinoic acid (RA) and relevance to human diseases. We first discuss the role of CRABP1 in regulating MAPK activities and its implication in stem cell proliferation, cancers, adipocyte health, and neuro-immune regulation. We then discuss an additional role of CRABP1 in regulating CaMKII activities, and its implication in heart and motor neuron diseases. Through molecular and genetic studies of Crabp1 knockout (CKO) mouse and culture models, it is established that CRABP1 forms complexes with specific signaling molecules to function as RA-regulated signalsomes in a cell context-dependent manner. Gene expression data and CRABP1 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of human cancer, neurodegeneration, and immune disease patients implicate the potential association of abnormality in CRABP1 with human diseases. Finally, therapeutic strategies for managing certain human diseases by targeting CRABP1 are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Retinoid Research: Implications for Human Health)
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Review
Fermented Foods, Health and the Gut Microbiome
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1527; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071527 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1463
Abstract
Fermented foods have been a part of human diet for almost 10,000 years, and their level of diversity in the 21st century is substantial. The health benefits of fermented foods have been intensively investigated; identification of bioactive peptides and microbial metabolites in fermented [...] Read more.
Fermented foods have been a part of human diet for almost 10,000 years, and their level of diversity in the 21st century is substantial. The health benefits of fermented foods have been intensively investigated; identification of bioactive peptides and microbial metabolites in fermented foods that can positively affect human health has consolidated this interest. Each fermented food typically hosts a distinct population of microorganisms. Once ingested, nutrients and microorganisms from fermented foods may survive to interact with the gut microbiome, which can now be resolved at the species and strain level by metagenomics. Transient or long-term colonization of the gut by fermented food strains or impacts of fermented foods on indigenous gut microbes can therefore be determined. This review considers the primary food fermentation pathways and microorganisms involved, the potential health benefits, and the ability of these foodstuffs to impact the gut microbiome once ingested either through compounds produced during the fermentation process or through interactions with microorganisms from the fermented food that are capable of surviving in the gastro-intestinal transit. This review clearly shows that fermented foods can affect the gut microbiome in both the short and long term, and should be considered an important element of the human diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Review
What Is a 2021 Reference Body?
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1526; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071526 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 785
Abstract
The historical 1975 Reference Man is a ‘model’ that had been used as a basis for the calculation of radiation doses, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, sizes for organ transplantation and ergonomic optimizations in the industry, e.g., to plan dimensions of seats and other formats. The [...] Read more.
The historical 1975 Reference Man is a ‘model’ that had been used as a basis for the calculation of radiation doses, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, sizes for organ transplantation and ergonomic optimizations in the industry, e.g., to plan dimensions of seats and other formats. The 1975 Reference Man was not an average individual of a population; it was based on the multiple characteristics of body compositions that at that time were available, i.e., mainly from autopsy data. Faced with recent technological advances, new mathematical models and socio-demographic changes within populations characterized by an increase in elderly and overweight subjects a timely ‘state-of-the-art’ 2021 Reference Body are needed. To perform this, in vivo human body composition data bases in Kiel, Baton Rouge, San Francisco and Honolulu were analyzed and detailed 2021 Reference Bodies, and they were built for both sexes and two age groups (≤40 yrs and >40 yrs) at BMIs of 20, 25, 30 and 40 kg/m2. We have taken an integrative approach to address ‘structure–structure’ and ‘structure–function’ relationships at the whole-body level using in depth body composition analyses as assessed by gold standard methods, i.e., whole body Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and the 4-compartment (4C-) model (based on deuterium dilution, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and body densitometry). In addition, data obtained by a three-dimensional optical scanner were used to assess body shape. The future applications of the 2021 Reference Body relate to mathematical modeling to address complex metabolic processes and pharmacokinetics using a multi-level/multi-scale approach defining health within the contexts of neurohumoral and metabolic control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
Effect of Long-Term Hydroxytyrosol Administration on Body Weight, Fat Mass and Urine Metabolomics: A Randomized Double-Blind Prospective Human Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1525; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071525 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 820
Abstract
Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a natural antioxidant found in olive products and characterized by well-documented beneficial effects on human health. Several research studies are ongoing that aim to investigate its potency and molecular mechanism of action. The present study aimed to investigate the potential [...] Read more.
Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a natural antioxidant found in olive products and characterized by well-documented beneficial effects on human health. Several research studies are ongoing that aim to investigate its potency and molecular mechanism of action. The present study aimed to investigate the potential effect of HT on human obesity through a randomized double-blind prospective design. HT in two different doses (15 and 5 mg/day) and a placebo capsule was administered to 29 women with overweight/obesity for six months and their weight and fat mass were monitored at three time points (baseline, 4, 12 and 24 weeks). Statistically significant weight and visceral fat mass loss (%weight loss: p = 0.012, %visceral fat loss: p = 0.006) were observed in the group receiving the maximum HT dosage versus placebo after 4 weeks of the intervention, with attenuation of these findings at 12 and 24 weeks of the study. Urine samples were collected during the intervention and analyzed via liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry for untargeted metabolomic purposes and comparisons between study groups were performed. HT administration was safe and well-tolerated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first human cohort investigating the effects of HT on obesity for a prolonged study period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Obesity)
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Review
Whey Protein, Leucine- and Vitamin-D-Enriched Oral Nutritional Supplementation for the Treatment of Sarcopenia
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1524; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071524 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1130
Abstract
Sarcopenia has been recognized as a muscle disease, with adverse consequences on health. Updated recommendations, aimed at increasing awareness of sarcopenia and its accompanying risks, have been produced to urge the early detection and treatment of this disease. Recommended treatment is based on [...] Read more.
Sarcopenia has been recognized as a muscle disease, with adverse consequences on health. Updated recommendations, aimed at increasing awareness of sarcopenia and its accompanying risks, have been produced to urge the early detection and treatment of this disease. Recommended treatment is based on an individually tailored resistance exercise training program, the optimization of protein intake using high-quality protein sources (i.e., whey protein) in order to provide a high amount of essential amino acids—particularly leucine—and addressing vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency. The purpose of this review is to collate and describe all of the relevant efficacy studies carried out with a muscle-targeted oral nutritional supplementation (MT-ONS)—namely a whey-protein-based, leucine- and vitamin D-enriched formula aimed at optimizing their intake and satisfying their requirements—in different patient populations and clinical settings in order to determine if there is enough evidence to recommend prescription for the treatment of sarcopenia or its prevention in high-risk patient populations. Trials using a MT-ONS with or without a concomitant physical exercise program were systematically searched (up to June 2021), and those addressing relevant endpoints (muscle mass, physical performance and function) were critically reviewed. In total, 10 articles providing efficacy data from eight trials were identified and narratively reviewed. As far as older patients with sarcopenia are concerned, MT-ONS has been pertinently tested in six clinical trials (duration 4–52 weeks), mostly using a high-quality randomized controlled trial design and demonstrating efficacy in increasing the muscle mass and strength, as well as the physical performance versus iso-caloric placebo or standard practice. Consistent results have been observed in various clinical settings (community, rehabilitation centers, care homes), with or without adjunctive physical exercise programs. A positive effect on markers of inflammation has also been shown. A muscle-protein-sparing effect, with benefits on physical performance and function, has also been demonstrated in patients at risk of losing skeletal muscle mass (three trials), such as older patients undergoing weight loss or intensive rehabilitation programs associated with neurological disability (Parkinson’s disease). MT-ONS has demonstrated not only a significant efficacy in clinical variables, but also a positive impact on healthcare resource consumption in the rehabilitation setting (length of stay and duration of rehabilitation). In summary, MT-ONS, alone or in association with an appropriate exercise program, is an effective therapy for older patients with sarcopenia and should be offered as a first-line treatment, not only to improve clinical outcomes but also to reduce healthcare resource consumption, particularly in patients admitted to a rehabilitation center. Full article
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Article
The Association between Lead Exposure and Bone Mineral Density in Childhood and Adolescence: Results from NHANES 1999–2006 and 2011–2018
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1523; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071523 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 574
Abstract
There are few studies on lead’s effect on bone mineral density (BMD) in childhood. In this study, we examined the association between lead exposure and BMD among 13,951 children and adolescents aged 8–19 years from NHANES 1999–2006 and 2011–2018. The whole blood lead [...] Read more.
There are few studies on lead’s effect on bone mineral density (BMD) in childhood. In this study, we examined the association between lead exposure and BMD among 13,951 children and adolescents aged 8–19 years from NHANES 1999–2006 and 2011–2018. The whole blood lead levels (BLLs) were used as lead exposure biomarkers, and total BMD, subtotal BMD, lumbar spine BMD and limb BMD were used as outcome variables. The survey weighted multivariable generalized additive models (GAMs) with smoothing terms were used to explore the association between blood lead levels and BMDs, adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, height, weight, family-income-to-poverty ratio and blood cadmium. Subgroup analyses stratified by sex and bony sites were further performed. We found an N-shaped curve association between BLLs and total BMD, subtotal BMD and limb BMD for males and females, whereas the association between BLLs and lumbar spine BMD was only significantly negative for females. The findings suggested that lead exposure had different effects on BMD of different bony sites (highly cortical or trabecular regions) in childhood and adolescence and had different effects on the same bone among different ages population and/or at different levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition Methodology & Assessment)
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Review
Astaxanthin Bioactivity Is Determined by Stereoisomer Composition and Extraction Method
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1522; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071522 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 533
Abstract
Astaxanthin (ASX) is a natural product and one of the most powerful antioxidants known. It has significant effects on the metabolism of many animals, increasing fecundity, egg yolk volume, growth rates, immune responses, and disease resistance. A large part of the bioactivity of [...] Read more.
Astaxanthin (ASX) is a natural product and one of the most powerful antioxidants known. It has significant effects on the metabolism of many animals, increasing fecundity, egg yolk volume, growth rates, immune responses, and disease resistance. A large part of the bioactivity of ASX is due to its targeting of mitochondria, where it inserts itself into cell membranes. Here, ASX stabilizes membranes and acts as a powerful antioxidant, protecting mitochondria from damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are ubiquitous by-products of energy metabolism that must be tightly regulated by cells, lest they bind to and inactivate proteins, DNA and RNA, lipids, and signaling molecules. Most animals cannot synthesize ASX, so they need to acquire it in their diet. ASX is easily thermally denatured during extraction, and its high hydrophobicity limits its bioavailability. Our focus in this review is to contrast the bioactivity of different ASX stereoisomers and how extraction methods can denature ASX, compromising its bioavailability and bioactivity. We discuss the commercial sources of astaxanthin, structure of stereoisomers, relative bioavailability and bioactivity of ASX stereoisomers, mechanisms of ASX bioactivity, evolution of carotenoids, and why mitochondrial targeting makes ASX such an effective antioxidant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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Review
Neophobia—A Natural Developmental Stage or Feeding Difficulties for Children?
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1521; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071521 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 758
Abstract
Food neophobia is the tendency to reject or be reluctant to try new and unfamiliar foods. Due to the period of its occurrence, which falls in the years of early childhood, it can significantly affect the child’s food choices, shape taste preferences, and [...] Read more.
Food neophobia is the tendency to reject or be reluctant to try new and unfamiliar foods. Due to the period of its occurrence, which falls in the years of early childhood, it can significantly affect the child’s food choices, shape taste preferences, and significantly influence the quality of the child’s diet. The neophobic attitude has an important evolutionary significance because it protects the individual from ingesting potentially dangerous substances. On the other hand, it fosters avoidance behaviors that can also relate to the beneficial aspects of obtaining and consuming food. Currently, the strong emphasis placed on food safety means that neophobia may be less adaptive; nevertheless, a conservative attitude toward new foods still prevails. There is a strong association between food neophobia and the diversity of a person’s diet and previous exposure to different foods. This review describes behaviors associated with food neophobia and analyzes other feeding and eating difficulties in children that should be differentiated from food neophobia. Management approaches affecting the reduction in food neophobia in children through various dietary and psychological interventions are also proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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Article
Effect of a Fixed Combination of Curcumin, Artemisia, Bromelain, and Black Pepper Oral Administration on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Indices in Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1520; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071520 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 639
Abstract
Background: To investigate the effects of a fixed combination of Curcumin (200 mg), Artemisia (80 mg), Bromelain (80 mg), and Black pepper (2 mg) on vascular parameters in mild to moderate diabetic macular edema (DME). Design: Prospective, case-control study. Methods: Fifty-six patients affected [...] Read more.
Background: To investigate the effects of a fixed combination of Curcumin (200 mg), Artemisia (80 mg), Bromelain (80 mg), and Black pepper (2 mg) on vascular parameters in mild to moderate diabetic macular edema (DME). Design: Prospective, case-control study. Methods: Fifty-six patients affected by diabetes mellitus type II were enrolled in the study. Twenty-eight patients with DME received 2 tablets/day, before meals of a dietary complementary supplement containing in fixed combination Curcumin (200 mg), Artemisia (80 mg), Bromelain (80 mg), and Black pepper (2 mg) (Intravit®, OFFHEALTH Spa, Firenze, Italy) for 6 months. Twenty-eight age-matched subjects affected by diabetes mellitus type II were given placebo and served as control group. Patients underwent best correct visual acuity (BCVA), swept optical coherence tomography (OCT), and OCT-Angiography (OCTA). OCTA images of the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP) were obtained for each eye. By the end of the follow-up patients were defined responder to the therapy when a decrease of more than 30 μm was registered in central retinal thickness (CRT) measurement, while a poor responder was determined by the absence of reduction or an increase in central retinal thickness at 6 months. We assessed the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, vessel density and quantified the number of microaneurysms in each layer. Results: A significant improvement of BCVA and CRT reduction was recorded at 6 months follow-up in the dietary complementary supplementation group compared to control (respectively p = 0.028 and p = 0.0003). VD of the total capillary plexus, microaneurysms count, glycaemia and HbA1c did not vary over the follow-up period between groups. Within the Intravit® group, poor responders tended to show a larger FAZ area, more microaneurysms, and a lower VD in the DCP compared to the good responders group (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: A fixed combination of Curcumin, Artemisia, Bromelain, and Black pepper oral administration may have a positive impact on central retinal thickness, visual acuity, and VD of the DCP in compensated type 2 diabetic patients with mild DME. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Diabetes)
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Article
An Environmental and Nutritional Evaluation of School Food Menus in Bahia, Brazil That Contribute to Local Public Policy to Promote Sustainability
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1519; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071519 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 799
Abstract
Aimed at improving the quality of school meals, the Sustainable School Program (SSP) implemented low-carbon meals, twice a week, in 155 schools of 4 municipalities, reaching more than 32,000 students. This study evaluated the environmental impact and nutritional viability of this intervention for [...] Read more.
Aimed at improving the quality of school meals, the Sustainable School Program (SSP) implemented low-carbon meals, twice a week, in 155 schools of 4 municipalities, reaching more than 32,000 students. This study evaluated the environmental impact and nutritional viability of this intervention for this population. The 15 most repeated meals from the conventional and sustainable menus were selected, and we considered the school age group and number of meals served per student/day. Nutritional information was calculated using validated food composition tables, nutritional adequacy was assessed using National School Feeding Program (PNAE) requirements, the level of processing was considered using NOVA classification, and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) were estimated using food life cycle assessment (LCA) validated data. We found both conventional and sustainable food menus are equivalent, in terms of nutrients, except for calcium, iron, and magnesium. Sustainable food menus were cholesterol-free. However, there was a reduction of up to 17% in GHGE, depending on the school age group analysed. Considering the greater energy efficiency and lower environmental impact of these food menus, the SSP, therefore, demonstrates that a substantial reduction in climate impact is feasible, successful, and can be an inspiration to other regions globally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Systems for Nutrition in Low Resource Settings)
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Article
Modelling the Impact of Reducing Ultra-Processed Foods Based on the NOVA Classification in Australian Women of Reproductive Age
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1518; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071518 - 05 Apr 2022
Viewed by 633
Abstract
Women of reproductive age have a high proportion of overweight/obesity and an overall poor nutritional intake and diet quality. Nutritional modelling is a method to forecast potential changes in nutrition composition that may offer feasible and realistic changes to dietary intake. This study [...] Read more.
Women of reproductive age have a high proportion of overweight/obesity and an overall poor nutritional intake and diet quality. Nutritional modelling is a method to forecast potential changes in nutrition composition that may offer feasible and realistic changes to dietary intake. This study uses simulation modelling to estimate feasible population improvements in dietary profile by reducing ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption in Australian women of reproductive age. The simulation used weighted data from the most recent 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. A total of 2749 women aged 19–50 years was included, and 5740 foods were examined. The highest daily energy, saturated fat, and added sugar and sodium came from UPF. Reducing UPF by 50% decreased energy intake by 22%, and saturated fat, added sugar, sodium, and alcohol by 10–39%. Reducing UPF by 50% and increasing unprocessed or minimally processed foods by 25% led to a lower estimated reduction in energy and greater estimated reductions in saturated fat and sodium. Replacement of 50% UPF with 75% of unprocessed or minimally processed foods led to smaller estimated reductions in energy and nutrients. Our results provide insight as to the potential impact of population reductions in UPF, but also increasing intake of unprocessed or minimally processed foods, which may be the most feasible strategy for improved nutritional intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Eating in Relation to National Dietary Guidelines)
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Article
Diets with Higher Vegetable Intake and Lower Environmental Impact: Evidence from a Large Australian Population Health Survey
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1517; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071517 - 05 Apr 2022
Viewed by 852
Abstract
Increasing the consumption of vegetables is a public health nutrition priority in Australia. This must be achieved in the context of lowering dietary environmental impacts. In this study, a subgroup of 1700 Australian adult daily diets having a higher diet-quality score and a [...] Read more.
Increasing the consumption of vegetables is a public health nutrition priority in Australia. This must be achieved in the context of lowering dietary environmental impacts. In this study, a subgroup of 1700 Australian adult daily diets having a higher diet-quality score and a lower environmental impact score was isolated from Australian Health Survey data. These diets were primarily distinguished by their lower content of energy-dense/nutrient-poor discretionary foods. Among these diets, those with higher levels of vegetable intake were characterized by greater variety of vegetables eaten, lower intake of bread and cereal foods, and higher intake of red meat. These diets also had a greater likelihood of achieving recommended intakes for a range of vitamins and minerals. These findings highlighted the importance of considering the total diet in developing strategies to promote healthy and sustainable food consumption, as well as the need to understand the interrelationships between foods that exist in a local cultural context. As vegetables are usually eaten with other foods, higher vegetable consumption in Australia could be supported by encouraging more regular consumption of the types of meals that include larger quantities of vegetables. Our results showed that this was possible while also substantially lowering total dietary environmental impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
Article
Elimination of Vitamin D Signaling Causes Increased Mortality in a Model of Overactivation of the Insulin Receptor: Role of Lipid Metabolism
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1516; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071516 - 05 Apr 2022
Viewed by 702
Abstract
Vitamin D (VD) deficiency has been associated with cancer and diabetes. Insulin signaling through the insulin receptor (IR) stimulates cellular responses by activating the PI3K/AKT pathway. PTEN is a tumor suppressor and a negative regulator of the pathway. Its absence enhances insulin signaling [...] Read more.
Vitamin D (VD) deficiency has been associated with cancer and diabetes. Insulin signaling through the insulin receptor (IR) stimulates cellular responses by activating the PI3K/AKT pathway. PTEN is a tumor suppressor and a negative regulator of the pathway. Its absence enhances insulin signaling leading to hypoglycemia, a dangerous complication found after insulin overdose. We analyzed the effect of VD signaling in a model of overactivation of the IR. We generated inducible double KO (DKO) mice for the VD receptor (VDR) and PTEN. DKO mice showed severe hypoglycemia, lower total cholesterol and increased mortality. No macroscopic tumors were detected. Analysis of the glucose metabolism did not show clear differences that would explain the increased mortality. Glucose supplementation, either systemically or directly into the brain, did not enhance DKO survival. Lipidic liver metabolism was altered as there was a delay in the activation of genes related to β-oxidation and a decrease in lipogenesis in DKO mice. High-fat diet administration in DKO significantly improved its life span. Lack of vitamin D signaling increases mortality in a model of overactivation of the IR by impairing lipid metabolism. Clinically, these results reveal the importance of adequate Vitamin D levels in T1D patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D Receptor in Human Health and Disease)
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Impact of Diet Quality during Pregnancy on Gestational Weight Gain and Selected Adipokines—Results of a German Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1515; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071515 - 05 Apr 2022
Viewed by 814
Abstract
While nutrition during pregnancy is critical for the health of both mother and child, little is known about the diet quality of women during pregnancy, its correlation with gestational weight gain (GWG)/body composition, and chosen maternal adipokines. Therefore, we evaluated the Healthy Eating [...] Read more.
While nutrition during pregnancy is critical for the health of both mother and child, little is known about the diet quality of women during pregnancy, its correlation with gestational weight gain (GWG)/body composition, and chosen maternal adipokines. Therefore, we evaluated the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) of 110 pregnant women and analyzed its correlation with GWG/body composition, physical activity, leptin, resistin, adiponectin, and interleukin 6 (IL-6), respectively. Diet quality was medium in 63% of women, characterized by a high intake of animal-based products. HEI was negatively influenced by pre-pregnancy obesity (β = −0.335, p = 0.004), and positively influenced by higher age (>35 yrs., β = 0.365, p ≤ 0.001), upper arm circumference (β = 0.222, p = 0.052), and total activity during the third trimester (β = 0.258, p = 0.008). GWG was associated with pre-pregnancy obesity (β = −0.512, p ≤ 0.001), thigh circumference (β = 0.342, p = 0.007), upper arm fat area (β = 0.208, p = 0.092), and maternal age group (>35 yrs. β = −0.166, p = 0.082), but not with HEI. Leptin and IL-6 displayed associations with variables representative of body composition, such as pre-pregnancy BMI, thigh circumference, upper arm fat area, and upper arm circumference, but were not influenced by HEI. Neither were adiponectin and resistin. IL-6 was also associated with total activity. In conclusion, GWG, leptin, and IL-6 were influenced by nutritional status (body composition/pre-pregnancy BMI), not by maternal diet. Physical activity level also had an impact on IL-6. Thus, efforts should be intensified to improve diet quality and participation in sports before and during pregnancy, particularly in overweight or obese women. Full article
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Article
Association between Mother’s Education and Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices in South Asia
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1514; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071514 - 05 Apr 2022
Viewed by 515
Abstract
The association between mother’s education and the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) eight Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) core indicators has yet to be explored in South Asia (SA). This study aimed to explore the association between mother’s education and the WHO’s eight [...] Read more.
The association between mother’s education and the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) eight Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) core indicators has yet to be explored in South Asia (SA). This study aimed to explore the association between mother’s education and the WHO’s eight IYCF core indicators in SA. We analyzed data from the most recent nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys of six South Asian Countries (SACs)—Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Nepal, and Pakistan. We found significantly higher odds (adjusted odds ratio, AOR, 1.13 to 1.47) among mothers who completed secondary or higher education than among mothers with education levels below secondary for the following seven IYCF indicators: early initiation of breastfeeding (EIBF), exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months (EBF), the introduction of solid, semisolid or soft foods (ISSSF), minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF), minimum acceptable diet (MAD), and consumption of iron-rich or iron-fortified foods (CIRF); the exception was for the indicator of continued breastfeeding at one year. Country-specific analyses revealed significantly higher odds in EIBF (AOR 1.14; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.18) and EBF (AOR 1.27; 95% CI: 1.19, 1.34) among mothers with secondary or higher education levels in India. In contrast, the odds were lower for EIBF in Bangladesh and for EBF in Pakistan among mothers with secondary or higher education levels. For country-specific analyses for complementary feeding indicators such as ISSSF, MDD, MMF, MAD, and CIRF, significantly higher odds (AOR, 1.15 to 2.34) were also observed among mothers with secondary or higher education levels. These findings demonstrate a strong positive association between mother’s education and IYCF indicators. Strengthening national policies to educate women at least to the secondary level in SACs might be a cost-effective intervention for improving IYCF practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Nutrition)
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Article
Basal Serum Diamine Oxidase Levels as a Biomarker of Histamine Intolerance: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1513; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071513 - 05 Apr 2022
Viewed by 609
Abstract
Background: Histamine Intolerance (HIT) is a multifaceted pseudoallergic disorder possibly due to defective histamine metabolism. Diamine oxidase (DAO) contributes to histamine degradation and can be measured in the serum. The role of DAO measurement in the diagnostic work-up of HIT still remains unclear, [...] Read more.
Background: Histamine Intolerance (HIT) is a multifaceted pseudoallergic disorder possibly due to defective histamine metabolism. Diamine oxidase (DAO) contributes to histamine degradation and can be measured in the serum. The role of DAO measurement in the diagnostic work-up of HIT still remains unclear, and conflicting results have been reported in the literature. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the possible clinical usefulness and consistency of DAO value ranges as provided by the assay manufacturer and verify whether they could predict the response to treatment. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 192 outpatients with HIT symptoms and measured serum DAO values at baseline. Patients were prescribed either with low-histamine diet and/or enzymatic supplementation according to symptom severity and re-evaluated six to eight months later. Patients were stratified into three groups according to DAO levels: <3 U/mL, 3–10 U/mL, and >10 U/mL. HIT severity was assessed on a scale of 1 to 5 before and after treatment. Results: A total of 146 patients completed the study. Gastrointestinal and cutaneous symptoms, often associated with headache, were more frequent in subjects with DAO < 10 U/mL. Symptom severity and DAO ranges were correlated. Patients with intermediate DAO levels (3–10 U/mL) showed a more complex clinical phenotype but also a more significant improvement in symptom severity (score reduction 50%, interquartile range (IQR) = 33–60%) when compared to patients with low DAO (40%, IQR = 20–60%; p = 0.045) or high DAO (33%, IQR = 0–50%; p < 0.001). Complex clinical phenotypes were also more frequent in patients with intermediate DAO levels. Conclusions: HIT is characterized by typical symptoms and low levels of DAO activity. Symptom severity was associated with the degree of DAO deficiency. Patients with DAO values between 3 and 10 U/mL show the best response to treatment (low-histamine diet and/or DAO supplementation). DAO value could arguably be considered as a predictor of clinical response to treatment. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Unfolding New Evidence on Histamine Intolerance)
Article
Gastrointestinal Protein Hydrolysis Kinetics: Opportunities for Further Infant Formula Improvement
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1512; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071512 - 05 Apr 2022
Viewed by 599
Abstract
The postprandial plasma essential amino acid (AA) peak concentrations of infant formula (IF) are higher than those of human milk (HM) in infants. In addition, several HM proteins have been recovered intact in infant stool and appeared digestion resistant in vitro. We, therefore, [...] Read more.
The postprandial plasma essential amino acid (AA) peak concentrations of infant formula (IF) are higher than those of human milk (HM) in infants. In addition, several HM proteins have been recovered intact in infant stool and appeared digestion resistant in vitro. We, therefore, hypothesized that gastrointestinal protein hydrolysis of IF is faster than HM and leads to accelerated absorbable digestion product release. HM and IF protein hydrolysis kinetics were compared in a two-step semi-dynamic in vitro infant digestion model, and the time course of degree of protein hydrolysis (DH), loss of intact protein, and release of free AA and peptides was evaluated. Gastric DH increase was similar for IF and HM, but the rate of intestinal DH increase was 1.6 times higher for IF than HM. Intact protein loss in IF was higher than HM from 120 min gastric phase until 60 min intestinal phase. Intestinal phase total digestion product (free AA + peptides <5 kDa) concentrations increased ~2.5 times faster in IF than HM. IF gastrointestinal protein hydrolysis and absorbable product release are faster than HM, possibly due to the presence of digestion-resistant proteins in HM. This might present an opportunity to further improve IF bringing it closer to HM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cow's Milk and Human Health)
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Article
Circulating Human Serum Metabolites Derived from the Intake of a Saffron Extract (Safr’InsideTM) Protect Neurons from Oxidative Stress: Consideration for Depressive Disorders
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1511; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071511 - 05 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1037
Abstract
Increases in oxidative stress have been reported to play a central role in the vulnerability to depression, and antidepressant drugs may reduce increased oxidative stress in patients. Among the plants exerting anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties, saffron, a spice derived from the flower of [...] Read more.
Increases in oxidative stress have been reported to play a central role in the vulnerability to depression, and antidepressant drugs may reduce increased oxidative stress in patients. Among the plants exerting anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties, saffron, a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, is also known for its positive effects on depression, potentially through its SSRI-like properties. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects and their health benefits for humans are currently unclear. Using an original ex vivo clinical approach, we demonstrated for the first time that the circulating human metabolites produced following saffron intake (Safr’InsideTM) protect human neurons from oxidative-stress-induced neurotoxicity by preserving cell viability and increasing BNDF production. In particular, the metabolites significantly stimulated both dopamine and serotonin release. In addition, the saffron’s metabolites were also able to protect serotonergic tone by inhibiting the expression of the serotonin transporter SERT and down-regulating serotonin metabolism. Altogether, these data provide new biochemical insights into the mechanisms underlying the beneficial impact of saffron on neuronal viability and activity in humans, in the context of oxidative stress related to depression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotene and Carotenoids and Human Health)
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Article
Use of the β-Glucan-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains Levilactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus claussenii for Sourdough Fermentation—Chemical Characterization and Chemopreventive Potential of In Situ-Enriched Wheat and Rye Sourdoughs and Breads
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1510; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071510 - 05 Apr 2022
Viewed by 559
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to examine β-glucan production and the potential prebiotic and chemopreventive effects of wheat and rye sourdoughs and breads generated with wild-type and non-β-glucan-forming isogenic mutant strains of Levilactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus claussenii. Sourdough and bread [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to examine β-glucan production and the potential prebiotic and chemopreventive effects of wheat and rye sourdoughs and breads generated with wild-type and non-β-glucan-forming isogenic mutant strains of Levilactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus claussenii. Sourdough and bread samples were subjected to in vitro digestion and fermentation. Fermentation supernatants (FS) and pellets (FP) were analyzed (pH values, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), ammonia, bacterial taxa) and the effects of FS on LT97 colon adenoma cell growth, viability, caspase-2 and -3 activity, genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects and on gene and protein expression of p21, cyclin D2, catalase and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) were examined. Concentrations of SCFA were increased and concentrations of ammonia were partly reduced in the FS. The relative abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae was increased in all FPs. Treatment with FS reduced the growth and viability of LT97 cells and significantly increased caspase-2 and -3 activities without exhibiting genotoxic or antigenotoxic effects. The p21 mRNA and protein levels were increased while that of cyclin D2 was reduced. Catalase and SOD2 mRNA and protein expression were marginally induced. The presented results indicate a comparable chemopreventive potential of wheat and rye sourdoughs and breads without an additional effect of the formed β-glucan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Review
The Role of Intermittent Energy Restriction Diet on Metabolic Profile and Weight Loss among Obese Adults
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1509; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071509 - 05 Apr 2022
Viewed by 979
Abstract
Obesity is a disease defined by an elevated body mass index (BMI), which is the result of excessive or abnormal accumulation of fat. Dietary intervention is fundamental and essential as the first-line treatment for obese patients, and the main rule of every dietary [...] Read more.
Obesity is a disease defined by an elevated body mass index (BMI), which is the result of excessive or abnormal accumulation of fat. Dietary intervention is fundamental and essential as the first-line treatment for obese patients, and the main rule of every dietary modification is calorie restriction and consequent weight loss. Intermittent energy restriction (IER) is a special type of diet consisting of intermittent pauses in eating. There are many variations of IER diets such as alternate-day fasting (ADF) and time-restricted feeding (TRF). In the literature, the IER diet is known as an effective method for bodyweight reduction. Furthermore, IER diets have a beneficial effect on systolic or diastolic pressure, lipid profile, and glucose homeostasis. In addition, IER diets are presented as being as efficient as a continuous energy restriction diet (CER) in losing weight and improving metabolic parameters. Thus, the IER diet could present an alternative option for those who cannot accept a constant food regimen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Specialized Diet, Obesity and Associated Metabolic Disorders)
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Article
Polygonum cuspidatum Extract (Pc-Ex) Containing Emodin Suppresses Lung Cancer-Induced Cachexia by Suppressing TCF4/TWIST1 Complex-Induced PTHrP Expression
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1508; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071508 - 05 Apr 2022
Viewed by 756
Abstract
Cachexia, which is characterised by the wasting of fat and skeletal muscles, is the most common risk factor for increased mortality rates among patients with advanced lung cancer. PTHLH (parathyroid hormone-like hormone) is reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of cancer cachexia. [...] Read more.
Cachexia, which is characterised by the wasting of fat and skeletal muscles, is the most common risk factor for increased mortality rates among patients with advanced lung cancer. PTHLH (parathyroid hormone-like hormone) is reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of cancer cachexia. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of PTHLH expression and the inhibitors of PTHLH have not yet been identified. The PTHLH mRNA levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, while the PTHrP (parathyroid hormone-related protein) expression levels were measured using Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The interaction between TCF4 (Transcription Factor 4) and TWIST1 and the binding of the TCF4–TWIST1 complex to the PTHLH promoter were analysed using co-immunoprecipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation. The results of the mammalian two-hybrid luciferase assay revealed that emodin inhibited TCF4–TWIST1 interaction. The effects of Polygonum cuspidatum extract (Pc-Ex), which contains emodin, on cachexia were investigated in vivo using A549 tumour-bearing mice. Ectopic expression of TCF4 upregulated PTHLH expression. Conversely, TCF4 knockdown downregulated PTHLH expression in lung cancer cells. The expression of PTHLH was upregulated in cells ectopically co-expressing TCF4 and TWIST1 when compared with that in cells expressing TCF4 or TWIST1 alone. Emodin inhibited the interaction between TCF4 and TWIST1 and consequently suppressed the TCF4/TWIST1 complex-induced upregulated mRNA and protein levels of PTHLH and PTHrP. Meanwhile, emodin-containing Pc-Ex significantly alleviated skeletal muscle atrophy and downregulated fat browning-related genes in A549 tumour-bearing mice. Emodin-containing Pc-Ex exerted therapeutic effects on lung cancer-associated cachexia by inhibiting TCF4/TWIST1 complex-induced PTHrP expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics)
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Article
Development of a Food Literacy Assessment Tool for Healthy, Joyful, and Sustainable Diet in South Korea
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1507; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071507 - 04 Apr 2022
Viewed by 634
Abstract
Background: Food literacy (FL) is important as the ability to consider the unique aspects of food in our lives, society, and environment. The main objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to revisit the definition of FL, considering the cultural, relational, and [...] Read more.
Background: Food literacy (FL) is important as the ability to consider the unique aspects of food in our lives, society, and environment. The main objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to revisit the definition of FL, considering the cultural, relational, and ecological aspects that were often neglected in previous research, and (2) to develop a measurement tool for adults. Methods: Expert workshops, the Delphi survey, the test–retest survey, and one-on-one interviews were conducted. The content validity ratio was calculated from the Delphi survey. The correlation coefficient of each item was measured twice, and the Cronbach’s alpha was calculated. Results: This study proposed a new definition of FL, including future-oriented values, and suggested three main domains with 33 items: (1) 14 questions in nutrition and safety FL (Cronbach’s α = 0.877, average correlation coefficient = 0.70), (2) 8 questions in cultural and relational FL (Cronbach’s α = 0.705, average correlation coefficient = 0.71), and (3) 11 questions in socio-ecological FL (Cronbach’s α = 0.737, average correlation coefficient = 0.61). Conclusions: This newly developed questionnaire should be tested in different populations; however, this questionnaire can be a basis for measuring and improving FL for healthy, joyful, and sustainable diets for adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
Parental Prepuberty Overweight and Offspring Lung Function
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1506; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071506 - 04 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 739
Abstract
In a recent study we found that fathers’ but not mothers’ onset of overweight in puberty was associated with asthma in adult offspring. The potential impact on offspring’s adult lung function, a key marker of general and respiratory health, has not been studied. [...] Read more.
In a recent study we found that fathers’ but not mothers’ onset of overweight in puberty was associated with asthma in adult offspring. The potential impact on offspring’s adult lung function, a key marker of general and respiratory health, has not been studied. We investigated the potential causal effects of parents’ overweight on adult offspring’s lung function within the paternal and maternal lines. We included 929 offspring (aged 18–54, 54% daughters) of 308 fathers and 388 mothers (aged 40–66). Counterfactual-based multi-group mediation analyses by offspring’s sex (potential moderator) were used, with offspring’s prepubertal overweight and/or adult height as potential mediators. Unknown confounding was addressed by simulation analyses. Fathers’ overweight before puberty had a negative indirect effect, mediated through sons’ height, on sons’ forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (beta (95% CI): −144 (−272, −23) mL) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (beta (95% CI): −210 (−380, −34) mL), and a negative direct effect on sons’ FVC (beta (95% CI): −262 (−501, −9) mL); statistically significant effects on FEV1/FVC were not observed. Mothers’ overweight before puberty had neither direct nor indirect effects on offspring’s lung function. Fathers’ overweight starting before puberty appears to cause lower FEV1 and FVC in their future sons. The effects were partly mediated through sons’ adult height but not through sons’ prepubertal overweight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Fathers and Offspring Health: Epigenetic Insights)
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Article
The Tobacco β-Cembrenediol: A Prostate Cancer Recurrence Suppressor Lead and Prospective Scaffold via Modulation of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase and Tryptophan Dioxygenase
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1505; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071505 - 04 Apr 2022
Viewed by 588
Abstract
Prostate cancer (PC) is the second leading cause of death in men in the US. PC has a high recurrence rate, and limited therapeutic options are available to prevent disease recurrence. The tryptophan-degrading enzymes 2,3-indoleamine dioxygenase (IDO1) and tryptophan dioxygenase (TDO2) are upregulated [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer (PC) is the second leading cause of death in men in the US. PC has a high recurrence rate, and limited therapeutic options are available to prevent disease recurrence. The tryptophan-degrading enzymes 2,3-indoleamine dioxygenase (IDO1) and tryptophan dioxygenase (TDO2) are upregulated in invasive PC. (1S,2E,4R,6R,7E,11E)-2,7,11-cembratriene-4,6-diol (β-CBT) and its C-4 epimer α-CBT are the precursors to key flavor ingredients in tobacco leaves. Nearly 40–60% of β- and α-CBT are purposely degraded during commercial tobacco fermentation. Earlier, β-CBT inhibited invasion, reversed calcitonin-stimulated transepithelial resistance decrease, and induced tighter intercellular barriers in PC-3M cells. This study demonstrates the in vitro β-CBT anti-migratory (wound-healing assay) and anti-clonogenicity (colony-formation assay) activities against five diverse human PC cell lines, including the androgen-independent PC-3, PC-3M, and DU-145, the castration-recurrent CWR-R1ca, and the androgen-dependent CWR-22rv1. Meanwhile, β-CBT potently suppressed in vivo locoregional and distant recurrences after the primary tumor surgical excision of PC-3M-Luc cell tumor engrafted in male nude mice. β-CBT treatments suppressed organ and bone metastasis and lacked any major toxicity over the 60-day study course. β-CBT treatments significantly suppressed IDO1, TDO2, and their final metabolite kynurenine levels in PC-3M cells. β-CBT treatments significantly suppressed the tumor recurrence marker PSA and kynurenine levels in treated animals’ plasma. β-CBT emerges as a promising PC recurrence suppressive lead. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
Vitamin K2 Modulates Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced by 6-Hydroxydopamine in SH-SY5Y Cells via Mitochondrial Quality-Control Loop
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1504; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071504 - 04 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1491
Abstract
Vitamin K2, a natural fat-soluble vitamin, is a potent neuroprotective molecule, owing to its antioxidant effect, but its mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we stimulated SH-SY5Y cells with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in a proper dose-dependent manner, followed by a treatment of vitamin [...] Read more.
Vitamin K2, a natural fat-soluble vitamin, is a potent neuroprotective molecule, owing to its antioxidant effect, but its mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we stimulated SH-SY5Y cells with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in a proper dose-dependent manner, followed by a treatment of vitamin K2. In the presence of 6-OHDA, cell viability was reduced, the mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased, and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased. Moreover, the treatment of 6-OHDA promoted mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and abnormal mitochondrial fission and fusion. However, vitamin K2 significantly suppressed 6-OHDA-induced changes. Vitamin K2 played a significant part in apoptosis by upregulating and downregulating Bcl-2 and Bax protein expressions, respectively, which inhibited mitochondrial depolarization, and ROS accumulation to maintain mitochondrial structure and functional stabilities. Additionally, vitamin K2 significantly inhibited the 6-OHDA-induced downregulation of the MFN1/2 level and upregulation of the DRP1 level, respectively, and this enabled cells to maintain the dynamic balance of mitochondrial fusion and fission. Furthermore, vitamin K2 treatments downregulated the expression level of p62 and upregulated the expression level of LC3A in 6-OHDA-treated cells via the PINK1/Parkin signaling pathway, thereby promoting mitophagy. Moreover, it induced mitochondrial biogenesis in 6-OHDA damaged cells by promoting the expression of PGC-1α, NRF1, and TFAM. These indicated that vitamin K2 can release mitochondrial damage, and that this effect is related to the participation of vitamin K2 in the regulation of the mitochondrial quality-control loop, through the maintenance of the mitochondrial quality-control system, and repair mitochondrial dysfunction, thereby alleviating neuronal cell death mediated by mitochondrial damage. Full article
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Review
Diabetes and Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Interplay between Lipid and Glucose Metabolism
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1503; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071503 - 03 Apr 2022
Viewed by 854
Abstract
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disease characterized by high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations that increase cardiovascular risk and cause premature death. The most frequent cause of the disease is a mutation in the LDL receptor (LDLR) gene. Diabetes [...] Read more.
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disease characterized by high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations that increase cardiovascular risk and cause premature death. The most frequent cause of the disease is a mutation in the LDL receptor (LDLR) gene. Diabetes is also associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. People with FH seem to be protected from developing diabetes, whereas cholesterol-lowering treatments such as statins are associated with an increased risk of the disease. One of the hypotheses to explain this is based on the toxicity of LDL particles on insulin-secreting pancreatic β-cells, and their uptake by the latter, mediated by the LDLR. A healthy lifestyle and a relatively low body mass index in people with FH have also been proposed as explanations. Its association with superimposed diabetes modifies the phenotype of FH, both regarding the lipid profile and cardiovascular risk. However, findings regarding the association and interplay between these two diseases are conflicting. The present review summarizes the existing evidence and discusses knowledge gaps on the matter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Diabetes)
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Article
Food Neophobia, Familiarity with French Cuisine, Body Mass, and Restaurant Food Choices in a Sample of Polish Women
Nutrients 2022, 14(7), 1502; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14071502 - 03 Apr 2022
Viewed by 592
Abstract
Food neophobia, a condition characterized by a reluctance or avoidance of unknown foods and meals, may influence food choice, and is also associated with body mass and familiarity with food items. This study aimed to analyze the associations between food neophobia, familiarity with [...] Read more.
Food neophobia, a condition characterized by a reluctance or avoidance of unknown foods and meals, may influence food choice, and is also associated with body mass and familiarity with food items. This study aimed to analyze the associations between food neophobia, familiarity with French cuisine, body mass, and French restaurant menu food choices in a sample of 203 young Polish women. The Computer-Assisted Web Interview (CAWI) method was used in the study. The food choice questionnaire used for assessment was based on a model French restaurant menu, with dishes planned using a 2 × 2 factorial design for the components of neophobic potential (unfamiliar to Polish consumers) and animal-based components. Food neophobia, familiarity with French cuisine, and body mass were considered independent variables. The food neophobia scale (FNS) developed by Pliner and Hobden was used to assess food neophobia among respondents. The results showed an association between food neophobia and familiarity with French cuisine and French restaurant menu food choices (p ≤ 0.05), but no association with body mass was observed (p > 0.05). The respondents with a high level of food neophobia chose dishes with neophobic components (for soups and desserts) less often compared to those with a low neophobia level, and in the absence of such an association, they chose dishes with animal-based components (for starters and main courses) less often (p ≤ 0.05). The respondents who declared that they were familiar with French cuisine chose dishes with animal-based components (for starters and desserts) more often than those with no familiarity, but a reverse association was observed for soups (p ≤ 0.05). Based on the findings of the study, it may be concluded that food neophobia and familiarity with French cuisine may be important determinants of food choice within a French restaurant menu. The study did not show any association between body mass and the choice of dishes from the model French restaurant menu. The findings suggest that the presence of unfamiliar and animal-based ingredients may reduce the frequency of choosing specific dishes within a French restaurant menu, which may reduce the diversity of individuals’ diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Picky Eating Behavior—What Role Does It Play?)
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