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Nutrients, Volume 14, Issue 5 (March-1 2022) – 212 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Three classes of molecules present in chicory root were analyzed: fructose, chlorogenic acids, and sesquiterpene lactones. Experiments on the murine model led us to a nutrigenomic analysis, a metabolic hormone assay, and a gut microbiota analysis, associated with in vitro observations for different responses. We have highlighted a large number of effects of all these classes of molecules that suggest a pro-apoptotic activity, an anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and hypoglycemic effect, and a prebiotic role. Fructose seems to be the most involved in these activities, contributing to approximately 83% of recorded responses, but the other classes of tested molecules have shown a specific role for these different effects, with an estimated contribution of 23–24%. View this paper
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Article
Soy Formula Is Not Estrogenic and Does Not Result in Reproductive Toxicity in Male Piglets: Results from a Controlled Feeding Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1126; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051126 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 740
Abstract
Soy infant formula which is fed to over half a million infants per year contains isoflavones such as genistein, which have been shown to be estrogenic at high concentrations. The developing testis is sensitive to estrogens, raising concern that the use of soy [...] Read more.
Soy infant formula which is fed to over half a million infants per year contains isoflavones such as genistein, which have been shown to be estrogenic at high concentrations. The developing testis is sensitive to estrogens, raising concern that the use of soy formulas may result in male reproductive toxicity. In the current study, male White-Dutch Landrace piglets received either sow milk (Sow), or were provided milk formula (Milk), soy formula (Soy), milk formula supplemented with 17-beta-estradiol (2 mg/kg/d) (M + E2) or supplemented with genistein (84 mg/L of diet; (M + G) from postnatal day 2 until day 21. E2 treatment reduced testis weight (p < 0.05) as percentage of body weight, significantly suppressed serum androgen concentrations, increased tubule area, Germ cell and Sertoli cell numbers (p < 0.05) relative to those of Sow or Milk groups. Soy formula had no such effects relative to Sow or Milk groups. mRNAseq revealed 103 differentially expressed genes in the M + E2 group compared to the Milk group related to endocrine/metabolic disorders. However, little overlap was observed between the other treatment groups. These data suggest soy formula is not estrogenic in the male neonatal piglet and that soy formula does not significantly alter male reproductive development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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Article
Selenium Deficiency during Pregnancy in Mice Impairs Exercise Performance and Metabolic Function in Adult Offspring
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1125; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051125 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 732
Abstract
Selenium deficiency during the perinatal period programs metabolic dysfunction in offspring. Postnatal exercise may prevent the development of programmed metabolic disease. This study investigated the impact of selenium deficiency on offspring exercise behavior and whether this improved metabolic health. Female C57BL/6 mice were [...] Read more.
Selenium deficiency during the perinatal period programs metabolic dysfunction in offspring. Postnatal exercise may prevent the development of programmed metabolic disease. This study investigated the impact of selenium deficiency on offspring exercise behavior and whether this improved metabolic health. Female C57BL/6 mice were randomly allocated to control (NormalSe, >190 μg/Se/kg, n = 8) or low-selenium (LowSe, <50 μg/Se/kg, n = 8) diets from four weeks before mating. Male offspring were weaned at postnatal day (PN) twenty-four and placed on a normal chow diet. At PN60, mice were placed in cages with bi-directional running wheels and monitored until PN180. LowSe offspring had a reduced average weekly running speed and distance (p < 0.05). LowSe offspring exhibited glucose intolerance, with increased peak blood glucose (p < 0.05) and area under the curve following an intra-peritoneal injection of glucose (p < 0.05). Furthermore, mRNA expression of several selenoproteins within cardiac and skeletal muscle were increased in LowSe offspring (p < 0.05). The results indicated that selenium deficiency during development reduces exercise behavior. Furthermore, exercise does not prevent programmed glucose intolerance in low-selenium offspring. This highlights that exercise may not be the optimal intervention for metabolic disease in offspring impacted by selenium deficiency in early life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Selenium Intake and Human Health)
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Article
The Effect of Oral Probiotics (Streptococcus Salivarius k12) on the Salivary Level of Secretory Immunoglobulin A, Salivation Rate, and Oral Biofilm: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1124; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051124 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1246
Abstract
We aimed to assess the effect of oral probiotics containing the Streptococcus salivarius K12 strain on the salivary level of secretory immunoglobulin A, salivation rate, and oral biofilm. Thirty-one consenting patients meeting the inclusion criteria were recruited in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-arm, parallel-group [...] Read more.
We aimed to assess the effect of oral probiotics containing the Streptococcus salivarius K12 strain on the salivary level of secretory immunoglobulin A, salivation rate, and oral biofilm. Thirty-one consenting patients meeting the inclusion criteria were recruited in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-arm, parallel-group study and randomly divided into probiotic (n = 15) and placebo (n = 16) groups. Unstimulated salivation rate, concentration of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A, Turesky index, and Papillary-Marginal-Attached index were assessed after 4 weeks of intervention and 2 weeks of washout. Thirty patients completed the entire study protocol. We found no increase in salivary secretory immunoglobulin A levels and salivary flow rates in the probiotic group compared with placebo. Baseline and outcome salivary secretory immunoglobulin A concentrations (mg/L) were 226 ± 130 and 200 ± 113 for the probiotic group and 205 ± 92 and 191 ± 97 for the placebo group, respectively. A significant decrease in plaque accumulation was observed in the probiotic group at 4 and 6 weeks. Within the limitations of the present study, it may be concluded that probiotic intake (Streptococcus salivarius K12) does not affect salivation rates and secretory immunoglobulin A salivary levels but exhibits a positive effect on plaque accumulation. Trial registration NCT05039320. Funding: none. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
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A Decentralized Study Setup Enables to Quantify the Effect of Polymerization and Linkage of α-Glucans on Post-Prandial Glucose Response
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1123; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051123 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 664
Abstract
The complexity of the carbohydrate structure is associated with post-prandial glucose response and diverse health benefits. The aim of this study was to determine whether, thanks to the usage of minimally invasive glucose monitors, it was possible to evaluate, in a decentralized study [...] Read more.
The complexity of the carbohydrate structure is associated with post-prandial glucose response and diverse health benefits. The aim of this study was to determine whether, thanks to the usage of minimally invasive glucose monitors, it was possible to evaluate, in a decentralized study setup, the post-prandial glycemic response (PPGR) of α-glucans differing systematically in their degree of polymerization (DP 3 vs. DP 60) and in their linkage structure (dextrin vs. dextran). Ten healthy subjects completed a double-blind, randomized, decentralized crossover trial, testing at home, in real life conditions, four self-prepared test beverages consisting of 25 g α-glucan dissolved in 300 mL water. The incremental area under the curve of the 120 min PPGR (2h-iAUC) was the highest for Dextrin DP 3 (163 ± 27 mmol/L*min), followed by Dextrin DP 60 (−25%, p = 0.208), Dextran DP 60 (−59%, p = 0.002), and non-fully caloric Resistant Dextrin (−68%, p = 0.002). These results show that a fully decentralized crossover study can be successfully used to assess the influence of both polymerization and structure of α-glucans on PPGR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Carbohydrates)
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Article
Altered Serum Acylcarnitines Profile after a Prolonged Stay in Intensive Care
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1122; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051122 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 481
Abstract
A stay in intensive care unit (ICU) exposes patients to a risk of carnitine deficiency. Moreover, acylated derivates of carnitine (acylcarnitines, AC) are biomarkers for metabolic mitochondrial dysfunction that have been linked to post-ICU disorders. This study aimed to describe the AC profile [...] Read more.
A stay in intensive care unit (ICU) exposes patients to a risk of carnitine deficiency. Moreover, acylated derivates of carnitine (acylcarnitines, AC) are biomarkers for metabolic mitochondrial dysfunction that have been linked to post-ICU disorders. This study aimed to describe the AC profile of survivors of a prolonged ICU stay (≥7 days). Survivors enrolled in our post-ICU clinic between September 2020 and July 2021 were included. Blood analysis was routinely performed during the days after ICU discharge, focusing on metabolic markers and including AC profile. Serum AC concentrations were determined by LC-MS/MS and were compared to the reference ranges (RR) established from serum samples of 50 non-hospitalized Belgian adults aged from 18 to 81 years. A total 162 patients (65.4% males, age 67 (58.7–73) years) survived an ICU stay of 9.7 (7.1–19.3) days and were evaluated 5 (3–8) days after discharge. Their AC profile was significantly different compared to RR, mostly in terms of short chain AC: the sum of C3, C4 and C5 derivates reached 1.36 (0.98–1.99) and 0.86 (0.66–0.99) µmol/L respectively (p < 0.001). Free carnitine (C0) concentration of survivors (46.06 (35.04–56.35) µmol/L) was similar to RR (43.64 (36.43–52.96) µmol/L) (p = 0.55). C0 below percentile 2.5 of RR was observed in 6/162 (3.7%) survivors. Their total AC/C0 ratio was 0.33 (0.22–0.42). A ratio above 0.4 was observed in 45/162 (27.8%) patients. In ICU survivors, carnitine deficiency was rare, but AC profile was altered and AC/C0 ratio was abnormal in more than 25%. The value of AC profile as a marker of post-ICU dysmetabolism needs further investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Lipids)
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Article
Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intake and Risk of Non-Fatal Cardiovascular Diseases: The Million Veteran Program
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1121; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051121 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 921
Abstract
Objective: To examine the association between intakes of sodium and potassium and the ratio of sodium to potassium and incident myocardial infarction and stroke. Design, Setting and Participants: Prospective cohort study of 180,156 Veterans aged 19 to 107 years with plausible dietary intake [...] Read more.
Objective: To examine the association between intakes of sodium and potassium and the ratio of sodium to potassium and incident myocardial infarction and stroke. Design, Setting and Participants: Prospective cohort study of 180,156 Veterans aged 19 to 107 years with plausible dietary intake measured by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) who were free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer at baseline in the VA Million Veteran Program (MVP). Main outcome measures: CVD defined as non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) or acute ischemic stroke (AIS) ascertained using high-throughput phenotyping algorithms applied to electronic health records. Results: During up to 8 years of follow-up, we documented 4090 CVD cases (2499 MI and 1712 AIS). After adjustment for confounding factors, a higher sodium intake was associated with a higher risk of CVD, whereas potassium intake was inversely associated with the risk of CVD [hazard ratio (HR) comparing extreme quintiles, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09 (95% CI: 0.99–1.21, p trend = 0.01) for sodium and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.79–0.96, p trend = 0.005) for potassium]. In addition, the ratio of sodium to potassium (Na/K ratio) was positively associated with the risk of CVD (HR comparing extreme quintiles = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.14–1.39, p trend < 0.0001). The associations of Na/K ratio were consistent for two subtypes of CVD; one standard deviation increment in the ratio was associated with HRs (95% CI) of 1.12 (1.06–1.19) for MI and 1.11 (1.03–1.19) for AIS. In secondary analyses, the observed associations were consistent across race and status for diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol at baseline. Associations appeared to be more pronounced among participants with poor dietary quality. Conclusions: A high sodium intake and a low potassium intake were associated with a higher risk of CVD in this large population of US veterans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Review
The Effects of Enteral Nutrition in Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1120; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051120 - 07 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1561
Abstract
Background: Patients who are critically ill with COVID-19 could have impaired nutrient absorption due to disruption of the normal intestinal mucosa. They are often in a state of high inflammation, increased stress and catabolism as well as a significant increase in energy and [...] Read more.
Background: Patients who are critically ill with COVID-19 could have impaired nutrient absorption due to disruption of the normal intestinal mucosa. They are often in a state of high inflammation, increased stress and catabolism as well as a significant increase in energy and protein requirements. Therefore, timely enteral nutrition support and the provision of optimal nutrients are essential in preventing malnutrition in these patients. Aim: This review aims to evaluate the effects of enteral nutrition in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Method: This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted based on the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-Analysis framework and PICO. Searches were conducted in databases, including EMBASE, Health Research databases and Google Scholar. Searches were conducted from database inception until 3 February 2022. The reference lists of articles were also searched for relevant articles. Results: Seven articles were included in the systematic review, and four articles were included in the meta-analysis. Two distinct areas were identified from the results of the systematic review and meta-analysis: the impact of enteral nutrition and gastrointestinal intolerance associated with enteral nutrition. The impact of enteral nutrition was further sub-divided into early enteral nutrition versus delayed enteral nutrition and enteral nutrition versus parenteral nutrition. The results of the meta-analysis of the effects of enteral nutrition in critically ill patients with COVID-19 showed that, overall, enteral nutrition was effective in significantly reducing the risk of mortality in these patients compared with the control with a risk ratio of 0.89 (95% CI, 0.79, 0.99, p = 0.04). Following sub-group analysis, the early enteral nutrition group also showed a significant reduction in the risk of mortality with a risk ratio of 0.89 (95% CI, 0.79, 1.00, p = 0.05). The Relative Risk Reduction (RRR) of mortality in patients with COVID-19 by early enteral nutrition was 11%. There was a significant reduction in the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score in the early enteral nutrition group compared with the delayed enteral nutrition group. There was no significant difference between enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition in relation to mortality (RR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.59, 1.28, p = 0.48). Concerning the length of hospital stay, length of ICU stay and days on mechanical ventilation, while there were reductions in the number of days in the enteral nutrition group compared to the control (delayed enteral nutrition or parenteral nutrition), the differences were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that early enteral nutrition significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the risk of mortality among critically ill patients with COVID-19. However, early enteral nutrition or enteral nutrition did not significantly (p > 0.05) reduce the length of hospital stay, length of ICU stay and days on mechanical ventilation compared to delayed enteral nutrition or parenteral nutrition. More studies are needed to examine the effect of early enteral nutrition in patients with COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
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Article
Short-Term Ingestion of Medium-Chain Triglycerides Could Enhance Postprandial Consumption of Ingested Fat in Individuals with a Body Mass Index from 25 to Less than 30: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Crossover Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1119; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051119 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 607
Abstract
The elimination of obesity is essential to maintaining good health. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) inhibit fat accumulation. However, studies examining energy expenditure and fat oxidation with continuous ingestion of MCTs show little association with the elimination of obesity. In this study, we conducted a [...] Read more.
The elimination of obesity is essential to maintaining good health. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) inhibit fat accumulation. However, studies examining energy expenditure and fat oxidation with continuous ingestion of MCTs show little association with the elimination of obesity. In this study, we conducted a randomized, double-blind crossover clinical trial to investigate the effects of continuous ingestion of MCTs on postprandial energy expenditure and ingested long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) oxidation. A daily 2 g of MCTs were ingested for two weeks by sedentary participants with a body mass index (BMI) from 25 (kg/m2) to less than 30. Ingestion of a meal containing MCTs and isotopic carbon-13-labeled (13C) LCTs increased energy expenditure and consumption of diet-derived LCTs, as determined by postprandial 13C carbon dioxide excretion, compared to canola oil as the placebo control. These results indicate that continuous ingestion of MCTs could enhance postprandial degradation of diet-derived fat and energy expenditure in sedentary, overweight individuals. Full article
Article
Beneficial In Vitro Effects of a Low Myo-Inositol Dose in the Regulation of Vascular Resistance and Protein Peroxidation under Inflammatory Conditions
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1118; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051118 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 673
Abstract
Oxidative stress induces functional changes in arteries. Therefore, the effect of myo-inositol, a possible anti-inflammatory/antioxidant agent was studied on human plasma and rat thoracic arteries. Aortic rings from male Wistar rats (3 months of age) were incubated with myo-inositol (1, 10 [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress induces functional changes in arteries. Therefore, the effect of myo-inositol, a possible anti-inflammatory/antioxidant agent was studied on human plasma and rat thoracic arteries. Aortic rings from male Wistar rats (3 months of age) were incubated with myo-inositol (1, 10 and 100 μM, 120 min) and analyzed using the gas chromatography (GC) method. In another experiment, aortic rings were protected first with myo-inositol (1 µM, 60 min) and then subjected to a thromboxane receptor agonist (U-46619, 0.1 nM, 60 min). Therefore, these four groups under the following conditions were studied: (i) the control in the vehicle; (ii) myo-inositol; (iii) the vehicle plus U-46619; (iv) myo-inositol plus U-46619. The hemostatic parameters of human plasma and an H2O2/Fe2+ challenge for lipid and protein peroxidation were also performed. Myo-inositol was not absorbed into the pre-incubated aortic rings as measured by the GC method (0.040 µg/mg, p ≥ 0.8688). The effect of myo-inositol was more significant in the impaired arteries due to U-46619 incubation, which resulted in an improved response to acetylcholine (% Emax: 58.47 vs. 86.69), sodium nitroprusside (logEC50: −7.478 vs. −8.076), CORM-2 (% Emax: 44.08 vs. 83.29), pinacidil (logEC50: −6.489 vs. −6.988) and noradrenaline (logEC50: −7.264 vs. −6.525). This was most likely a possible response to increased nitric oxide release (×2.6-fold, p < 0001), and decreased hydrogen peroxide production (×0.7-fold, p = 0.0012). KCl-induced membrane depolarization was not modified (p ≥ 0.4768). Both the plasma protein carbonylation (×0.7-fold, p = 0.0006), and the level of thiol groups (×3.2-fold, p = 0.0462) were also improved, which was not significant for TBARS (×0.8-fold, p = 0.0872). The hemostatic parameters were also not modified (p ≥ 0.8171). A protective effect of myo-inositol was demonstrated against prooxidant damage to human plasma and rat thoracic arteries, suggesting a strong role of this nutraceutical agent on vasculature which may be of benefit against harmful environmental effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyclitols in Cardiometabolic Syndrome)
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Reply
Reply to Hodac, N.; Wittekind, A. Comment on “Moz-Christofoletti, M.A.; Wollgast, J. Sugars, Salt, Saturated Fat and Fibre Purchased through Packaged Food and Soft Drinks in Europe 2015–2018: Are We Making Progress? Nutrients 2021, 13, 2416”
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1117; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051117 - 07 Mar 2022
Viewed by 378
Abstract
We acknowledge the points raised by Hodac and Wittekind [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Comment
Comment on Moz-Christofoletti, M.A.; Wollgast, J. Sugars, Salt, Saturated Fat and Fibre Purchased through Packaged Food and Soft Drinks in Europe 2015–2018: Are We Making Progress? Nutrients 2021, 13, 2416
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1116; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051116 - 07 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 416
Abstract
The European soft drinks industry fully supports efforts to monitor nutrition composition of food products [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Article
Adverse Effects of Infant Formula Made with Corn-Syrup Solids on the Development of Eating Behaviors in Hispanic Children
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1115; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051115 - 07 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1050
Abstract
Few studies have investigated the influence of infant formulas made with added corn-syrup solids on the development of child eating behaviors. We examined associations of breastmilk (BM), traditional formula (TF), and formula containing corn-syrup solids (CSSF) with changes in eating behaviors over a [...] Read more.
Few studies have investigated the influence of infant formulas made with added corn-syrup solids on the development of child eating behaviors. We examined associations of breastmilk (BM), traditional formula (TF), and formula containing corn-syrup solids (CSSF) with changes in eating behaviors over a period of 2 years. Feeding type was assessed at 6 months in 115 mother–infant pairs. Eating behaviors were assessed at 12, 18 and 24 months. Repeated Measures ANCOVA was used to determine changes in eating behaviors over time as a function of feeding type. Food fussiness and enjoyment of food differed between the feeding groups (p < 0.05) and changed over time for CSSF and TF (p < 0.01). Food fussiness increased from 12 to 18 and 12 to 24 months for CSSF and from 12 to 24 months for TF (p < 0.01), while it remained stable for BM. Enjoyment of food decreased from 12 to 24 months for CSSF (p < 0.01), while it remained stable for TF and BM. There was an interaction between feeding type and time for food fussiness and enjoyment of food (p < 0.01). Our findings suggest that Hispanic infants consuming CSSF may develop greater food fussiness and reduced enjoyment of food in the first 2 years of life compared to BM-fed infants. Full article
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Article
GlyNAC (Glycine and N-Acetylcysteine) Supplementation in Mice Increases Length of Life by Correcting Glutathione Deficiency, Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Abnormalities in Mitophagy and Nutrient Sensing, and Genomic Damage
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1114; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051114 - 07 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 12930
Abstract
Determinants of length of life are not well understood, and therefore increasing lifespan is a challenge. Cardinal theories of aging suggest that oxidative stress (OxS) and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to the aging process, but it is unclear if they could also impact lifespan. [...] Read more.
Determinants of length of life are not well understood, and therefore increasing lifespan is a challenge. Cardinal theories of aging suggest that oxidative stress (OxS) and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to the aging process, but it is unclear if they could also impact lifespan. Glutathione (GSH), the most abundant intracellular antioxidant, protects cells from OxS and is necessary for maintaining mitochondrial health, but GSH levels decline with aging. Based on published human studies where we found that supplementing glycine and N-acetylcysteine (GlyNAC) improved/corrected GSH deficiency, OxS and mitochondrial dysfunction, we hypothesized that GlyNAC supplementation could increase longevity. We tested our hypothesis by evaluating the effect of supplementing GlyNAC vs. placebo in C57BL/6J mice on (a) length of life; and (b) age-associated GSH deficiency, OxS, mitochondrial dysfunction, abnormal mitophagy and nutrient-sensing, and genomic-damage in the heart, liver and kidneys. Results showed that mice receiving GlyNAC supplementation (1) lived 24% longer than control mice; (2) improved/corrected impaired GSH synthesis, GSH deficiency, OxS, mitochondrial dysfunction, abnormal mitophagy and nutrient-sensing, and genomic-damage. These studies provide proof-of-concept that GlyNAC supplementation can increase lifespan and improve multiple age-associated defects. GlyNAC could be a novel and simple nutritional supplement to improve lifespan and healthspan, and warrants additional investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Proteins and Amino Acids)
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Reply to Janssen et al. Comment on “Sobczyk, M.K.; Gaunt, T.R. The Effect of Circulating Zinc, Selenium, Copper and Vitamin K1 on COVID-19 Outcomes: A Mendelian Randomization Study. Nutrients 2022, 14, 233”
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1113; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051113 - 07 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 600
Abstract
In their correspondence arising from our recent manuscript [...] Full article
Comment
Comment on Sobczyk, M.K.; Gaunt, T.R. The Effect of Circulating Zinc, Selenium, Copper and Vitamin K1 on COVID-19 Outcomes: A Mendelian Randomization Study. Nutrients 2022, 14, 233
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1112; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051112 - 07 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 638
Abstract
Sobczyk and Gaunt genetically predicted circulating zinc, selenium, copper, and vitamin K1 levels—instead of directly measuring nutrients in blood—and hypothesized that these levels would associate with SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity [...] Full article
Article
Lifestyle-Related Risk Factors of Orthorexia Can Differ among the Students of Distinct University Courses
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1111; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051111 - 06 Mar 2022
Viewed by 881
Abstract
Orthorexia nervosa (ON) is defined as the excessive attention on healthy eating, and studies especially focused on food quality ON prevalence in university students can be extremely variable. The objective of this study is to investigate whether there was a difference in ON [...] Read more.
Orthorexia nervosa (ON) is defined as the excessive attention on healthy eating, and studies especially focused on food quality ON prevalence in university students can be extremely variable. The objective of this study is to investigate whether there was a difference in ON risk between health-scientific, economic-humanistic, sport sciences and dietetics and nutrition students, and to evaluate if lifestyle-related ON risk factors (dieting, physical activity, drugs and supplements use) could have an impact in different ways in determining ON risk among students attending these four programs. Participants were recruited at the University of Pavia and received a two-section questionnaire including demographic and lifestyle information and the ORTO-15 questionnaire. A total of 671 students (54% F e 46% M) completed the questionnaire (median age 21.00 (IQR 20.00–23.00), median BMI 21.77 kg/m2 (IQR 20.06–23.66 kg/m2)). The 31.2% had ORTO-15 test scores < 35, and were considered at risk of having ON. No differences were found in ON risk among the students attending the four university courses. Dieting was confirmed as the major ON risk factor for health-scientific, economic-humanistic and sport sciences students. The type of sport practiced was an important determinant of ON risk only for the economic-humanistic course, while supplements use was statistically different between sport sciences students with or without ON. Our findings may suggest that lifestyle-related risk factors of orthorexia can differ among the students of distinct university courses, but these results need to be supported by further longitudinal and prospective studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Article
Nutrition Risk, Resilience and Effects of a Brief Education Intervention among Community-Dwelling Older Adults during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Alberta, Canada
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1110; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051110 - 06 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1145
Abstract
Up to two-thirds of older Canadian adults have high nutrition risk, which predisposes them to frailty, hospitalization and death. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a brief education intervention on nutrition risk and use of adaptive strategies to [...] Read more.
Up to two-thirds of older Canadian adults have high nutrition risk, which predisposes them to frailty, hospitalization and death. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a brief education intervention on nutrition risk and use of adaptive strategies to promote dietary resilience among community-dwelling older adults living in Alberta, Canada, during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study design was a single-arm intervention trial with pre–post evaluation. Participants (N = 28, age 65+ years) in the study completed a survey online or via telephone. Questions included the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS), SCREEN-14, a brief poverty screen, and a World Health Organization-guided questionnaire regarding awareness and use of nutrition-related services and resources (S and R). A brief educational intervention involved raising participant awareness of available nutrition S and R. Education was offered via email or postal mail with follow-up surveys administered 3 months later. Baseline and follow-up nutrition risk scores, S and R awareness and use were compared using paired t-test. Three-quarters of participants had a high nutrition risk, but very few reported experiencing financial strain or food insecurity. Those at high nutrition risk were more likely to report eating alone, compared to those who scored as low risk. There was a significant increase in awareness of 20 S and R as a result of the educational intervention, but no change in use. The study shows increasing individual knowledge about services and resources in the community is not sufficient to change use of these services or improve nutrition risk. Full article
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Polish Adaptation and Validation of the Intuitive (IES-2) and Mindful (MES) Eating Scales—The Relationship of the Concepts with Healthy and Unhealthy Food Intake (a Cross-Sectional Study)
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1109; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051109 - 06 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 731
Abstract
Intuitive (IE) and mindful (ME) eating share internally focused eating, yet previous studies have shown that these concepts are not strongly correlated, which suggests that they might be differently related to food intake. The study aimed to adapt the original Intuitive (IES-2) and [...] Read more.
Intuitive (IE) and mindful (ME) eating share internally focused eating, yet previous studies have shown that these concepts are not strongly correlated, which suggests that they might be differently related to food intake. The study aimed to adapt the original Intuitive (IES-2) and Mindful (MES) Eating Scales to the Polish language, to test their psychometric parameters and, further, to examine associations of IE and ME with an intake of selected food groups, i.e., healthy foods (fresh and processed vegetables, fresh fruit) and unhealthy foods (sweets, salty snacks). A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2020 in a group of 1000 Polish adults (500 women and 500 men) aged 18–65 (mean age = 41.3 ± 13.6 years). The factor structure was assessed with exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory (CFA) factor analysis as well as structural equation modeling (SEM). Measurement invariance across gender was assessed with multiple-group analysis. Internal consistency and discriminant validity of the two scales was tested. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to examine the correlation between IES-2 and MES subscales with food intake. A 4-factor, 16-item structure was confirmed for IES-2, while EFA and CFA revealed a 3-factor, 17-item structure of MES. Both scales demonstrated adequate internal consistency and discriminant validity. Full metric and partial scalar invariance were found for IES-2, while MES proved partial invariances. “Awareness” (MES) and “Body–Food Choice Congruence” (IES-2) positively correlated with intake of healthy foods and negatively with the intake of unhealthy ones. “Eating For Physical Rather Than Emotional Reasons” (IES-2) and “Act with awareness” (MES) favored lower intake of unhealthy foods, whereas “Unconditional Permission to Eat” and “Reliance on Hunger and Satiety Cues” (IES-2) showed an inverse relationship. A greater score in “Acceptance” (MES) was conducive to lower intake of all foods except sweets. The results confirmed that adapted versions of the IES-2 and MES are valid and reliable measures to assess IE and ME among Polish adults. Different IE and ME domains may similarly explain intake of healthy and unhealthy foods, yet within a single eating style, individual domains might have the opposite effect. Future studies should confirm our findings with the inclusion of mediating factors, such as other eating styles, childhood experiences, dieting, etc. Full article
Article
Prevalence and Predictors of Insufficient Plasma Vitamin C in a Subtropical Region and Its Associations with Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1108; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051108 - 06 Mar 2022
Viewed by 764
Abstract
Background: to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of insufficient plasma vitamin C among adults in a subtropical region and its associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors including dyslipidemia and lipid-independent markers, namely homocysteine, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and lipoprotein(a). Methods: Data of this [...] Read more.
Background: to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of insufficient plasma vitamin C among adults in a subtropical region and its associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors including dyslipidemia and lipid-independent markers, namely homocysteine, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and lipoprotein(a). Methods: Data of this retrospective cross-sectional study were extracted from electronic medical database of a Medical Center. Based on plasma vitamin C status, subjects were split into two groups—subjects with sufficient and insufficient plasma vitamin C levels (<50 µmol/L, ≤8.8 mg/L). Results: Prevalence of insufficient plasma vitamin C in 3899 adults was 39%. Multivariate logistic regression identified male gender, high body mass index, age 20–39, and winter/spring as independent predictors of insufficient vitamin C among all subjects. Greater proportions of subjects with insufficient plasma vitamin C had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and elevated levels of triglyceride, homocysteine and hs-CRP (all p < 0.001). There were no differences in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lipoprotein(a) between groups. Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of insufficient plasma vitamin C in the subtropical region, which indicates that insufficient plasma vitamin C remains a public health issue. Further study is needed to confirm these findings and to determine the underlying mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Assessment and Chronic Disease)
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Review
The Problem of Malnutrition Associated with Major Depressive Disorder from a Sex-Gender Perspective
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1107; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051107 - 06 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1608
Abstract
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is an incapacitating condition characterized by loss of interest, anhedonia and low mood, which affects almost 4% of people worldwide. With rising prevalence, it is considered a public health issue that affects economic productivity and heavily increases health costs [...] Read more.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is an incapacitating condition characterized by loss of interest, anhedonia and low mood, which affects almost 4% of people worldwide. With rising prevalence, it is considered a public health issue that affects economic productivity and heavily increases health costs alone or as a comorbidity for other pandemic non-communicable diseases (such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases, etc.). What is even more noteworthy is the double number of women suffering from MDD compared to men. In fact, this sex-related ratio has been contemplated since men and women have different sexual hormone oscillations, where women meet significant changes depending on the age range and moment of life (menstruation, premenstruation, pregnancy, postpartum, menopause…), which seem to be associated with susceptibility to depressive symptoms. For instance, a decreased estrogen level promotes decreased activation of serotonin transporters. Nevertheless, sexual hormones are not the only triggers that alter neurotransmission of monoamines and other neuropeptides. Actually, different dietary habits and/or nutritional requirements for specific moments of life severely affect MDD pathophysiology in women. In this context, the present review aims to descriptively collect information regarding the role of malnutrition in MDD onset and course, focusing on female patient and especially macro- and micronutrient deficiencies (amino acids, ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 PUFAs), folate, vitamin B12, vitamin D, minerals…), besides providing evidence for future nutritional intervention programs with a sex-gender perspective that hopefully improves mental health and quality of life in women. Full article
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Article
Eating Behaviors, Depressive Symptoms and Lifestyle in University Students in Poland
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1106; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051106 - 06 Mar 2022
Viewed by 879
Abstract
Young adulthood is the period from the late teens through the twenties and is associated with life transitions that could contribute to the development of obesity. Targeting this group will be critical to reversing the obesity epidemic. The aim of the study was [...] Read more.
Young adulthood is the period from the late teens through the twenties and is associated with life transitions that could contribute to the development of obesity. Targeting this group will be critical to reversing the obesity epidemic. The aim of the study was to investigate the eating behaviors and lifestyle of healthcare students in Poland. We enrolled 227 students in the study. Convenience sampling was employed. Diet (Food Frequency Questionnaire), physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Scale), and eating behaviors (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) were assessed. One in three students exhibited depressive symptoms, one in four showed low levels of physical activity. More than 40% of the students did not consume vegetables at least once a day, and more than half did not consume fruit. Only approximately 50% of the students ate fish several times a month. There was an association between high scores of specific eating behaviors and body weight, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and consumption of specific product groups (sweets, alcohol). The results of our study are expected to contribute to a better understanding of dietary habits and overweight/obesity in university students, and support the development of programs to promote healthy lifestyles in that population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Obesity)
Article
The Individual Nutrition Education Needs among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes at the Public Health Centers in Padang, Indonesia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1105; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051105 - 05 Mar 2022
Viewed by 760
Abstract
Background: The Indonesian Public Health Care (PHC) of Management Nutrition Therapy (MNT) guidelines describe that individual nutrition education is aimed to improve quality of MNT services. The guidelines were originally developed for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), not specially for type 2 diabetes mellitus [...] Read more.
Background: The Indonesian Public Health Care (PHC) of Management Nutrition Therapy (MNT) guidelines describe that individual nutrition education is aimed to improve quality of MNT services. The guidelines were originally developed for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), not specially for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) purposes. The reluctance of patients with T2DM to attend individual nutrition education is a common public health care issue in Padang (Indonesia). Methods: The presented cross-sectional study aimed to determine the individual nutrition education needs among people with T2DM. A set questionnaire was distributed to 11 PHC selected from 11 districts in Padang and 179 patients with T2DM were recruited and interviewed. Results: Among the 179 patients with T2DM, 76.5% were females and housewives (49.2%), a slight majority (57.8%) were ≤58 years old and 45.9% had graduated from primary school. The highest numbers of patients with T2DM were in PHC Andalas (20.7%). Some 74.9% (134) of the people with T2DM routinely attended individual nutrition education classes for less than 30 min (60.3%). Patients with T2DM followed individual nutrition education at a PHC every 1–2 months (59.8%), and a majority of the individual nutrition education was given by a medical doctor (57.5%). In contrast, 42.3% of patients with T2DM did not attend individual nutrition education due to a lack of recommendation from a medical doctor and their reluctance (33.3%). Although a majority of patients with T2DM (62.6%) were satisfied with their individual nutrition education, (20.4% of patients with T2DM recommended the availability of booklets during individual nutrition education that can be read at home. Patients with T2DM needed individual nutrition education (88.8%) and the majority (25.1%) requested individual nutrition education topics about diabetes food recommendation. Even though patients with T2DM followed health professionals’ advice (78.2%), however, their HbA1c (76.5%) wasnot reduced. Patients with T2DM agreed that individual nutrition education can increase their knowledge (51.9%), unfortunately, they still have difficulty to control their blood glucose (5.6%). Conclusions: According to the patients with the T2DM perspective stated above, it is crucial to develop the tool kits and educate patients with T2DM following the Diabetes Nutrition Education (DNE) curriculum to improve glycemic control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Policies and Education for Health Promotion)
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Review
The Effect of Dietary Interventions on Hypertriglyceridemia: From Public Health to Molecular Nutrition Evidence
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1104; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051104 - 05 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1562
Abstract
Approximately 25–50% of the population worldwide exhibits serum triglycerides (TG) (≥150 mg/dL) which are associated with an increased level of highly atherogenic remnant-like particles, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and pancreatitis risk. High serum TG levels could be related to cardiovascular disease, which is [...] Read more.
Approximately 25–50% of the population worldwide exhibits serum triglycerides (TG) (≥150 mg/dL) which are associated with an increased level of highly atherogenic remnant-like particles, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and pancreatitis risk. High serum TG levels could be related to cardiovascular disease, which is the most prevalent cause of mortality in Western countries. The etiology of hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is multifactorial and can be classified as primary and secondary causes. Among the primary causes are genetic disorders. On the other hand, secondary causes of HTG comprise lifestyle factors, medical conditions, and drugs. Among lifestyle changes, adequate diets and nutrition are the initial steps to treat and prevent serum lipid alterations. Dietary intervention for HTG is recommended in order to modify the amount of macronutrients. Macronutrient distribution changes such as fat or protein, low-carbohydrate diets, and caloric restriction seem to be effective strategies in reducing TG levels. Particularly, the Mediterranean diet is the dietary pattern with the most consistent evidence for efficacy in HTG while the use of omega-3 supplements consumption is the dietary component with the highest number of randomized clinical trials (RCT) carried out with effective results on reducing TG. The aim of this review was to provide a better comprehension between human nutrition and lipid metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Triglycerides and Triglyceride Metabolism in Human Health)
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Article
Ellagic Acid Alleviates Diquat-Induced Jejunum Oxidative Stress in C57BL/6 Mice through Activating Nrf2 Mediated Signaling Pathway
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1103; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051103 - 05 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 757
Abstract
Ellagic acid (EA) is the main constituent found in pomegranate rind, which has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. However, whether EA can alleviate diquat-induced oxidative stress is still unknown. Here, the effects and mechanisms of EA on jejunum oxidative stress induced by diquat was [...] Read more.
Ellagic acid (EA) is the main constituent found in pomegranate rind, which has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. However, whether EA can alleviate diquat-induced oxidative stress is still unknown. Here, the effects and mechanisms of EA on jejunum oxidative stress induced by diquat was investigated. Oxidative stress was induced in mice by administrating diquat (25 mg/kg body weight) followed by treatment with 100 mg/kg body weight EA for 5 days. Results showed that oral administration of EA significantly ameliorated diquat-induced weight loss and oxidative stress (p < 0.05) evidenced by reduced ROS production in the jejunum. Furthermore, EA up-regulated the mRNA expression of the antioxidant enzymes (Nrf2, GPX1 and HO-1) when mice were challenged with diquat, compared with the diquat group (p < 0.05). Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of Nrf2 by ML385 counteracted the EA-mediated alleviation of jejunum oxidative stress, as evidence by body weight and ROS production. Also, immunohistochemistry staining confirmed the markedly decreased jejunal Nrf2 expression. The up-regulated effect on NQO1 and HO-1 mRNA expression induced by EA was diminished in mice treated with ML385 (p < 0.05). Together, our results demonstrated that therapeutic and preventative EA treatment was effective in reducing weight loss and oxidative stress induced by diquat through the Nrf2 mediated signaling pathway. Full article
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Article
Weak Association between Skin Autofluorescence Levels and Prediabetes with an ILERVAS Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1102; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051102 - 05 Mar 2022
Viewed by 679
Abstract
A large body of evidence demonstrates a relationship between hyperglycemia and increased concentrations of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). However, there is little information about subcutaneous AGE accumulation in subjects with prediabetes, and whether or not this measurement could assist in the diagnosis of [...] Read more.
A large body of evidence demonstrates a relationship between hyperglycemia and increased concentrations of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). However, there is little information about subcutaneous AGE accumulation in subjects with prediabetes, and whether or not this measurement could assist in the diagnosis of prediabetes is unclear. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 4181 middle-aged subjects without diabetes. Prediabetes (n = 1444) was defined as a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level between 39 and 47 mmol/mol (5.7 to 6.4%), and skin autofluorescence (SAF) measurement was performed to assess AGEs. A multivariable logistic regression model and receiver operating characteristic curve were used. The cohort consisted of 50.1% women with an age of 57 [52;62] years, a BMI of 28.3 [25.4;31.6] kg/m2, and a prevalence of prediabetes of 34.5%. Participants with prediabetes showed higher SAF than control participants (2.0 [1.7;2.2] vs. 1.9 [1.7;2.2], p < 0.001). However, HbA1c was not significantly correlated with SAF levels (r = 0.026, p = 0.090). In addition, the SAF level was not independently associated with prediabetes (OR = 1.12 (0.96 to 1.30)). Finally, there was no good cutoff point for SAF to identify patients with prediabetes (AUC = 0.52 (0.50 to 0.54), sensitivity = 0.61, and 1-specificity = 0.56). Given all of this evidence, we can conclude that although there is an increase in SAF levels in participants with prediabetes, the applicability and clinical relevance of the results is low in this population. Full article
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Article
Citrus junos Tanaka Peel Extract and Its Bioactive Naringin Reduce Fine Dust-Induced Respiratory Injury Markers in BALB/c Male Mice
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1101; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051101 - 05 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 721
Abstract
Particulate matter (PM) 10 refers to fine dust with a diameter of less than 10 µm and induces apoptosis and inflammatory responses through oxidative stress. Citrus junos Tanaka is a citrus fruit and contains bioactive flavonoids including naringin. In the present study, we [...] Read more.
Particulate matter (PM) 10 refers to fine dust with a diameter of less than 10 µm and induces apoptosis and inflammatory responses through oxidative stress. Citrus junos Tanaka is a citrus fruit and contains bioactive flavonoids including naringin. In the present study, we aimed to identify the preventive effect of Citrus junos Tanaka peel extract (CPE) against PM10-induced lung injury. As a proof of concept, NCI-H460 cells were treated with CPE (800 μg/mL, 12 h) in conjunction with PM10 to examine intracellular antioxidative capacity in the pulmonary system. In an in vivo model, male BALB/c mice (n = 8/group) were randomly assigned into five groups: NEG (saline-treated), POS (PM10 only), NAR (PM10 + naringin, 100 mg/kg), CPL (PM10 + CPE low, 100 mg/kg), and CPH (PM10 + CPE high, 400 mg/kg). Intervention groups received dietary supplementations for 7 days followed by PM10 exposure (100 mg/kg, intranasal instillation). Compared to the NEG, the CPE decreased to 22% of the ROS generation and significantly increased cell viability in vitro. The histological assessments confirmed that pulmonary damages were alleviated in the PM10 + CPL group compared to the POS. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and NF-κB/apoptosis signaling-related markers were decreased in the PM10 + CPL group compared to the POS. These results indicated that CPE showed promising efficacy in preventing pulmonary injuries in vivo. Such protection can be explained by the anti-oxidative capacity of CPE, likely due to its bioactives, including naringin (7.74 mg/g CPE). Follow-up human intervention, as well as population-level studies, will further shed light on the preventive efficacy of CPE against pulmonary damage in humans. Full article
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Article
Greater Consumption of Total and Individual Lignans and Dietary Fibers Were Significantly Associated with Lowered Risk of Hip Fracture—A 1:1 Matched Case–Control Study among Chinese Elderly Men and Women
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1100; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051100 - 05 Mar 2022
Viewed by 704
Abstract
The study aims to examine the association of dietary intake of lignans with the risk of hip fractures in Chinese older adults. This was a 1:1 age- and gender- matched case–control study. Dietary survey was conducted by face-to-face interviews using a 79-item validated [...] Read more.
The study aims to examine the association of dietary intake of lignans with the risk of hip fractures in Chinese older adults. This was a 1:1 age- and gender- matched case–control study. Dietary survey was conducted by face-to-face interviews using a 79-item validated food frequency questionnaire. Habitual intake of total and individual lignans (matairesinol, secoisolariciresinol, pinoresinol, and lariciresinol) was estimated based on the available lignans databases. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine the relationship of dietary total and individual lignans, lignan-rich foods (vegetables, fruits, nuts, and cereals) and dietary fibers with the risk of hip fracture. A total of 1070 pairs of hip fracture incident cases and controls were recruited. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile group showed a reduced hip fracture risk by 76.3% (0.237, 95% CI: 0.103–0.544, Ptrend < 0.001) for total lignans, and 62.5% (0.375, 95% CI: 0.194–0.724, Ptrend = 0.001) for dietary fibers. Similar findings were observed for individual lignans, the estimated enterolactone level, as well as lignans from vegetables and nuts. We concluded that greater consumption of total and individual lignans, and lignan-rich foods were significantly associated with decreased risk of hip fracture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Factors on Cardiovascular and Endocrine Health)
Article
EGCG Prevents the Onset of an Inflammatory and Cancer-Associated Adipocyte-like Phenotype in Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells in Response to the Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Secretome
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1099; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051099 - 05 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 947
Abstract
Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells secretome induces a pro-inflammatory microenvironment within the adipose tissue, which hosts both mature adipocytes and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (ADMSC). The subsequent acquisition of a cancer-associated adipocyte (CAA)-like phenotype is, however, unknown in ADMSC. While epidemiological studies [...] Read more.
Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells secretome induces a pro-inflammatory microenvironment within the adipose tissue, which hosts both mature adipocytes and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (ADMSC). The subsequent acquisition of a cancer-associated adipocyte (CAA)-like phenotype is, however, unknown in ADMSC. While epidemiological studies suggest that consuming a polyphenol-rich diet reduces the incidence of some obesity-related cancers, the chemopreventive impact of green tea-derived epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) against the cues that trigger the CAA phenotype remain undocumented in ADMSC. Methods: Human ADMSC were exposed to human TNBC-derived MDA-MB-231 conditioned media (TNBC cells secretome) supplemented or not with EGCG. Differential gene expression was assessed through RNA-Seq analysis and confirmed by RT-qPCR. Protein expression levels and the activation status of signal transduction pathways mediators were determined by Western blotting. ADMSC chemotaxis was assessed by a real-time cell migration assay. Results: The TNBC cells secretome induced in ADMSC the expression of the CAA cytokines CCL2, CCL5, IL-1β, and IL-6, and of immunomodulators COX2, HIF-1α, VEGFα, and PD-L1. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal biomarker Snail was found to control the CAA phenotype. EGCG inhibited the induction of CAA genes and the activation status of Smad2 and NF-κB. The induced chemotactic response was also inhibited by EGCG. Conclusion: The induction of an inflammatory and CAA-like phenotype in ADMSC can be triggered by the TNBC cells secretome, while still efficiently prevented by diet-derived polyphenols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols and Cancer Prevention)
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Article
Dendropanax trifidus Sap-Mediated Suppression of Obese Mouse Body Weight and the Metabolic Changes Related with Estrogen Receptor Alpha and AMPK-ACC Pathways in Muscle Cells
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1098; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051098 - 05 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 818
Abstract
Dendropanax trifidus (DT) is a medicinal herb native to East Asia, which has been used extensively for its therapeutic properties in traditional medicine. In this study, we examined the effects of DT sap on the regulation of body weight and muscle metabolism in [...] Read more.
Dendropanax trifidus (DT) is a medicinal herb native to East Asia, which has been used extensively for its therapeutic properties in traditional medicine. In this study, we examined the effects of DT sap on the regulation of body weight and muscle metabolism in mice. Obese model db/db mice were administered daily with DT sap or vehicle control over a 6-week period. The effects of DT sap on muscle metabolism were studied in C2C12 muscle cells, where glycolytic and mitochondrial respiration rates were monitored. As AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of metabolism and plays an important function as an energy sensor in muscle tissue, signaling pathways related with AMPK were also examined. We found that DT sap inhibited body weight increase in db/db, db/+, and +/+ mice over a 6-week period, while DT sap-treated muscle cells showed increased muscle metabolism and also increased phosphorylation of AMPK and Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (ACC). Finally, we found that DT sap, which is enriched in estrogen in our previous study, significantly activates estrogen alpha receptor in a concentration-dependent manner, which can drive the activation of AMPK signaling and may be related to the muscle metabolism and weight changes observed here. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Properties of Natural Products and Human Health)
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Article
(–)-Epicatechin Improves Vasoreactivity and Mitochondrial Respiration in Thermoneutral-Housed Wistar Rat Vasculature
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1097; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051097 - 05 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 660
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a global health concern. Vascular dysfunction is an aspect of CVD, and novel treatments targeting vascular physiology are necessary. In the endothelium, eNOS regulates vasodilation and mitochondrial function; both are disrupted in CVD. (–)-Epicatechin, a botanical compound known for [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a global health concern. Vascular dysfunction is an aspect of CVD, and novel treatments targeting vascular physiology are necessary. In the endothelium, eNOS regulates vasodilation and mitochondrial function; both are disrupted in CVD. (–)-Epicatechin, a botanical compound known for its vasodilatory, eNOS, and mitochondrial-stimulating properties, is a potential therapy in those with CVD. We hypothesized that (–)-epicatechin would support eNOS activity and mitochondrial respiration, leading to improved vasoreactivity in a thermoneutral-derived rat model of vascular dysfunction. We housed Wistar rats at room temperature or in thermoneutral conditions for a total of 16 week and treated them with 1mg/kg body weight (–)-epicatechin for 15 day. Vasoreactivity, eNOS activity, and mitochondrial respiration were measured, in addition to the protein expression of upstream cellular signaling molecules including AMPK and CaMKII. We observed a significant improvement of vasodilation in those housed in thermoneutrality and treated with (–)-epicatechin (p < 0.05), as well as dampened mitochondrial respiration (p < 0.05). AMPK and CaMKIIα and β expression were lessened with (–)-epicatechin treatment in those housed at thermoneutrality (p < 0.05). The opposite was observed with animals housed at room temperature supplemented with (–)-epicatechin. These data illustrate a context-dependent vascular response to (–)-epicatechin, a candidate for CVD therapeutic development. Full article
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