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Nutrition and Human Oral Health

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition Methodology & Assessment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2022) | Viewed by 69544

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Guest Editor
Institute of Medical Biometry and Statistics, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
Interests: applied statistics; longitudinal data analysis; microbial composition; statistical applications in dentistry; interaction between different scientific disciplines
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Guest Editor
Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
Interests: periodontology; operative dentistry; nutrition; diet; communication; motivational interviewing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The influence of nutrition on oral health has been given much more attention in recent times, contributing to a better understanding of cariogenic processes, periodontal inflammation, and dysbiosis of the microbiome. Research on this topic demands adequate methods for collecting or generating relevant data as well as for analyzing these data. Consequently, these aspects are the focus of this Special Issue.

This Special Issue welcomes manuscripts on:

  • Methods to collect nutrition data of high quality e.g., tools for dietary intake measurements;
  • Methods to determine aspects of oral health, e.g., oral microbiology, oral health status, oral and systemic inflammation;
  • Data analytic approaches to investigate the relation between nutrition and oral health, e.g., machine learning and causal inference;
  • Methods to take into account specific characteristics of the data, e.g., compositional data analysis or methods for high dimensional data.

We welcome different types of manuscripts, including suggestions for new methods, systematic investigations on existing methods, review and reflection papers, as well as case studies motivated by an interesting method or a novel application.

Dr. Kirstin Vach
Prof. Dr. Johan Peter Woelber
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nutrition
  • oral health
  • methods
  • caries
  • periodontal inflammation

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 223 KiB  
Editorial
The Emerging Field of Nutritional Dentistry
by Johan Peter Woelber and Kirstin Vach
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2076; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14102076 - 16 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1876
Abstract
Nutrition is, like oxygen, one of the basic requirements for animals and, accordingly, Homo sapiens to live [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Human Oral Health)

Research

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16 pages, 1319 KiB  
Article
Is Diet a Determining Factor in the Induction of Gingival Inflammation by Dental Plaque? A Secondary Analysis of Clinical Studies
by Johan Peter Woelber, Valentin Bartha, Stefan Baumgartner, Christian Tennert, Ulrich Schlagenhauf, Petra Ratka-Krüger and Kirstin Vach
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 923; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16070923 - 22 Mar 2024
Viewed by 524
Abstract
The aim was to determine the association between plaque and gingival inflammation reported by dietary interventions. Data of four clinical studies dealing with changed nutrition and gingival examination were reanalyzed with regard to gingival inflammation (GI), plaque (PI), and bleeding on probing (BOP). [...] Read more.
The aim was to determine the association between plaque and gingival inflammation reported by dietary interventions. Data of four clinical studies dealing with changed nutrition and gingival examination were reanalyzed with regard to gingival inflammation (GI), plaque (PI), and bleeding on probing (BOP). Dietary changes basically involved avoiding sugar, white flour and sweetened drinks and focusing on whole foods for 4 weeks. The control groups were to maintain their usual diet. All participants had to reduce their oral hygiene efforts. Linear regression models taking the clustering of the data due to several studies into account were applied. In total, data of 92 participants (control groups: 39, test-groups 53) were reanalyzed. While both groups showed a slight increase in dental plaque, only the test groups showed a significant decrease in inflammatory parameters: GI (mean value difference End-Baseline (Δ): −0.31 (±SD 0.36)) and BOP (Δ: −15.39% (±16.07)), both p < 0.001. In the control groups, there was a constant relation between PI and GI, while the experimental group showed a decreasing relationship in GI/PI (p = 0.016), and even an inverted relationship BOP/PI under a changed diet (p = 0.031). In conclusion, diet seems to be a determining factor how the gingiva reacts towards dental plaque. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Human Oral Health)
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18 pages, 1925 KiB  
Article
A Healthier Smile in the Past? Dental Caries and Diet in Early Neolithic Farming Communities from Central Germany
by Nicole Nicklisch, Vicky M. Oelze, Oliver Schierz, Harald Meller and Kurt W. Alt
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1831; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091831 - 27 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2898
Abstract
Dental health is closely linked to an individual’s health and diet. This bioarcheological study presents dental caries and stable isotope data obtained from prehistoric individuals (n = 101) from three Early Neolithic sites (c. 5500-4800 BCE) in central Germany. Dental caries and [...] Read more.
Dental health is closely linked to an individual’s health and diet. This bioarcheological study presents dental caries and stable isotope data obtained from prehistoric individuals (n = 101) from three Early Neolithic sites (c. 5500-4800 BCE) in central Germany. Dental caries and ante-mortem tooth loss (AMTL) were recorded and related to life history traits such as biological sex and age at death. Further, we correlate evidence on caries to carbon and nitrogen isotope data obtained from 83 individuals to assess the relationship between diet and caries. In 68.3% of the adults, carious lesions were present, with 10.3% of teeth affected. If AMTL is considered, the values increase by about 3%. The prevalence of subadults (18.4%) was significantly lower, with 1.8% carious teeth. The number of carious teeth correlated significantly with age but not sex. The isotopic data indicated an omnivorous terrestrial diet composed of domestic plants and animal derived protein but did not correlate with the prevalence of carious lesions. The combined evidence from caries and isotope analysis suggests a prevalence of starchy foods such as cereals in the diet of these early farmers, which aligns well with observations from other Early Neolithic sites but contrasts to Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age populations in Germany. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Human Oral Health)
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14 pages, 1729 KiB  
Article
How to Measure Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet in Dental Studies: Is a Short Adherence Screener Enough? A Comparative Analysis
by Valentin Bartha, Lea Exner, Anna-Lisa Meyer, Maryam Basrai, Daniela Schweikert, Michael Adolph, Thomas Bruckner, Christian Meller, Johan Peter Woelber and Diana Wolff
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1300; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061300 - 19 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2921 | Correction
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) in a study investigating the anti-inflammatory effect of a 6-week Mediterranean diet intervention on periodontal parameters. Data from a randomized clinical trial were analyzed for correlations between the MEDAS score and oral [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) in a study investigating the anti-inflammatory effect of a 6-week Mediterranean diet intervention on periodontal parameters. Data from a randomized clinical trial were analyzed for correlations between the MEDAS score and oral inflammatory parameters (bleeding on probing (BOP), gingival index (GI), and periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA)) and select nutrient intakes estimated by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a 24-h dietary recall (24dr). A mixed model, calculations of Spearman ρ, Lin’s Concordance Coefficient (CC), and Mann–Whitney U test were used for the statistical analyses. The MEDAS score was significantly negatively correlated with periodontal inflammation (BOP: CoE −0.391, p < 0.001; GI −0.407, p < 0.001; PISA −0.348, p = 0.001) and positively correlated with poly unsaturated fatty acids/total fat, vitamin C, and fiber intake estimates obtained from the FFQ and 24dr (ρ 0.38–0.77). The FFQ and 24dr produced heterogeneously comparable intake results for most nutrients (CC 0–0.79, Spearman ρ 0.16–0.65). Within the limitations of this study, the MEDAS was able to indicate nutritional habits associated with different levels of periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, the MEDAS can be a sufficient and useful diet screener in dental studies. Due to its correlation with oral inflammatory parameters, the MEDAS might also be useful in dental practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Human Oral Health)
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12 pages, 685 KiB  
Article
The Suitability of Questionnaires for Exploring Relations of Dietary Behavior and Tooth Wear
by Maximiliane Amelie Schlenz, Moritz Benedikt Schlenz, Bernd Wöstmann, Alexandra Jungert, Anna Sophia Glatt and Carolina Ganss
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1165; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061165 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1575
Abstract
Tooth wear is a relevant oral health problem, especially at a young age. Although ongoing acid exposures may contribute to tooth wear, the role of acidic dietary components in this context remains unclear. To date, in tooth wear studies, dietary behavior has been [...] Read more.
Tooth wear is a relevant oral health problem, especially at a young age. Although ongoing acid exposures may contribute to tooth wear, the role of acidic dietary components in this context remains unclear. To date, in tooth wear studies, dietary behavior has been assessed using traditional questionnaires, but the suitability of this approach has not been investigated so far. In our longitudinal study, we followed 91 participants (21.0 ± 2.2 years) over a period of 1 year (373 ± 19 days) and monitored tooth wear with an intraoral scanner. At baseline (T0) and at the end (T1), we assessed dietary behavior with questionnaires asking about the consumption frequencies of acidic dietary components and the acid taste preferences. Complete data were available from 80 subjects. The consumption frequencies of T0 and T1 correlated weakly to moderately. Taste preferences seem to be a more consistent measure, but there was predominantly no significant correlation with the corresponding consumption frequencies. None of the dietary parameters showed a significant relation with tooth wear. The suitability of dietary questionnaires to assess tooth-relevant dietary behavior seems to be limited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Human Oral Health)
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14 pages, 2397 KiB  
Article
Radiographic Bone Loss and Its Relation to Patient-Specific Risk Factors, LDL Cholesterol, and Vitamin D: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Teresa Thim, Konstantin Johannes Scholz, Karl-Anton Hiller, Wolfgang Buchalla, Christian Kirschneck, Jonathan Fleiner, Johan Peter Woelber and Fabian Cieplik
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 864; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040864 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1911
Abstract
The influence of patient-specific factors such as medical conditions, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) on periodontal diseases is frequently discussed in the literature. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to evaluate potential associations between radiographic [...] Read more.
The influence of patient-specific factors such as medical conditions, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) on periodontal diseases is frequently discussed in the literature. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to evaluate potential associations between radiographic bone loss (RBL) and patient-specific risk factors, particularly LDL-C and 25OHD levels. Patients from a dental practice, who received full-mouth cone beam CTs (CBCTs) and blood-sampling in the course of implant treatment planning, were included in this study. RBL was determined at six sites per tooth from CBCT data. LDL-C and 25OHD levels were measured from venous blood samples. Other patient-specific risk factors were assessed based on anamnesis and dental charts. Statistical analysis was performed applying non-parametric procedures (Mann–Whitney U tests, error rates method). Data from 163 patients could be included in the analysis. RBL was significantly higher in male patients, older age groups, smokers, patients with high DMFT (decayed/missing/filled teeth) score, lower number of teeth, and high LDL-C levels (≥160 mg/dL). Furthermore, patients with high 25OHD levels (≥40 ng/mL) exhibited significantly less RBL. In summary, RBL was found to be associated with known patient-specific markers, particularly with age and high LDL-C levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Human Oral Health)
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10 pages, 276 KiB  
Article
Effects of a Non-Energy-Restricted Ketogenic Diet on Clinical Oral Parameters. An Exploratory Pilot Trial
by Johan Peter Woelber, Christian Tennert, Simon Fabian Ernst, Kirstin Vach, Petra Ratka-Krüger, Hartmut Bertz and Paul Urbain
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4229; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124229 - 25 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2912
Abstract
Ketogenic diets (KDs) may be a helpful complement in the prevention of and therapy for several diseases. Apart from their non-cariogenic properties, it is still unclear how KDs affect oral parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a [...] Read more.
Ketogenic diets (KDs) may be a helpful complement in the prevention of and therapy for several diseases. Apart from their non-cariogenic properties, it is still unclear how KDs affect oral parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a KD on clinical periodontal parameters. Twenty generally healthy volunteers with an average age of 36.6 years underwent a KD for 6 weeks. Their compliance was monitored by measuring their urinary ketones daily and by keeping 7-day food records. Clinical oral parameters included plaque (PI), gingival inflammation (GI), a complete periodontal status (probing depths, bleeding on probing), and general physical and serologic parameters at baseline and after 6 weeks. The results showed a trend towards lower plaque values, but with no significant changes from baseline to the end of the study with regard to the clinical periodontal parameters. However, their body weight and BMI measurements showed a significant decrease. The regression analyses showed that the fat mass and the BMI were significantly positively correlated to periodontal inflammation, while HDL, fiber, and protein intake were negatively correlated to periodontal inflammation. The KD change did not lead to clinical changes in periodontal parameters in healthy participants under continued oral hygiene, but it did lead to a significant weight loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Human Oral Health)
11 pages, 268 KiB  
Article
Association between Dietary Pattern and Periodontitis—A Cross-Sectional Study
by Ersin Altun, Carolin Walther, Katrin Borof, Elina Petersen, Berit Lieske, Dimitros Kasapoudis, Navid Jalilvand, Thomas Beikler, Bettina Jagemann, Birgit-Christiane Zyriax and Ghazal Aarabi
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4167; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114167 - 21 Nov 2021
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 5604
Abstract
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between specific known dietary patterns and the prevalence of periodontal disease in a northern population-based cohort study. We evaluated data from 6209 participants of the Hamburg City Health Study (HCHS). The HCHS is [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between specific known dietary patterns and the prevalence of periodontal disease in a northern population-based cohort study. We evaluated data from 6209 participants of the Hamburg City Health Study (HCHS). The HCHS is a prospective cohort study and is registered at ClinicalTrial.gov (NCT03934957). Dietary intake was assessed with the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ2). Periodontal examination included probing depth, gingival recession, plaque index, and bleeding on probing. Descriptive analyses were stratified by periodontitis severity. Ordinal logistic regression models were used to determine the association. Ordinal regression analyses revealed a significant association between higher adherence to the DASH diet/Mediterranean diet and lower odds to be affected by periodontal diseases in an unadjusted model (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87, 0.97; p < 0.001/OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.91, 0.96; p < 0.001) and an adjusted model (age, sex, diabetes) (OR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.00; p < 0.0365/OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.00; p < 0.0359). The current cross-sectional study identified a significant association between higher adherence to the DASH and Mediterranean diets and lower odds to be affected by periodontal diseases (irrespective of disease severity). Future randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate to which extent macro- and micronutrition can affect periodontitis initiation/progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Human Oral Health)
14 pages, 2058 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Effects of Inula viscosa Extract on the In Situ Initial Oral Biofilm
by Hannah Kurz, Lamprini Karygianni, Aikaterini Argyropoulou, Elmar Hellwig, Alexios Leandros Skaltsounis, Annette Wittmer, Kirstin Vach and Ali Al-Ahmad
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 4029; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13114029 - 11 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2384
Abstract
Given the undesirable side effects of commercially used mouth rinses that include chemically synthesized antimicrobial compounds such as chlorhexidine, it is essential to discover novel antimicrobial substances based on plant extracts. The aim of this study was to examine the antimicrobial effect of [...] Read more.
Given the undesirable side effects of commercially used mouth rinses that include chemically synthesized antimicrobial compounds such as chlorhexidine, it is essential to discover novel antimicrobial substances based on plant extracts. The aim of this study was to examine the antimicrobial effect of Inula viscosa extract on the initial microbial adhesion in the oral cavity. Individual test splints were manufactured for the participants, on which disinfected bovine enamel samples were attached. After the initial microbial adhesion, the biofilm-covered oral samples were removed and treated with different concentrations (10, 20, and 30 mg/mL) of an I. viscosa extract for 10 min. Positive and negative controls were also sampled. Regarding the microbiological parameters, the colony-forming units (CFU) and vitality testing (live/dead staining) were examined in combination with fluorescence microscopy. An I. viscosa extract with a concentration of 30 mg/mL killed the bacteria of the initial adhesion at a rate of 99.99% (log10 CFU value of 1.837 ± 1.54). Compared to the negative control, no killing effects were determined after treatment with I. viscosa extract at concentrations of 10 mg/mL (log10 CFU value 3.776 ± 0.831; median 3.776) and 20 mg/mL (log10 CFU value 3.725 ± 0.300; median 3.711). The live/dead staining revealed a significant reduction (p < 0.0001) of vital adherent bacteria after treatment with 10 mg/mL of I. viscosa extract. After treatment with an I. viscosa extract with a concentration of 30 mg/mL, no vital bacteria could be detected. For the first time, significant antimicrobial effects on the initial microbial adhesion in in situ oral biofilms were reported for an I. viscosa extract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Human Oral Health)
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12 pages, 932 KiB  
Article
Improved Healing after Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy Is Associated with Higher Protein Intake in Patients Who Are Non-Smokers
by David W. Dodington, Hannah E. Young, Jennifer R. Beaudette, Peter C. Fritz and Wendy E. Ward
Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3722; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113722 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2365
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine whether a relationship between periodontal healing and protein intake exists in patients undergoing non-surgical treatment for periodontitis. Dietary protein intake was assessed using the 2005 Block food frequency questionnaire in patients with chronic generalized periodontitis [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine whether a relationship between periodontal healing and protein intake exists in patients undergoing non-surgical treatment for periodontitis. Dietary protein intake was assessed using the 2005 Block food frequency questionnaire in patients with chronic generalized periodontitis undergoing scaling and root planing (n = 63 for non-smokers, n = 22 for smokers). Protein intake was correlated to post-treatment probing depth using multiple linear regression. Non-smoking patients who consumed ≥1 g protein/kg body weight/day had fewer sites with probing depth ≥ 4 mm after scaling and root planing compared to patients with intakes <1 g protein/kg body weight/day (11 ± 2 versus 16 ± 2, p = 0.05). This relationship was strengthened after controlling for baseline probing depth, hygienist and time between treatment and follow-up (10 ± 2 versus 16 ± 1, p = 0.018) and further strengthened after controlling for potential confounders including age, sex, body mass index, flossing frequency, and bleeding on probing (8 ± 2 versus 18 ± 2, p < 0.001). No associations were seen in patients who smoked. Consuming ≥1 g protein/kg body weight/day was associated with reductions in periodontal disease burden following scaling and root planing in patients who were non-smokers. Further studies are needed to differentiate between animal and plant proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Human Oral Health)
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13 pages, 2525 KiB  
Article
Modification of the Lipid Profile of the Initial Oral Biofilm In Situ Using Linseed Oil as Mouthwash
by Anna Kensche, Marco Reich, Christian Hannig, Klaus Kümmerer and Matthias Hannig
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 989; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030989 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2001
Abstract
Lipids are of interest for the targeted modification of oral bioadhesion processes. Therefore, the sustainable effects of linseed oil on the composition and ultrastructure of the in situ pellicle were investigated. Unlike saliva, linseed oil contains linolenic acid (18:3), which served as a [...] Read more.
Lipids are of interest for the targeted modification of oral bioadhesion processes. Therefore, the sustainable effects of linseed oil on the composition and ultrastructure of the in situ pellicle were investigated. Unlike saliva, linseed oil contains linolenic acid (18:3), which served as a marker for lipid accumulation. Individual splints with bovine enamel slabs were worn by five subjects. After 1 min of pellicle formation, rinses were performed with linseed oil for 10 min, and the slabs’ oral exposure was continued for up to 2 or 8 h. Gas chromatography coupled with electron impact ionization mass spectrometry (GC-EI/MS) was used to characterize the fatty acid composition of the pellicle samples. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to analyze the ultrastructure. Extensive accumulation of linolenic acid was recorded in the samples of all subjects 2 h after the rinse and considerable amounts persisted after 8 h. The ultrastructure of the 2 h pellicle was less electron-dense and contained lipid vesicles when compared with controls. After 8 h, no apparent ultrastructural effects were visible. Linolenic acid is an excellent marker for the investigation of fatty acid accumulation in the pellicle. New preventive strategies could benefit from the accumulation of lipid components in the pellicle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Human Oral Health)
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18 pages, 911 KiB  
Article
A Log Ratio-Based Analysis of Individual Changes in the Composition of the Oral Microbiota in Different Dietary Phases
by Kirstin Vach, Ali Al-Ahmad, Annette Anderson, Johan Peter Woelber, Lamprini Karygianni, Annette Wittmer and Elmar Hellwig
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 793; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030793 - 28 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1970
Abstract
Background: Investigating the influence of nutrition on oral health has a long scientific history. Due to recent technical advances like sequencing techniques for the oral microbiota, this topic has gained scientific interest again. A basic challenge is to understand the influence of nutrition [...] Read more.
Background: Investigating the influence of nutrition on oral health has a long scientific history. Due to recent technical advances like sequencing techniques for the oral microbiota, this topic has gained scientific interest again. A basic challenge is to understand the influence of nutrition on the oral microbiota and on the interaction between the oral bacteria, which is also statistically challenging. Methods: Log-transformed ratios of two bacteria concentrations are introduced as the basic analytic tool. The framework is illustrated by application in an experimental study exposing eleven participants to different nutrition schemes in five consecutive phases. Results: The method could be sufficiently used to analyse the interrelation between the bacteria and to identify some bacterial groups with the same as well as different reactions to additional dietary components. It was found that the strongest changes in bacterial concentrations were achieved by the additional consumption of dairy products. Conclusion: A log ratio-based analysis offers insights into the relation of different bacteria while taking specific features of compositional data into account. The presented methods allow becoming independent of the behaviour of other bacteria, which is a disadvantage of common analysis methods of compositions. The results indicate that modulations of the oral biofilm microbiota due to nutrition change can be attained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Human Oral Health)
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15 pages, 14535 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Photodynamic Treatment with Mother Juices and Their Single Compounds as Photosensitizers
by Sigrun Chrubasik-Hausmann, Elmar Hellwig, Michael Müller and Ali Al-Ahmad
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030710 - 24 Feb 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2189
Abstract
The potent antimicrobial effects of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) with visible light plus water-filtered infrared-A irradiation and natural compounds as photosensitizers (PSs) have recently been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to obtain information on the antimicrobial effects of aPDT with mother [...] Read more.
The potent antimicrobial effects of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) with visible light plus water-filtered infrared-A irradiation and natural compounds as photosensitizers (PSs) have recently been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to obtain information on the antimicrobial effects of aPDT with mother juices against typical cariogenic oral Streptococcus pathogens in their planktonic form and determine its eradication potential on total human salivary bacteria from volunteers. Mother juices of pomegranate, bilberry, and chokeberry at different concentrations were used as PSs. The unweighted (absolute) irradiance was 200 mW cm−2, applied five minutes. Planktonic cultures of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus and total mixed bacteria from pooled saliva of volunteers were treated with aPDT. Up to more than 5 log10 of S. mutans and S. sobrinus were killed by aPDT with 0.4% and 0.8% pomegranate juice, 3% and 50% chokeberry juice, and 12.5% bilberry juice (both strains). Concentrations of at least 25% (pomegranate) and >50% (chokeberry and bilberry) eradicated the mixed bacteria in saliva samples. This pilot study has shown that pomegranate mother juice is superior to the berry juices as a multicomponent PS for killing pathogenic oral bacteria with aPDT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Human Oral Health)
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16 pages, 3504 KiB  
Article
Stunting Malnutrition Associated with Severe Tooth Decay in Cambodian Toddlers
by Eva Peris Renggli, Bathsheba Turton, Karen Sokal-Gutierrez, Gabriela Hondru, Tepirou Chher, Sithan Hak, Etienne Poirot and Arnaud Laillou
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020290 - 20 Jan 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3461
Abstract
Background: The persistently high prevalence of undernutrition in Cambodia, in particular stunting or chronic malnutrition, calls for innovative investigation into the risk factors that affect children’s growth during critical phases of development. Methods: Secondary data analysis was performed on a subgroup of children [...] Read more.
Background: The persistently high prevalence of undernutrition in Cambodia, in particular stunting or chronic malnutrition, calls for innovative investigation into the risk factors that affect children’s growth during critical phases of development. Methods: Secondary data analysis was performed on a subgroup of children who were present at two time points within the Cambodian Health and Nutrition Monitoring Study (CAHENMS) and who were less than 24 months of age at the nominated baseline. Data consisted of parent interviews on sociodemographic characteristics and feeding practices, and clinical measures for anthropometric measures and dental status. Logistic regression modelling was used to examine the associations between severe dental caries (tooth decay)—as indicated by the Significant Caries Index—and the presence of new cases of stunting malnutrition at follow-up. Results: There were 1595 children who met the inclusion criteria and 1307 (81.9%) were followed after one year. At baseline, 14.4% of the children had severe dental caries, 25.6% presented with stunted growth. 17.6% of the children transitioned from healthy status to a low height-for-age over the observation period. Children with severe dental caries had nearly double the risk (OR = 1.8; CI 1.0–3.0) of making that transition. Conclusion: Severe caries experience was associated with poorer childhood growth and, as such, could be an underinvestigated contributor to stunting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Human Oral Health)
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Review

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23 pages, 1816 KiB  
Review
Sarcopenic Dysphagia, Malnutrition, and Oral Frailty in Elderly: A Comprehensive Review
by Alessandro de Sire, Martina Ferrillo, Lorenzo Lippi, Francesco Agostini, Roberto de Sire, Paola Emilia Ferrara, Giuseppe Raguso, Sergio Riso, Andrea Roccuzzo, Gianpaolo Ronconi, Marco Invernizzi and Mario Migliario
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 982; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14050982 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 64 | Viewed by 15706
Abstract
Frailty is a highly prevalent condition in the elderly that has been increasingly considered as a crucial public health issue, due to the strict correlation with a higher risk of fragility fractures, hospitalization, and mortality. Among the age-related diseases, sarcopenia and dysphagia are [...] Read more.
Frailty is a highly prevalent condition in the elderly that has been increasingly considered as a crucial public health issue, due to the strict correlation with a higher risk of fragility fractures, hospitalization, and mortality. Among the age-related diseases, sarcopenia and dysphagia are two common pathological conditions in frail older people and could coexist leading to dehydration and malnutrition in these subjects. “Sarcopenic dysphagia” is a complex condition characterized by deglutition impairment due to the loss of mass and strength of swallowing muscles and might be also related to poor oral health status. Moreover, the aging process is strictly related to poor oral health status due to direct impairment of the immune system and wound healing and physical and cognitive impairment might indirectly influence older people’s ability to carry out adequate oral hygiene. Therefore, poor oral health might affect nutrient intake, leading to malnutrition and, consequently, to frailty. In this scenario, sarcopenia, dysphagia, and oral health are closely linked sharing common pathophysiological pathways, disabling sequelae, and frailty. Thus, the aim of the present comprehensive review is to describe the correlation among sarcopenic dysphagia, malnutrition, and oral frailty, characterizing their phenotypically overlapping features, to propose a comprehensive and effective management of elderly frail subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Human Oral Health)
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26 pages, 1202 KiB  
Review
Nutrition Care Practices of Dietitians and Oral Health Professionals for Oral Health Conditions: A Scoping Review
by Jessica R. L. Lieffers, Amanda Gonçalves Troyack Vanzan, Janine Rover de Mello and Allison Cammer
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3588; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103588 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3873
Abstract
Background: Oral health conditions, such as dental caries, pose a substantial burden worldwide. Although there are many risk factors for poor oral health, diet is often implicated as a cause of these issues. The purpose of this scoping review was to identify and [...] Read more.
Background: Oral health conditions, such as dental caries, pose a substantial burden worldwide. Although there are many risk factors for poor oral health, diet is often implicated as a cause of these issues. The purpose of this scoping review was to identify and map studies that have captured information on the “real-world” nutrition care practices of oral health professionals (OHPs) and dietitians to optimize oral health, and specifically the dentition and periodontium. Methods: A search of peer-reviewed articles was conducted using MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Embase. Articles that addressed the review objective and met the following criteria were included: English language, published since 2000, and study conducted in a high-income country. Results: Overall, 70 articles were included. Most articles reported on cross-sectional survey studies and provided self-reported data on OHP practices; few articles reported on dietitians. Most articles reported only general/unspecific information on assessment and intervention practices, such as dietary analysis, nutrition counselling, and diet advice, and lacked specific information about the care provided, such as the dietary assessment tools used, type of information provided, and time spent on these activities. Barriers to the provision of nutrition care by OHPs were common and included time and lack of remuneration. Few studies reported on collaboration between dietitians and OHPs. Conclusions: Several studies have captured self-reported information on nutrition care practices of OHPs related to oral health; however, there is limited information available on the details of the care provided. Few studies have examined the practices of dietitians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Human Oral Health)
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13 pages, 392 KiB  
Review
The Association between Malnutrition and Oral Health in Older People: A Systematic Review
by Yne Algra, Elizabeth Haverkort, Wilhelmina Kok, Faridi van Etten-Jamaludin, Liedeke van Schoot, Vanessa Hollaar, Elke Naumann, Marian de van der Schueren and Katarina Jerković-Ćosić
Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3584; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103584 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 4637
Abstract
The aim of this systematic review was to examine the association between malnutrition and oral health in older people (≥ 60 years of age). A comprehensive systematic literature search was performed in four databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Dentistry and Oral Sciences Source, and Embase) [...] Read more.
The aim of this systematic review was to examine the association between malnutrition and oral health in older people (≥ 60 years of age). A comprehensive systematic literature search was performed in four databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Dentistry and Oral Sciences Source, and Embase) for literature from January 2000 to May 2020. Both observational and intervention studies were screened for eligibility. Two reviewers independently screened the search results to identify potential eligible studies, and assessed the methodological quality of the full-text studies. A total of 3240 potential studies were identified. After judgement for relevance, 10 studies (cross-sectional (n = 9), prospective cohort (n = 1)) met the inclusion criteria. Three studies described malnourished participants as having fewer teeth, or functional (tooth) units (FTUs), compared to well-nourished participants. Four studies reported soft tissue problems in malnourished participants, including red tongue with blisters, and dry or cracked lips. Subjective oral health was the topic in six studies, with poorer oral health and negative self-perception of oral health in malnourished elderly participants. There are associations between (at risk of) malnutrition and oral health in older people, categorized in hard and soft tissue conditions of the mouth, and subjective oral health. Future research should be focused on longitudinal cohort studies with proper determination of malnutrition and oral health assessments, in order to evaluate the actual association between malnutrition and oral health in older people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Human Oral Health)
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4 pages, 1968 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Bartha et al. How to Measure Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet in Dental Studies: Is a Short Adherence Screener Enough? A Comparative Analysis. Nutrients 2022, 14, 1300
by Valentin Bartha, Lea Exner, Anna-Lisa Meyer, Maryam Basrai, Daniela Schweikert, Michael Adolph, Thomas Bruckner, Christian Meller, Johan Peter Woelber and Diana Wolff
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1845; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091845 - 28 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1009
Abstract
The authors would like to make a correction in a recently published paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Human Oral Health)
37 pages, 2900 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Clinical, Microbiological, and Immunological Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Prevention and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Zohre Gheisary, Razi Mahmood, Aparna Harri shivanantham, Juxin Liu, Jessica R. L. Lieffers, Petros Papagerakis and Silvana Papagerakis
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1036; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051036 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 6503
Abstract
(1) Background: Periodontal diseases are a global health concern. They are multi-stage, progressive inflammatory diseases triggered by the inflammation of the gums in response to periodontopathogens and may lead to the destruction of tooth-supporting structures, tooth loss, and systemic health problems. This systematic [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Periodontal diseases are a global health concern. They are multi-stage, progressive inflammatory diseases triggered by the inflammation of the gums in response to periodontopathogens and may lead to the destruction of tooth-supporting structures, tooth loss, and systemic health problems. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the effects of probiotic supplementation on the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease based on the assessment of clinical, microbiological, and immunological outcomes. (2) Methods: This study was registered under PROSPERO (CRD42021249120). Six databases were searched: PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Dentistry and Oral Science Source. The meta-analysis assessed the effects of probiotic supplementation on the prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases and reported them using Hedge’s g standardized mean difference (SMD). (3) Results: Of the 1883 articles initially identified, 64 randomized clinical trials were included in this study. The results of this meta-analysis indicated statistically significant improvements after probiotic supplementation in the majority of the clinical outcomes in periodontal disease patients, including the plaque index (SMD = 0.557, 95% CI: 0.228, 0.885), gingival index, SMD = 0.920, 95% CI: 0.426, 1.414), probing pocket depth (SMD = 0.578, 95% CI: 0.365, 0.790), clinical attachment level (SMD = 0.413, 95% CI: 0.262, 0.563), bleeding on probing (SMD = 0.841, 95% CI: 0.479, 1.20), gingival crevicular fluid volume (SMD = 0.568, 95% CI: 0.235, 0.902), reduction in the subgingival periodontopathogen count of P. gingivalis (SMD = 0.402, 95% CI: 0.120, 0.685), F. nucleatum (SMD = 0.392, 95% CI: 0.127, 0.658), and T. forsythia (SMD = 0.341, 95% CI: 0.050, 0.633), and immunological markers MMP-8 (SMD = 0.819, 95% CI: 0.417, 1.221) and IL-6 (SMD = 0.361, 95% CI: 0.079, 0.644). (4) Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that probiotic supplementation improves clinical parameters, and reduces the periodontopathogen load and pro-inflammatory markers in periodontal disease patients. However, we were unable to assess the preventive role of probiotic supplementation due to the paucity of studies. Further clinical studies are needed to determine the efficacy of probiotic supplementation in the prevention of periodontal diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Human Oral Health)
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