Next Issue
Volume 17, March-2
Previous Issue
Volume 17, February-2
 
 
energies-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Energies, Volume 17, Issue 5 (March-1 2024) – 292 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Maximizing electrical power production from very large, closely spaced, offshore wind farms requires optimal spacing of wind turbines within and between individual lease areas. Representative high-resolution simulations indicate that current offshore lease areas along the U.S. east coast could supply over 4.4% of annual national electricity demand, and there is no evidence that even these multi-gigawatt installations will experience power production limitations imposed by the rate of kinetic energy replacement. A comprehensive uncertainty analysis suggests priorities for model improvements and to quantify the relative benefits of increasing the installed capacity densities. Computationally efficient emulators of wake extents are presented that depend on parameters commonly available from meteorological forecast models. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
22 pages, 10511 KiB  
Article
A Three-Phase Multilevel Inverter Synthesized with 31 Levels and Optimal Gating Angles Based on the GA and GWO to Supply a Three-Phase Induction Motor
by Taha Ahmad Hussein, Dahaman Ishak and Mohamad Tarnini
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1267; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051267 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 504
Abstract
A three-phase multilevel inverter (MLI), synthesized with 31 levels in regard to its output voltage, is used to provide the AC supply to a three-phase, squirrel cage induction motor. The gating angles required for the 30 power switches on the MLI are optimized [...] Read more.
A three-phase multilevel inverter (MLI), synthesized with 31 levels in regard to its output voltage, is used to provide the AC supply to a three-phase, squirrel cage induction motor. The gating angles required for the 30 power switches on the MLI are optimized using both the genetic algorithm (GA) and the grey wolf optimizer (GWO), in which the optimal angles are determined through solving the trigonometric equations taken from Fourier analysis to target the minimum total harmonic distortion (THD) at the MLI output. A simulation model and an experimental prototype are developed for performance analysis and validation. The results demonstrate that the MLI is effectively able to produce 31 levels of three-phase AC output voltage, with the THD not exceeding 5% when loaded with a resistive load and a three-phase induction motor. The voltage and current are measured and recorded for different loads and operating conditions, including the amount of energy consumed by the load. The results of the frequency analysis demonstrate that most of the triple harmonics, which can harm the efficiency of the inverter, are cancelled. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section F: Electrical Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 6399 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Potential of a Transparent Xanthan Polymer for Enhanced Oil Recovery: A Comprehensive Study on Properties and Application Efficacy
by Gerd Hublik, Riyaz Kharrat, Ali Mirzaalian Dastjerdi and Holger Ott
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1266; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051266 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 462
Abstract
This study delves into the properties and behavior of xanthan TNCS-ST, a specialized variant designed for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) purposes. A notable aspect of this polymer is its transparency and capability to dissolve in high salt concentrations, notably up to 18% total [...] Read more.
This study delves into the properties and behavior of xanthan TNCS-ST, a specialized variant designed for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) purposes. A notable aspect of this polymer is its transparency and capability to dissolve in high salt concentrations, notably up to 18% total dissolved solids. Various laboratory methods are employed to assess the polymer’s distinctive traits, including transparency, salt tolerance, and high pyruvylation. These methods encompass preparing xanthan solutions, conducting filtration tests, assessing energy consumption, and measuring rheological properties. The findings highlight the influence of salt concentration on xanthan’s filterability, indicating increased energy requirements for dissolution with higher salt and xanthan concentrations. Additionally, this study observes temperature-dependent viscosity behavior in different solutions and evaluates the shear stability of xanthan. A significant and novel characteristic of TNCS-ST is its high salt tolerance, enabling complete dissolution at elevated salt concentrations, thus facilitating the filterability of the xanthan solution with sufficient time and energy input. Core flooding experiments investigate fluid dynamics within porous rock formations, particularly sandstone and carbonate rocks, while varying salinity. The results underscore the substantial potential of the new xanthan polymer, demonstrating its ability to enhance oil recovery in sandstone and carbonate rock formations significantly. Remarkably, the study achieves a noteworthy 67% incremental recovery in carbonate rock under the high salinity level tested, suggesting promising prospects for advancing enhanced oil recovery applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section H: Geo-Energy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 9059 KiB  
Review
Performance Analysis and Optimization of SOFC/GT Hybrid Systems: A Review
by Qiao Yuan, Xiongzhuang Li, Shuo Han, Sijia Wang, Mengting Wang, Rentian Chen, Sergei Kudashev, Tao Wei and Daifen Chen
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1265; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051265 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 639
Abstract
This review provides an overview of the solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine (SOFC/GT) hybrid system, highlighting its potential as a highly efficient and low-emission power generation technology. The operating principles and components of the SOFC/GT system, as well as the various configurations and [...] Read more.
This review provides an overview of the solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine (SOFC/GT) hybrid system, highlighting its potential as a highly efficient and low-emission power generation technology. The operating principles and components of the SOFC/GT system, as well as the various configurations and integration strategies, are discussed. This review also examines the performance, advantages, and challenges of the SOFC/GT system, and discusses the research and development efforts aimed at improving its efficiency, reliability, and cost-effectiveness. This work provides an overview of the research conducted in the area of SOFC-based hybrid systems, which is expected to be beneficial for researchers who are interested in this area. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 3053 KiB  
Article
Strategic Model for Charging a Fleet of Electric Vehicles with Energy from Renewable Energy Sources
by Jacek Caban, Arkadiusz Małek and Branislav Šarkan
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1264; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051264 - 06 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 744
Abstract
The ever-growing number of electric vehicles requires increasing amounts of energy to charge their traction batteries. Electric vehicles are the most ecological when the energy for charging them comes from renewable energy sources. Obtaining electricity from renewable sources such as photovoltaic systems is [...] Read more.
The ever-growing number of electric vehicles requires increasing amounts of energy to charge their traction batteries. Electric vehicles are the most ecological when the energy for charging them comes from renewable energy sources. Obtaining electricity from renewable sources such as photovoltaic systems is also a way to reduce the operating costs of an electric vehicle. However, to produce cheap electricity from renewable energy sources, you first need to invest in the construction of a photovoltaic system. The article presents a strategic model for charging a fleet of electric vehicles with energy from photovoltaic systems. The model is useful for sizing a planned photovoltaic system to the energy needs of a vehicle fleet. It uses the Metalog family of probability distributions to determine the probability of producing a given amount of energy needed to power electric vehicle chargers. Using the model, it is possible to determine the percentage of energy from photovoltaic systems in the total energy needed to charge a vehicle fleet. The research was carried out on real data from an operating photovoltaic system with a peak power of 50 kWp. The approach presented in the strategic model takes into account the geographical and climatic context related to the location of the photovoltaic system. The model can be used for various renewable energy sources and different sizes of vehicle fleets with different electricity demands to charge their batteries. The presented model can be used to manage the energy produced both at the design stage of the photovoltaic system and during its operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electricity Market Modeling Trends in Power Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

30 pages, 6458 KiB  
Article
Modular Circuit Synthesis Oriented Modelling Approach for Non-Isolated DC-DC Converters in DCM
by Lebogang Masike and Michael Njoroge Gitau
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1263; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051263 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 383
Abstract
The continued and envisioned large-scale integration of renewable energy sources as a reaction to rising global temperatures and climate change will need a readily available DC grid to increase commissioning and operating efficiency. The effective operation of these grids is predicated on the [...] Read more.
The continued and envisioned large-scale integration of renewable energy sources as a reaction to rising global temperatures and climate change will need a readily available DC grid to increase commissioning and operating efficiency. The effective operation of these grids is predicated on the correct control of its main control points. A plethora of DC-DC converters that find use in DC microgrids act as the main control points. DC-DC converters are non-linear and can operate in different modes with completely unique characteristics. To utilise classical control techniques, laborious equivalent linear models are derived for DC-DC converters using averaging modelling schemes. The application and limitations of these modelling techniques are well captured in the available literature. The most common limitation of the available modelling schemes is that more focus is dedicated to converter attributes like order, functionality and operating mode, even when optimal power flow and voltage regulation within the DC network are of more interest. Structure-based modelling techniques like the use of basic building blocks nullify converter attributes in the modelling process which translates to modelling efficiency. In light of the merits seen with the use of basic building blocks when modelling converters in CCM, the current study extends these merits to converters operation in DCM. Similar to modelling converters in CCM, modelling techniques that are available in the literature continue to consider converter attributes in the modelling process for DCM operation. Moreover, the two modes of operation are treated as unique entities and often modelled in a non-unified manner, which compromise modelling efficiency since the same converter can operate in a different state solely based on loading. The aim is to increase modelling efficiency but also nullify operating mode in the modelling process. The same basic building blocks are now modelled as two-port networks for DCM operation and adopted based on the exact configuration of a specified converter to compute its steady-state and dynamic models. All the advantages seen when modelling converters in CCM using basic building blocks are retained and augmented when considering DCM operation. Thus, any converter with well-defined basic building blocks can be easily modelled solely based on the connection of constituent basic building blocks. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 19611 KiB  
Article
Geological Constraints on the Gas-Bearing Properties in High-Rank Coal: A Case Study of the Upper Permian Longtan Formation from the Songzao Coalfield, Chongqing, Southwest China
by Dishu Chen, Jinxi Wang, Xuesong Tian, Dongxin Guo, Yuelei Zhang and Chunlin Zeng
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1262; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051262 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 341
Abstract
The Permian Longtan Formation in the Songzao coalfield, Southwest China, has abundant coalbed methane (CBM) stored in high-rank coals. However, few studies have been performed on the mechanism underlying the differences in CBM gas content in high-rank coal. This study focuses on the [...] Read more.
The Permian Longtan Formation in the Songzao coalfield, Southwest China, has abundant coalbed methane (CBM) stored in high-rank coals. However, few studies have been performed on the mechanism underlying the differences in CBM gas content in high-rank coal. This study focuses on the characterization of coal geochemical, reservoir physical, and gas-bearing properties in the coal seams M6, M7, M8, and M12 based on the CBM wells and coal exploration boreholes, discusses the effects of depositional environment, tectono-thermal evolution, and regional geological structure associated with CBM, and identifies major geological constraints on the gas-bearing properties in high-rank coal. The results show that high-rank coals are characterized by high TOC contents (31.49~51.32 wt%), high Tmax and R0 values (averaging 539 °C and 2.17%), low HI values (averaging 15.21 mg of HC/g TOC), high porosity and low permeability, and high gas-bearing contents, indicating a post-thermal maturity and a good CBM production potential. Changes in the shallow bay–tidal flat–lagoon environment triggered coal formation and provided the material basis for CBM generation. Multistage tectono-thermal evolution caused by the Emeishan mantle plume activity guaranteed the temperature and time for overmaturation and thermal metamorphism and added massive pyrolytic CBM, which improved the gas production potential. Good geological structural conditions, like enclosed fold regions, were shown to directly control CBM accumulation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 2455 KiB  
Article
Eddy–Viscosity Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes Modeling of Air Distribution in a Sidewall Jet Supplied into a Room
by Maria Hurnik, Piotr Ciuman and Zbigniew Popiolek
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1261; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051261 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 394
Abstract
Air velocity is one of the key parameters affecting the sensation of thermal comfort. In mixing ventilation, the air is most often supplied above the occupied zone, and the air movement in a room is caused by jets that generate recirculating flows. An [...] Read more.
Air velocity is one of the key parameters affecting the sensation of thermal comfort. In mixing ventilation, the air is most often supplied above the occupied zone, and the air movement in a room is caused by jets that generate recirculating flows. An effective tool for predicting airflow in a room is CFD numerical modeling. In order to reproduce the air velocity distribution, it is essential to select a proper turbulence model. In this paper, seven Eddy–Viscosity RANS turbulence models were used to carry out CFD simulations of a sidewall air jet supplied into a room through a wall diffuser. The goal was to determine which model was the most suitable to adopt in this type of airflow. The CFD results were validated using experimental data by comparing the gross and integral parameters, along with the parameters of the quasi-free jet model. The numerical results obtained for Std k-ε and EVTM models were most consistent with the measurements. Their error values slightly exceeded 15%. On the contrary, the k-ω and RNG k-ε models did not reproduce the quasi-free jet parameters correctly. The research findings can prove beneficial for simulating air distribution in supplied air jets during the initial conceptual phases of HVAC system design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building Energy Performance Modelling and Simulation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

28 pages, 8892 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Energy Performance and Retrofit Potential of the 1980–1990s’ Residential Building Stock in China’s Jiangsu Province: A Simulation-Based Study
by Xi Chen, Marco Cimillo, David Chow and Bing Chen
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1260; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051260 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 500
Abstract
The building operation sector in China represents 22% of the national energy consumption and 22% of the carbon emission, of which urban residential buildings accounted for 24% in 2019. Such figures for the housing sector are projected to increase sharply in the near [...] Read more.
The building operation sector in China represents 22% of the national energy consumption and 22% of the carbon emission, of which urban residential buildings accounted for 24% in 2019. Such figures for the housing sector are projected to increase sharply in the near future, while China aims to peak CO2 emissions by 2030 and reach neutrality before 2060. To reduce the impacts of the urban housing sector and address the energy use and waste generated by large-scale demolition and reconstruction, the central government started promoting the energy retrofit of urban residential buildings, raising such policies to the national strategic level. Jiangsu Province is one of the most urbanised, with a rapid growth in the energy consumption of residential buildings. The Multi-Danyuan and Single-Danyuan Apartment built in 1980–1999 are the most representative residential types in its urban areas. While still adequate functionally, they were designed and built to low energy standards and show significant potential for energy retrofit. Nonetheless, their current performance and energy-saving potential are under-researched, while more detailed and reliable data would be critical to support retrofit design and policy making. This study investigates and characterises the typical use and energy performance of the two building types. Additionally, seven measures and six retrofit scenarios were identified based on the optimal energy reductions and regulations from selected countries. The simulations indicate that, without intervention, the energy consumption of the typical urban residential buildings can reach 122 kWh/m2 under the typical high-energy user scenario. By selecting a set of effective energy-saving measures, the operational energy use for heating and cooling can be reduced by up to 52.4%. Current local standards prove cost-efficient, although less effective in reducing energy use compared to international best practices, indicating potential improvements to the contribution of building retrofit towards achieving the national carbon reduction goals. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 3427 KiB  
Article
Predicting Liquid Water Condensation in PEM Fuel Cells by Coupling CFD with 1D Models
by Maximilian Schmitz, Fynn Matthiesen, Steffen Dirkes and Stefan Pischinger
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1259; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051259 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 523
Abstract
Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are a promising technology for future transportation applications. However, start-up procedures that are not optimized for low temperatures can lead to the early failure of the cells. Detailed CFD models can support the optimization of cold start procedures, [...] Read more.
Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are a promising technology for future transportation applications. However, start-up procedures that are not optimized for low temperatures can lead to the early failure of the cells. Detailed CFD models can support the optimization of cold start procedures, but they often cannot be solved in a stable way due to their complexity. One-dimensional (1D) models can be calculated quickly but are simplified so that the behavior of the cells can no longer be determined accurately. In this contribution, a coupling between a 2D CFD model of the gas channels and a 1D model of the Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) is realized. This method allows not only to determine the location and amount of the condensed water but also to calculate the exact concentration of the reactant gases along the channels. The investigations show that the concentrations of the gases and the relative humidities in the gas channels are strongly influenced by the current density. It has been found that it is not possible to avoid the formation of liquid water at low operating temperatures by controlling the current density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section D2: Electrochem: Batteries, Fuel Cells, Capacitors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 4162 KiB  
Article
Load Calculation and Strength Analysis of the Deepwater Landing Drill Pipe-Lowering Operation
by Guolei He, Linqing Wang, Jiarui Wang, Kaixiang Shen, Hengfu Xiang, Jintang Wang, Haowen Chen, Benchong Xu, Rulei Qin and Guole Yin
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1258; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051258 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 447
Abstract
A landing string is directly exposed to seawater and subjected to significant stresses and complex deformations due to environmental loads such as wind, waves, and ocean currents during the phase in which the drill string carries the casing to the wellhead. Meanwhile, as [...] Read more.
A landing string is directly exposed to seawater and subjected to significant stresses and complex deformations due to environmental loads such as wind, waves, and ocean currents during the phase in which the drill string carries the casing to the wellhead. Meanwhile, as the water depth increases, the weight of the drill string increases, leading to an increase in the tensile loads borne by the drill string, which can easily cause a risk of failure. Therefore, a quasi-static load calculation model for the deepwater insertion of the pipe column was established. Using the Ansys platform, simulations were conducted for average wind, wave, and ocean current conditions during different months throughout the year. The ultimate loads and stress distributions of the string were derived from theoretical analyses and numerical simulations for different operational sea states, and the suggested safe operating window and desired BOP trolley restraining reaction force for landing strings’ lowering are given according to the existing industry standards. The research findings can help in identifying the potential risks and failure modes of the deepwater landing string under different working conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Oil and Gas Wellbore Integrity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 3863 KiB  
Article
Optimization and Scheduling Method for Power Systems Considering Wind Power Forward/Reverse Peaking Scenarios
by Hao Yu, Yibo Wang, Chuang Liu, Shunjiang Wang, Chunyang Hao and Jian Xiong
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1257; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051257 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 449
Abstract
With the promotion of the dual carbon target, the scale of the wind power grid connection will significantly increase. However, wind power has characteristics such as randomness and volatility, and its grid connection challenges the pressure of system peak shaving, making it increasingly [...] Read more.
With the promotion of the dual carbon target, the scale of the wind power grid connection will significantly increase. However, wind power has characteristics such as randomness and volatility, and its grid connection challenges the pressure of system peak shaving, making it increasingly difficult to regulate the power system. To solve the problem of wind power abandonment, the positive and negative peak shaving characteristics of wind power were first analyzed. Based on this, it is proposed that demand response resources and energy storage with adjustable characteristics are used as the new means of wind power consumption. Together with the thermal power units, they participate in the optimization and scheduling of the power grid, forming a coordinated and optimized operation mode of source load storage. With the goal of minimizing system operating costs, a two-stage economic scheduling model was formed for the day-ahead and intra-day periods. Finally, optimization software was used to solve the problem, and the simulation results showed the effectiveness of the proposed economic scheduling model, which can improve the system’s new energy consumption and reduce the system’s operating costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A3: Wind, Wave and Tidal Energy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

33 pages, 7250 KiB  
Article
Forecasting Solar Energy Generation and Household Energy Usage for Efficient Utilisation
by Aistis Raudys and Julius Gaidukevičius
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1256; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051256 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 531
Abstract
In this study, a prototype was developed for the effective utilisation of a domestic solar power plant. The basic idea is to switch on certain electrical appliances when the surplus of generated energy is predicted one hour in advance, for example, switching on [...] Read more.
In this study, a prototype was developed for the effective utilisation of a domestic solar power plant. The basic idea is to switch on certain electrical appliances when the surplus of generated energy is predicted one hour in advance, for example, switching on a pump motor for watering a garden. This prediction is important because some devices (motors) wear out if they are switched on and off too frequently. If a solar power plant generates more energy than a household can consume, the surplus energy is fed into the main grid for storage. If a household has an energy shortage, the same energy is bought back at a higher price. In this study, data were collected from solar inverters, historical weather APIs and smart energy meters. This study describes the data preparation process and feature engineering that will later be used to create forecasting models. This study consists of two forecasting models: solar energy generation and household electricity consumption. Both types of model were tested using Facebook Prophet and different neural network architectures: feedforward, long short-term memory (LSTM) and gated recurrent unit (GRU) networks. In addition, a baseline model was developed to compare the prediction accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forecasting of Photovoltaic Power Generation and Model Optimization)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 1662 KiB  
Article
Integrated Demand Response for Micro-Energy Grid Accounting for Dispatchable Loads
by Xianglong Zhang, Hanxin Wu, Mengting Zhu, Mengwei Dong and Shufeng Dong
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1255; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051255 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 458
Abstract
Micro-energy networks are the smallest element of integrated energy systems, and tapping into the integrated demand response potential of micro-energy networks is conducive to improving energy use efficiency and promoting the development of new energy sources on a large scale. This paper proposes [...] Read more.
Micro-energy networks are the smallest element of integrated energy systems, and tapping into the integrated demand response potential of micro-energy networks is conducive to improving energy use efficiency and promoting the development of new energy sources on a large scale. This paper proposes a day-ahead integrated demand response strategy for micro-energy grid that takes into account the dispatchable loads. Considering the gradient use of thermal energy, a typical micro-energy grid structure including electricity, gas, medium-grade heat, low-grade heat, and cold energy is constructed, a comprehensive energy equipment model is established, and the refined scheduling models of the dispatchable loads are given. On this basis, with the operating economy of the micro-energy grid as the optimization objective, the integrated demand response strategies of tariff-type and incentive-type are proposed. Through case study analysis, it is verified that the proposed strategy can optimize the energy consumption structure of the micro-energy grid under the guidance of time-of-use tariffs, reducing the operating costs. The proposed strategy fully exploits the demand response potential of the micro-energy grid through the dispatchable loads and the multi-energy complementarity of electricity, heat, and cold, realizes the comprehensive coordination and optimization of source-network-load-storage, provides a larger peak-regulating capacity, and exhibits practical applicability in engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A1: Smart Grids and Microgrids)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 15720 KiB  
Article
Research on Flutter Characterization of Flexible Blade Response under Typhoon Operating Conditions
by Huiyuan Liu, Qiaoli Han, De Tian, Xiaomei Feng, Zhiyong Guo and Minghui Zhang
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1254; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051254 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 460
Abstract
Wind turbine blades, being flexible, are susceptible to damage during typhoons. Studying the aeroelastic response of these blades in typhoon conditions is crucial for providing a theoretical foundation for their optimization and design. This research focuses on the NREL 5 MW flexible blade, [...] Read more.
Wind turbine blades, being flexible, are susceptible to damage during typhoons. Studying the aeroelastic response of these blades in typhoon conditions is crucial for providing a theoretical foundation for their optimization and design. This research focuses on the NREL 5 MW flexible blade, employing the B-L stall model for dynamic inflow and geometrically exact beam theory to develop an aeroelastic model capable of predicting the blade’s flutter limit. Through quantitative analysis, we assess the stability of the wind turbine’s flexible blade under typhoon conditions and examine the blade tip’s transient response. The findings indicate that the model’s flutter speed is 21.5 rpm, marked by a significant increase in tip deflection’s mean square error of over 80% and a coupling of flapwise and torsional modes at 4.81 Hz. The blade tip’s transient response under typhoon conditions does not satisfy the flutter criterion, thus preventing instability. Under typhoon conditions, the deflection in the flapwise, edgewise, and twist directions of the blade shows an increase of 12.1%, 10.5%, and 119.2%, respectively, compared to standard operating conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Fluid Dynamics and Wind Power Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 9455 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Deloading Control Strategy in MMC-Based Wind Energy Conversion Systems for Enhanced Frequency Regulation
by Jimiao Zhang and Jie Li
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1253; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051253 - 06 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 449
Abstract
The growing integration of renewable energy sources, especially offshore wind (OSW), is introducing frequency stability challenges to electric power grids. This paper presents a novel hybrid deloading control strategy that enables modular multilevel converter (MMC)-based wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) to actively contribute [...] Read more.
The growing integration of renewable energy sources, especially offshore wind (OSW), is introducing frequency stability challenges to electric power grids. This paper presents a novel hybrid deloading control strategy that enables modular multilevel converter (MMC)-based wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) to actively contribute to grid frequency regulation. This research investigates a permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG)-based direct-drive configuration, sourced from the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) 15 MW reference turbine model. Specifically, phase-locked loop (PLL)-free grid-forming (GFM) control is employed via the grid-side converter (GSC), and DC-link voltage control is realized through the machine-side converter (MSC), both of which boost the energy support for the integrated AC grid’s frequency stability. This control strategy combines the benefits of over-speeding and pitch control modes, facilitating smooth transitions between different modes based on real-time wind speed measurements. In addition, the practical challenges of MMCs, such as circulating currents and capacitor voltage imbalances, are addressed. Numerical simulations under varying wind speeds and loading conditions validate the enhanced frequency regulation capability of the proposed approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Developments in Offshore Wind Technologies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 3515 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Efficiency of Surface-Based Air Heating Systems
by Slawomir Rabczak and Krzysztof Nowak
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1252; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051252 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 433
Abstract
This study explores the synergistic potential of integrating forced air heating with flat surface heating, presenting a promising solution for structures with intermittent occupancy or where conventional water-based heating proves impractical. The objective is to enhance thermal comfort and reduce long-term energy consumption. [...] Read more.
This study explores the synergistic potential of integrating forced air heating with flat surface heating, presenting a promising solution for structures with intermittent occupancy or where conventional water-based heating proves impractical. The objective is to enhance thermal comfort and reduce long-term energy consumption. A comprehensive examination of the interaction between heated surfaces and forced air heating reveals that excess energy generated can be redirected for more efficient heat distribution. Various scenarios were tested, indicating that the power necessary for maintaining consistent surface temperature could be significantly reduced. A noteworthy approach involves utilizing heat from pellet smoke to maximize heat recovery efficiency from pellet combustion. This, however, raises issues related to smoke introduction into heated spaces. Despite challenges, this approach provides a means to minimize the delivery of overheated air and accumulate energy within room partitions, thereby enhancing system efficiency. The study concludes that while the stand-alone flat surface heating system is better suited as a supplementary heating source within buildings, it offers a compelling alternative within traditional construction, aligning with historical systems. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 17532 KiB  
Article
Monitoring Energy and Power Quality of the Loads in a Microgrid Laboratory Using Smart Meters
by Viktor Isanbaev, Raúl Baños, Fernando Martínez, Alfredo Alcayde and Consolación Gil
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1251; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051251 - 06 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 586
Abstract
Microgrids are local energy production and distribution networks that can operate independently when disconnected from the main power grid thanks to the integration of power generation systems, energy storage units and intelligent control systems. However, despite their advantages, the optimal energy management of [...] Read more.
Microgrids are local energy production and distribution networks that can operate independently when disconnected from the main power grid thanks to the integration of power generation systems, energy storage units and intelligent control systems. However, despite their advantages, the optimal energy management of real microgrids remains a subject that requires further investigation. Specifically, an effective management of microgrids requires managing a large number of electrical variables related to the power generated by the microgrid’s power supplies, the power consumed by the loads and the aspects of power quality. This study analyzes how we can monitor different variables, such as the active power, reactive power, power factor, total harmonic distortion and frequency in the loads of a microgrid, using high-precision power meters. Our empirical study, conducted using a functional microgrid comprising a hybrid wind–solar power system and several household appliances, demonstrates the feasibility of using low-cost and high-performance power meters with IoT functionality to collect valuable power quality and energy consumption data that can be used to control the microgrid operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Decentralized Energy Management in Microgrids II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 1525 KiB  
Review
Battery Energy Storage Systems: A Review of Energy Management Systems and Health Metrics
by Solmaz Nazaralizadeh, Paramarshi Banerjee, Anurag K. Srivastava and Parviz Famouri
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1250; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051250 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1173
Abstract
With increasing concerns about climate change, there is a transition from high-carbon-emitting fuels to green energy resources in various applications including household, commercial, transportation, and electric grid applications. Even though renewable energy resources are receiving traction for being carbon-neutral, their availability is intermittent. [...] Read more.
With increasing concerns about climate change, there is a transition from high-carbon-emitting fuels to green energy resources in various applications including household, commercial, transportation, and electric grid applications. Even though renewable energy resources are receiving traction for being carbon-neutral, their availability is intermittent. To address this issue to achieve extensive application, the integration of energy storage systems in conjunction with these resources is becoming a recommended practice. Additionally, in the transportation sector, the increased demand for EVs requires the development of energy storage systems that can deliver energy for rigorous driving cycles, with lithium-ion-based batteries emerging as the superior choice for energy storage due to their high power and energy densities, length of their life cycle, low self-discharge rates, and reasonable cost. As a result, battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are becoming a primary energy storage system. The high-performance demand on these BESS can have severe negative effects on their internal operations such as heating and catching on fire when operating in overcharge or undercharge states. Reduced efficiency and poor charge storage result in the battery operating at higher temperatures. To mitigate early battery degradation, battery management systems (BMSs) have been devised to enhance battery life and ensure normal operation under safe operating conditions. Some BMSs are capable of determining precise state estimations to ensure safe battery operation and reduce hazards. Precise estimation of battery health is computed by evaluating several metrics and is a central factor in effective battery management systems. In this scenario, the accurate estimation of the health indicators (HIs) of the battery becomes even more important within the framework of a BMS. This paper provides a comprehensive review and discussion of battery management systems and different health indicators for BESSs, with suitable classification based on key characteristics. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 3225 KiB  
Article
Reinforcement Learning for Energy Community Management: A European-Scale Study
by Giulia Palma, Leonardo Guiducci, Marta Stentati, Antonio Rizzo and Simone Paoletti
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1249; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051249 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 654
Abstract
Efficient management of renewable energy resources is imperative for promoting environmental sustainability and optimizing the utilization of clean energy sources. This paper presents a pioneering European-scale study on energy management within renewable energy communities (RECs). With a primary focus on enhancing the social [...] Read more.
Efficient management of renewable energy resources is imperative for promoting environmental sustainability and optimizing the utilization of clean energy sources. This paper presents a pioneering European-scale study on energy management within renewable energy communities (RECs). With a primary focus on enhancing the social welfare of the community, we introduce a reinforcement learning (RL) controller designed to strategically manage Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs) and orchestrate energy flows. This research transcends geographical boundaries by conducting an extended analysis of various energy communities and diverse energy markets across Europe, encompassing different regions of Italy. Our methodology involves the implementation of an RL controller, leveraging optimal control theory for training and utilizing only real-time data available at the current time step during the test phase. Through simulations conducted in diverse contexts, we demonstrate the superior performance of our RL agent compared to a state-of-the-art rule-based controller. The agent exhibits remarkable adaptability to various scenarios, consistently surpassing existing rule-based controllers. Notably, we illustrate that our approach aligns with the intricate patterns observed in both Italian and European energy markets, achieving performance levels comparable to an optimal controller assuming perfect theoretical knowledge of future data. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 5990 KiB  
Article
Empowering Energy Communities through Geothermal Systems
by Vittoria Battaglia, Francesca Ceglia, Davide Maria Laudiero, Alessandro Maione, Elisa Marrasso and Laura Vanoli
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1248; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051248 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 655
Abstract
The Renewable Energy Directive II introduces renewable energy communities, enhancing energy sharing. However, many existing initiatives, focussing only on electricity, overlook the substantial energy demand in building sector comprising residential and commercial spaces. Energy communities in this sector can leverage district heating and [...] Read more.
The Renewable Energy Directive II introduces renewable energy communities, enhancing energy sharing. However, many existing initiatives, focussing only on electricity, overlook the substantial energy demand in building sector comprising residential and commercial spaces. Energy communities in this sector can leverage district heating and cooling technology for thermal energy sharing, contributing to carbon neutrality by enhancing efficiency and reducing primary energy usage. Advanced strategies such as integrating renewables into heating and cooling grids, sector coupling, and utilising waste heat are key in moving away from fossil fuels. The Campania Region (Italy), abundant in geothermal energy potential, chose a district in which to implement the GeoGRID system. This innovative setup combines a four-pipe district heating and cooling network with an Organic Rankine Cycle plant, tapping into geothermal energy from the Solfatara area. The geothermal fluid’s heat feeds the ORC evaporator and then powers the thermal network, allowing direct heating and domestic hot water supply during winter. A thorough techno-economic analysis assessed the energy potential extractable from the geothermal fluid. Crucial aspects of this study are the evaluation of the energy and environmental efficiency of the system within the renewable energy community framework. Additionally, the paper introduces a methodology applicable for assessing geothermal energy communities on a global scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Energy Generation Systems for Sustainable Development)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2316 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Energy Consumption: A Case Study of LVDC Nanogrid Implementation in Tertiary Buildings on La Réunion Island
by Olivia Graillet, Denis Genon-Catalot, Pierre-Olivier Lucas de Peslouan, Flavien Bernard, Frédéric Alicalapa, Laurent Lemaitre and Jean-Pierre Chabriat
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1247; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051247 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 732
Abstract
In the context of an insulated area with a subtropical climate, such as La Réunion island, it is crucial to reduce the energy consumption of buildings and develop local renewable energy sources to achieve energy autonomy. Direct current (DC) nanogrids could facilitate this [...] Read more.
In the context of an insulated area with a subtropical climate, such as La Réunion island, it is crucial to reduce the energy consumption of buildings and develop local renewable energy sources to achieve energy autonomy. Direct current (DC) nanogrids could facilitate this by reducing the energy conversion steps, especially for solar energy. This article presents the deployment and efficiency evaluation of a 48 VDC low-voltage direct current (LVDC) nanogrid, from conception to real-world installation within a company. The nanogrid consists of a photovoltaic power plant, a lithium–iron–phosphate (LFP) battery, and DC end-use equipment, such as LED lighting and DC fans, for two individual offices. For identical test conditions, which are at an equivalent cabling distance and with the same final power demand, the total power consumed by the installation is measured for several stages from 50 to 400 W, according to a 100% DC configuration or a conventional DC/AC/DC PV configuration incorporating an inverter and AC/DC converter. The methodology used enables a critical view to be taken of the installation, assessing both its efficiency and its limitations. Energy savings of between 23% and 40% are measured in DC for a power limit identified at 150 W for a distance of 25 m. These results show that it is possible to supply 48 VDC in an innovative way to terminal equipment consuming no more than 100 W, such as lighting and air fans, using the IEEE 802.3 bt power over ethernet (PoE) protocol, while at the same time saving energy. The nanogrid hardware and software infrastructure, the methodology employed for efficiency quantification, and the measurement results are described in the paper. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

27 pages, 11987 KiB  
Article
Shape Optimization of Heat Exchanger Fin Structures Using the Adjoint Method and Their Experimental Validation
by Marco Fuchs, Cagatay Necati Dagli and Stephan Kabelac
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1246; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051246 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 495
Abstract
The freedom of additive manufacturing allows for the production of heat-transferring structures that are optimized in terms of heat transfer and pressure loss using various optimization methods. One question is whether the structural optimizations made can be reproduced by additive manufacturing and whether [...] Read more.
The freedom of additive manufacturing allows for the production of heat-transferring structures that are optimized in terms of heat transfer and pressure loss using various optimization methods. One question is whether the structural optimizations made can be reproduced by additive manufacturing and whether the adaptations can also be verified experimentally. In this article, adjoint optimization is used to optimize a reference structure and then examine the optimization results experimentally. For this purpose, optimizations are carried out on a 2D model as well as a 3D model. The material chosen for the 3D optimization is stainless steel. Depending on the weighting pairing of heat transfer and pressure loss, the optimizations in 2D result in an increase in heat transfer of 15% compared to the initial reference structure with an almost constant pressure loss or a reduction in pressure loss of 13% with an almost constant heat transfer. The optimizations in 3D result in improvements in the heat transfer of a maximum of 3.5% at constant pressure loss or 9% lower pressure losses at constant heat transfer compared to the initial reference structure. The subsequent experimental investigation shows that the theoretical improvements in heat transfer can only be demonstrated to a limited extent, as the fine contour changes cannot yet be reproduced by additive manufacturing. However, the improvements in pressure loss can be demonstrated experimentally following a cross-section correction. It can therefore be stated that with increasing accuracy of the manufacturing process, the improvements in heat transfer can also be utilized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section J1: Heat and Mass Transfer)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 2642 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Deep Decarbonization Policy on the Level of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the European Union
by Rafał Nagaj, Bożena Gajdzik, Radosław Wolniak and Wieslaw Wes Grebski
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1245; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051245 - 05 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 613
Abstract
The Green Deal, a cornerstone of the European Union’s climate goals, sets out to achieve a substantial 55% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared to 1990 levels. The EU’s decarbonization strategies revolve around three pivotal avenues. First, there is a focus [...] Read more.
The Green Deal, a cornerstone of the European Union’s climate goals, sets out to achieve a substantial 55% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared to 1990 levels. The EU’s decarbonization strategies revolve around three pivotal avenues. First, there is a focus on enhancing energy efficiency and decreasing the energy intensity of economies. Second, concerted efforts are made to diminish the reliance on fossil fuels, particularly within industrial sectors. Lastly, there is a deliberate push to augment the share of renewable energy sources in the final energy consumption mix. These measures collectively aim to propel the decarbonization of EU economies, establishing EU member countries as global leaders in implementing these transformative processes. This manuscript seeks to evaluate the efficacy of three primary decarbonization strategies adopted by EU economies, namely the enhancement in energy efficiency, the promotion of renewable energy consumption and the reduction in fossil fuel consumption. The objective is to discern which strategies wield a decisive influence in achieving decarbonization goals across EU countries. The analysis encompasses all 27 member states of the European Union, spanning from 1990 to 2022, with data sourced from reputable outlets, including Eurostat, Our World in Data and the Energy Institute. Research findings underscore that, in the realm of decarbonization policies, statistically significant impacts on carbon dioxide emission reduction are attributable to the strategies of improving energy efficiency and augmenting the share of renewables in energy consumption across almost all EU countries. Conversely, the strategy with the least impact, embraced by a minority of EU member states, revolves around diminishing the share of fossil fuels in primary energy consumption. This approach, while statistically less impactful, is intricately linked with transitioning the economies toward renewable energy sources, thus playing a contributory role in the broader decarbonization landscape. The uniqueness of this research lies not only in its discernment of overarching trends but also in its fervent advocacy for a comprehensive and adaptive approach to EU decarbonization policy. It underscores the enduring significance of prioritizing energy efficiency, endorsing the integration of renewable energy and acknowledging the distinctive dynamics inherent in diverse regions. The study accentuates the necessity for nuanced, region-specific strategies, challenging the conventional wisdom of a uniform approach to decarbonization. In doing so, it accentuates the critical importance of tailoring policies to the varied energy landscapes and transition strategies evident in different EU member states. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electricity Market Modeling Trends in Power Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 11090 KiB  
Article
Power Consumption Analysis of a Prototype Lightweight Autonomous Electric Cargo Robot in Agricultural Field Operation Scenarios
by Dimitrios Loukatos, Vasileios Arapostathis, Christos-Spyridon Karavas, Konstantinos G. Arvanitis and George Papadakis
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1244; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051244 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 545
Abstract
The continuous growth of the urban electric vehicles market and the rapid progress of the electronics industry create positive prospects towards fostering the development of autonomous robotic solutions for covering critical production sectors. Agriculture can be seen as such, as its digital transformation [...] Read more.
The continuous growth of the urban electric vehicles market and the rapid progress of the electronics industry create positive prospects towards fostering the development of autonomous robotic solutions for covering critical production sectors. Agriculture can be seen as such, as its digital transformation is a promising necessity for protecting the environment, and for tackling the degradation of natural resources and increasing nutritional needs of the population on Earth. Many studies focus on the potential of agricultural robotic vehicles to perform operations of increased intelligence. In parallel, the study of the activity footprint of these vehicles can be the basis for supervising, detecting the malfunctions, scaling up, modeling, or optimizing the related operations. In this regard, this work, employing a prototype lightweight autonomous electric cargo vehicle, outlines a simple and cost-effective mechanism for a detailed robot’s power consumption logging. This process is conducted at a fine time granularity, allowing for detailed tracking. The study also discusses the robot’s energy performance across various typical agricultural field operation scenarios. In addition, a comparative analysis has been conducted to evaluate the performance of two different types of batteries for powering the robot for all the operation scenarios. Even non-expert users can conduct the field operation experiments, while directions are provided for the potential use of the data being collected. Given the linear relationship between the size and the consumption of electric robotic vehicles, the energy performance of the prototype agricultural cargo robot can serve as a basis for various studies in the area. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1071 KiB  
Article
Characteristics and Changes in the Properties of Cereal and Rapeseed Straw Used as Energy Feedstock
by Mariusz Jerzy Stolarski, Michał Welenc, Michał Krzyżaniak, Ewelina Olba-Zięty, Jakub Stolarski and Sławomir Wierzbicki
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1243; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051243 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 383
Abstract
Solid biofuels, including straw as production residue, are still the largest energy feedstock in the structure of primary energy production from renewable energy sources. However, the properties of straw as a solid biofuel can vary depending on the species from which it was [...] Read more.
Solid biofuels, including straw as production residue, are still the largest energy feedstock in the structure of primary energy production from renewable energy sources. However, the properties of straw as a solid biofuel can vary depending on the species from which it was produced and the harvest period and year. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the thermophysical properties and elemental composition of six types of straw (rye, oat, triticale, wheat, corn, and rapeseed straw) obtained over three consecutive years (2020, 2021, 2022). Rye straw had the lowest moisture (mean: 10.55%), ash (mean: 2.71% DM), nitrogen (mean: 0.54% DM) and chlorine (mean: 0.046% DM) contents and the highest carbon content (mean: 47.93% DM), a higher heating value—HHV (mean: 19.03 GJ Mg−1 DM) and a lower heating value—LHV (mean: 15.71 GJ Mg−1). Triticale straw had similar properties, classifying it into the same cluster as rye straw. Corn straw had a remarkably high moisture content (mean: 48.91%), low LHV and high chlorine content. Rapeseed straw contained high levels of Cl, S, N and ash, and they were 643%, 481%, 104% and 169% higher, respectively, than those in rye straw. The sulfur, chlorine and moisture contents of the six straw types under study were highly variable during the three years of the study. Knowledge of the properties of different types of straw as energy feedstocks facilitates the logistics and organization of the supply of bioenergy installations. However, further research is needed, especially studies assessing the energy intensity and logistical costs of different types of straw used for energy purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Biofuels and Bioenergy for Sustainable Development II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

30 pages, 5347 KiB  
Article
Comparative Technical and Economic Analyses of Hydrogen-Based Steel and Power Sectors
by Khusniddin Alikulov, Zarif Aminov, La Hoang Anh, Tran Dang Xuan and Wookyung Kim
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1242; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051242 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 518
Abstract
Decarbonizing the current steel and power sectors through the development of the hydrogen direct-reduction iron ore–electric arc furnace route and the 100% hydrogen-fired gas turbine cycle is crucial. The current study focuses on three clusters of research works. The first cluster covers the [...] Read more.
Decarbonizing the current steel and power sectors through the development of the hydrogen direct-reduction iron ore–electric arc furnace route and the 100% hydrogen-fired gas turbine cycle is crucial. The current study focuses on three clusters of research works. The first cluster covers the investigation of the mass and energy balance of the route and the subsequent application of these values in experiments to optimize the reduction yield of iron ore. In the second cluster, the existing gas turbine unit was selected for the complete replacement of natural gas with hydrogen and for finding the most optimal mass and energy balance in the cycle through an Aspen HYSYS model. In addition, the chemical kinetics in the hydrogen combustion process were simulated using Ansys Chemkin Pro to research the emissions. In the last cluster, a comparative economic analysis was conducted to identify the levelized cost of production of the route and the levelized cost of electricity of the cycle. The findings in the economic analysis provided good insight into the details of the capital and operational expenditures of each industrial sector in understanding the impact of each kg of hydrogen consumed in the plants. These findings provide a good basis for future research on reducing the cost of hydrogen-based steel and power sectors. Moreover, the outcomes of this study can also assist ongoing, large-scale hydrogen and ammonia projects in Uzbekistan in terms of designing novel hydrogen-based industries with cost-effective solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrogen in the Energy-X-Nexus)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 566 KiB  
Article
External Multi-Gap Lightning Arrester Modeling Using the Integration Method
by Johnatan M. Rodríguez-Serna, Walter M. Villa-Acevedo and Jesús M. López-Lezama
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1241; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051241 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 382
Abstract
Electric power distribution networks are exposed to both internal and external disturbances. Lightning strikes are among the latter and are responsible for a significant percentage of damage in distribution transformers, especially in rural areas. Electric utilities must pay special attention to prevent damage [...] Read more.
Electric power distribution networks are exposed to both internal and external disturbances. Lightning strikes are among the latter and are responsible for a significant percentage of damage in distribution transformers, especially in rural areas. Electric utilities must pay special attention to prevent damage and service interruption due to these unforeseeable events. In this context, Surge Protection Devices (SPDs) combined with a series of external air gaps are designed to safeguard electric equipment and systems from transient over-voltages. There are several well-known models of SPDs in the specialized literature; nonetheless, few studies have been carried out with external gaps and multi-gaps. The main contribution of this paper is a methodology to model the disruptive effect in an external air gap by determining the parameters of Kind’s and Chowdhuri’s models using the integration method. The adjustment of the model parameters is carried out by a genetic algorithm (GA). The proposed model was tested and validated using experimental measurements, and its capability to predict the time-to-breakdown under different impulse voltages was verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section F3: Power Electronics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

30 pages, 9983 KiB  
Article
Synergistic Hybrid Marine Renewable Energy Harvest System
by Liang Cui, Sadra Amani, Mohammed Gabr, Wanniarachchige Gnamani Pabasara Kumari, Aziz Ahmed, Hasan Ozcan, Bahman Amini Horri and Subhamoy Bhattacharya
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1240; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051240 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 657
Abstract
This paper proposes a novel hybrid marine renewable energy-harvesting system to increase energy production, reduce levelized costs of energy and promote renewable marine energy. Firstly, various marine renewable energy resources and state-of-art technologies for energy exploitation and storage were reviewed. The site selection [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a novel hybrid marine renewable energy-harvesting system to increase energy production, reduce levelized costs of energy and promote renewable marine energy. Firstly, various marine renewable energy resources and state-of-art technologies for energy exploitation and storage were reviewed. The site selection criteria for each energy-harvesting approach were identified, and a scoring matrix for site selection was proposed to screen suitable locations for the hybrid system. The Triton Knoll wind farm was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the scoring matrix. An integrated energy system was designed, and FE modeling was performed to assess the effects of additional energy devices on the structural stability of the main wind turbine structure. It has been proven that the additional energy structures have a negligible influence on foundation/structure deflection (<1%) and increased system natural frequency by 6%; thus, they have a minimum influence on the original wind system but increased energy yield. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section A: Sustainable Energy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1817 KiB  
Review
Harnessing Nanomaterials for Enhanced Energy Efficiency in Transpired Solar Collectors: A Review of Their Integration in Phase-Change Materials
by Cristiana Croitoru, Florin Bode, Răzvan Calotă, Charles Berville and Matei Georgescu
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1239; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051239 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 618
Abstract
The building sector plays an important role in the global climate change mitigation objectives. The reduction of CO2 emissions and energy consumption in the building sector has been intensively investigated in the last decades, with solar thermal energy considered to be one [...] Read more.
The building sector plays an important role in the global climate change mitigation objectives. The reduction of CO2 emissions and energy consumption in the building sector has been intensively investigated in the last decades, with solar thermal energy considered to be one of the most promising solutions due to its abundance and accessibility. However, the discontinuity of solar energy has led to the study of thermal energy storage to improve the thermal performance of solar thermal systems. In this review paper, the integration of various types of phase-change materials (PCMs) in transpired solar collectors (TSC) is reviewed and discussed, with an emphasis on heat transfer enhancements, including nanomaterials. Thermal energy storage applied to TSC is studied in terms of design criteria, materials technologies, and its impact on thermal conductivity. This review highlights the potential of nanomaterial technology integration in terms of thermal performance improvements. The utilization of nanomaterials in solar walls holds the potential to significantly enhance their performance. The integration of diverse materials such as graphene, graphite, metal oxides, and carbon nanoparticles can pave the way for improving thermal conductivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phase Change Materials for Building Energy Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 11407 KiB  
Article
Heat and Flow Characteristics of Aerofoil-Shaped Fins on a Curved Target Surface in a Confined Channel for an Impinging Jet Array
by Orhan Yalçınkaya, Ufuk Durmaz, Ahmet Ümit Tepe, Ali Cemal Benim and Ünal Uysal
Energies 2024, 17(5), 1238; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17051238 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 461
Abstract
The main purpose of this investigation was to explore the heat transfer and flow characteristics of aero-foil-shaped fins combined with extended jet holes, specifically focusing on their feasibility in cooling turbine blades. In this study, a comprehensive investigation was carried out by applying [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this investigation was to explore the heat transfer and flow characteristics of aero-foil-shaped fins combined with extended jet holes, specifically focusing on their feasibility in cooling turbine blades. In this study, a comprehensive investigation was carried out by applying impinging jet array cooling (IJAC) on a semi-circular curved surface, which was roughened using aerofoil-shaped fins. Numerical computations were conducted under three different Reynolds numbers (Re) ranging from 5000 to 25,000, while nozzle-to-target surface spacings (S/d) ranged from 0.5 to 8.0. Furthermore, an assessment was made of the impact of different fin arrangements, single-row (L1), double-row (L2), and triple-row (L3), on convective heat transfer. Detailed examinations were performed on area-averaged and local Nusselt (Nu) numbers, flow properties, and the thermal performance criterion (TPC) on finned and smooth target surfaces. The study’s results revealed that the use of aerofoil-shaped fins and the reduction in S/d, along with surface roughening, led to significant increases in the local and area-averaged Nu numbers compared to the conventional IJAC scheme. The most notable heat transfer enhancement was observed at S/d = 0.5 utilizing extended jets and the surface design incorporating aerofoil-shaped fins. Under these specific conditions, the maximum heat transfer enhancement reached 52.81%. Moreover, the investigation also demonstrated that the highest TPC on the finned surface was achieved when S/d = 2.0 for L2 at Re = 25,000, resulting in a TPC value of 1.12. Furthermore, reducing S/d and mounting aerofoil-shaped fins on the surface yielded a more uniform heat transfer distribution on the relevant surface than IJAC with a smooth surface, ensuring a relatively more uniform heat transfer distribution to minimize the risk of localized overheating. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop