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Mar. Drugs, Volume 19, Issue 3 (March 2021) – 58 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The use of innovative analytical methodology led to the discovery of a new marine-derived fungal natural product N-amino-L-proline methyl ester, which revealed an exquisite and unexpected molecular choreography between a cryptic natural product and media components and structurally unprecedented artifacts that hitherto successfully masqueraded as natural products. This revelation calls into question and prompts caution when attributing the natural product, artifact, media compounents, and/or contaminant status of compounds isolated from natural extracts. View this paper.
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Article
Affinity Purification of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides from Wakame (Undaria Pinnatifida) Using Immobilized ACE on Magnetic Metal Organic Frameworks
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030177 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 882
Abstract
Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides derived from marine organism have shown a blood pressure lowering effect with no side effects. A new affinity medium of Fe3O4@ZIF-90 immobilized ACE (Fe3O4@ZIF-90-ACE) was prepared and used in the [...] Read more.
Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides derived from marine organism have shown a blood pressure lowering effect with no side effects. A new affinity medium of Fe3O4@ZIF-90 immobilized ACE (Fe3O4@ZIF-90-ACE) was prepared and used in the purification of ACE inhibitory peptides from Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) protein hydrolysate (<5 kDa). The Fe3O4@ZIF-90 nanoparticles were prepared by a one-pot synthesis and crude ACE extract from pig lung was immobilized onto it, which exhibited excellent stability and reusability. A novel ACE inhibitory peptide, KNFL (inhibitory concentration 50, IC50 = 225.87 μM) was identified by affinity purification using Fe3O4@ZIF-90-ACE combined with reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Lineweaver–Burk analysis confirmed the non-competitive inhibition pattern of KNFL, and molecular docking showed that it bound at a non-active site of ACE via hydrogen bonds. This demonstrates that affinity purification using Fe3O4@ZIF-90-ACE is a highly efficient method for separating ACE inhibitory peptides from complex protein mixtures and the purified peptide KNFL could be developed as a functional food ingredients against hypertension. Full article
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Article
A Crustin from Hydrothermal Vent Shrimp: Antimicrobial Activity and Mechanism
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030176 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 947
Abstract
Crustin is a type of antimicrobial peptide and plays an important role in the innate immunity of arthropods. We report here the identification and characterization of a crustin (named Crus1) from the shrimp Rimicaris sp. inhabiting the deep-sea hydrothermal vent in Manus Basin [...] Read more.
Crustin is a type of antimicrobial peptide and plays an important role in the innate immunity of arthropods. We report here the identification and characterization of a crustin (named Crus1) from the shrimp Rimicaris sp. inhabiting the deep-sea hydrothermal vent in Manus Basin (Papua New Guinea). Crus1 shares the highest identity (51.76%) with a Type I crustin of Penaeus vannamei and possesses a whey acidic protein (WAP) domain, which contains eight cysteine residues that form the conserved ‘four-disulfide core’ structure. Recombinant Crus1 (rCrus1) bound to peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic acid, and effectively killed Gram-positive bacteria in a manner that was dependent on pH, temperature, and disulfide linkage. rCrus1 induced membrane leakage and structure damage in the target bacteria, but had no effect on bacterial protoplasts. Serine substitution of each of the 8 Cys residues in the WAP domain did not affect the bacterial binding capacity but completely abolished the bactericidal activity of rCrus1. These results provide new insights into the characteristic and mechanism of the antimicrobial activity of deep sea crustins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Molecules from Extreme Environments II)
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Article
Dietary Supplementation of Brown Seaweed and/or Nucleotides Improved Shrimp Performance, Health Status and Cold-Tolerant Gene Expression of Juvenile Whiteleg Shrimp during the Winter Season
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030175 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 810
Abstract
This study was aimed to evaluate the efficiency of Sargassumpolycystum and nucleotides- supplemented diets to improve immune response and cold-tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Four treatments were evaluated: T1, the control, shrimp received only a basal diet; T2, a basal diet [...] Read more.
This study was aimed to evaluate the efficiency of Sargassumpolycystum and nucleotides- supplemented diets to improve immune response and cold-tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Four treatments were evaluated: T1, the control, shrimp received only a basal diet; T2, a basal diet with 500 ppm nucleotides; T3, a basal diet with 500 ppm S.polycystum powdered; T4, a basal diet with 500 ppm nucleotides and 500 ppm S.polycystum powdered. Shrimp were fed experimental diets for 56 days. Results revealed shrimp fed T4 diet exhibited the best significant improvement in water quality, survival, growth, and feed utilization indices followed by T2, and T3, while T1 showed the worst values. Additionally, nonspecific immune responses (phagocytosis (%), lysozyme, phenoloxidase, super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity, total nitric oxide) were improved with 1.7–3.2-fold in T4 higher than T1. Histomorphology of hepatopancreas in T4 showed the most increased activation of the hepatic glandular duct system compared with the other treatments. Moreover, nucleotides/seaweed-supplemented diets upregulated relative expression of cMnSOD, Penaeidin4, and heat shock protein70 (HSP70) genes, while translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) was downregulated. In conclusion, the synergistic effects of both S. polycystum and nucleotides have many advantages as a growth promoter, immunostimulant, antimicrobial, and cold-tolerant stimulant to L. vannamei. Full article
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Article
Antiproliferative Properties of Scandium Exopolysaccharide Complexes on Several Cancer Cell Lines
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030174 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 774
Abstract
Antimetastatic properties on both murine and human osteosarcoma cell lines (POS-1 and KHOS) have been evidenced using exopolysaccharide (EPS) derivatives, produced by Alteromonas infernus bacterium. These derivatives had no significant effect on the cell cycle neither a pro-apoptotic effect on osteosarcoma cells. Based [...] Read more.
Antimetastatic properties on both murine and human osteosarcoma cell lines (POS-1 and KHOS) have been evidenced using exopolysaccharide (EPS) derivatives, produced by Alteromonas infernus bacterium. These derivatives had no significant effect on the cell cycle neither a pro-apoptotic effect on osteosarcoma cells. Based on this observation, these EPSs could be employed as new drug delivery systems for therapeutic uses. A theranostic approach, i.e., combination of a predictive biomarker with a therapeutic agent, has been developed notably by combining with true pair of theranostic radionuclides, such as scandium 47Sc/44Sc. However, it is crucial to ensure that, once complexation is done, the biological properties of the vector remain intact, allowing the molecular tropism of the ligand to recognize its molecular target. It is important to assess if the biological properties of EPS evidenced on osteosarcoma cell lines remain when scandium is complexed to the polymers and can be extended to other cancer cell types. Scandium-EPS complexes were thus tested in vitro on human cell lines: MNNG/HOS osteosarcoma, A375 melanoma, A549 lung adenocarcinoma, U251 glioma, MDA231 breast cancer, and Caco2 colon cancer cells. An xCELLigence Real Cell Time Analysis (RTCA) technology assay was used to monitor for 160 h, the proliferation kinetics of the different cell lines. The tested complexes exhibited an anti-proliferative effect, this effect was more effective compared to EPS alone. This increase of the antiproliferative properties was explained by a change in conformation of EPS complexes due to their polyelectrolyte nature that was induced by complexation. Alterations of both growth factor-receptor signaling, and transmembrane protein interactions could be the principal cause of the antiproliferative effect. These results are very promising and reveal that EPS can be coupled to scandium for improving its biological effects and also suggesting that no major structural modification occurs on the ligand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carbohydrate-Based Compounds with Medicinal Properties)
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Article
A Metataxonomic Approach Reveals Diversified Bacterial Communities in Antarctic Sponges
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030173 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 930
Abstract
Marine sponges commonly host a repertoire of bacterial-associated organisms, which significantly contribute to their health and survival by producing several anti-predatory molecules. Many of these compounds are produced by sponge-associated bacteria and represent an incredible source of novel bioactive metabolites with biotechnological relevance. [...] Read more.
Marine sponges commonly host a repertoire of bacterial-associated organisms, which significantly contribute to their health and survival by producing several anti-predatory molecules. Many of these compounds are produced by sponge-associated bacteria and represent an incredible source of novel bioactive metabolites with biotechnological relevance. Although most investigations are focused on tropical and temperate species, to date, few studies have described the composition of microbiota hosted by Antarctic sponges and the secondary metabolites that they produce. The investigation was conducted on four sponges collected from two different sites in the framework of the XXXIV Italian National Antarctic Research Program (PNRA) in November–December 2018. Collected species were characterized as Mycale (Oxymycale) acerata, Haliclona (Rhizoniera) dancoi, Hemigellius pilosus and Microxina sarai by morphological analysis of spicules and amplification of four molecular markers. Metataxonomic analysis of these four Antarctic sponges revealed a considerable abundance of Amplicon Sequence Variants (ASVs) belonging to the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. In particular, M. (Oxymycale) acerata, displayed several genera of great interest, such as Endozoicomonas, Rubritalea, Ulvibacter, Fulvivirga and Colwellia. On the other hand, the sponges H. pilosus and H. (Rhizoniera) dancoi hosted bacteria belonging to the genera Pseudhongella, Roseobacter and Bdellovibrio, whereas M. sarai was the sole species showing some strains affiliated to the genus Polaribacter. Considering that most of the bacteria identified in the present study are known to produce valuable secondary metabolites, the four Antarctic sponges could be proposed as potential tools for the discovery of novel pharmacologically active compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Molecules Involved in Symbiosis as Potential New Natural Drugs)
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Review
Anti-Photoaging and Potential Skin Health Benefits of Seaweeds
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030172 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1745
Abstract
The skin health benefits of seaweeds have been known since time immemorial. They are known as potential renewable sources of bioactive metabolites that have unique structural and functional features compared to their terrestrial counterparts. In addition, to the consciousness of green, eco-friendly, and [...] Read more.
The skin health benefits of seaweeds have been known since time immemorial. They are known as potential renewable sources of bioactive metabolites that have unique structural and functional features compared to their terrestrial counterparts. In addition, to the consciousness of green, eco-friendly, and natural skincare and cosmetics products, their extracts and bioactive compounds such as fucoidan, laminarin, carrageenan, fucoxanthin, and mycosporine like amino acids (MAAs) have proven useful in the skincare and cosmetic industries. These bioactive compounds have shown potential anti-photoaging properties. Furthermore, some of these bioactive compounds have been clinically tested and currently available in the market. In this contribution, the recent studies on anti-photoaging properties of extracts and bioactive compounds derived from seaweeds were described and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Products with Skin Whitening and Sun-Screening Applications)
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Article
EPS364, a Novel Deep-Sea Bacterial Exopolysaccharide, Inhibits Liver Cancer Cell Growth and Adhesion
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030171 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 847
Abstract
The prognosis of liver cancer was inferior among tumors. New medicine treatments are urgently needed. In this study, a novel exopolysaccharide EPS364 was purified from Vibrio alginolyticus 364, which was isolated from a deep-sea cold seep of the South China Sea. Further research [...] Read more.
The prognosis of liver cancer was inferior among tumors. New medicine treatments are urgently needed. In this study, a novel exopolysaccharide EPS364 was purified from Vibrio alginolyticus 364, which was isolated from a deep-sea cold seep of the South China Sea. Further research showed that EPS364 consisted of mannose, glucosamine, gluconic acid, galactosamine and arabinose with a molar ratio of 5:9:3.4:0.5:0.8. The relative molecular weight of EPS364 was 14.8 kDa. Our results further revealed that EPS364 was a β-linked and phosphorylated polysaccharide. Notably, EPS364 exhibited a significant antitumor activity, with inducing apoptosis, dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Huh7.5 liver cancer cells. Proteomic and quantitative real-time PCR analyses indicated that EPS364 inhibited cancer cell growth and adhesion via targeting the FGF19-FGFR4 signaling pathway. These findings suggest that EPS364 is a promising antitumor agent for pharmacotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate-Containing Marine Compounds of Mixed Biogenesis)
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Article
Stereochemical Determination of Fistularins Isolated from the Marine Sponge Ecionemia acervus and Their Regulatory Effect on Intestinal Inflammation
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030170 - 22 Mar 2021
Viewed by 756
Abstract
By activity-guided fractionation based on inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), six fistularin compounds (16) were isolated from the marine sponge Ecionemia acervus (order Astrophorida). Based on stereochemical structure determination using Mosher’s method, fistularin-3 [...] Read more.
By activity-guided fractionation based on inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), six fistularin compounds (16) were isolated from the marine sponge Ecionemia acervus (order Astrophorida). Based on stereochemical structure determination using Mosher’s method, fistularin-3 was assigned as a new stereoisomer. On the basis of the stereochemistry of fistularin-3, the stereochemical homogeneity of all six compounds was established by comparing carbon and proton chemical shifts. For fistularin-1 (1) and -2 (2), quantum calculations were performed to confirm their stereochemistry. In a co-culture system of human epithelial Caco-2 cells and THP-1 macrophages, all six isolated compounds showed potent anti-inflammatory activities. These bioactive fistularins inhibited the production of NO, PGE2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 induced by lipopolysaccharide and interferon gamma. Inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression and MAPK phosphorylation were downregulated in response to the inhibition of NF-κB nuclear translocation. Among the compounds tested, fistularin-1 (1) and 19-deoxyfistularin-3 (4) showed the highest activity. These findings suggest the potential use of the marine sponge E. acervus and its metabolites as pharmaceuticals for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases including inflammatory bowel disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Human Intestinal Health)
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Article
A Study of Combining Elastin in the Chitosan Electrospinning to Increase the Mechanical Strength and Bioactivity
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030169 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 725
Abstract
While electrospun chitosan membranes modified to retain nanofibrous morphology have shown promise for use in guided bone regeneration applications in in vitro and in vivo studies, their mechanical tear strengths are lower than commercial collagen membranes. Elastin, a natural component of the extracellular [...] Read more.
While electrospun chitosan membranes modified to retain nanofibrous morphology have shown promise for use in guided bone regeneration applications in in vitro and in vivo studies, their mechanical tear strengths are lower than commercial collagen membranes. Elastin, a natural component of the extracellular matrix, is a protein with extensive elastic property. This work examined the incorporation of elastin into electrospun chitosan membranes to improve their mechanical tear strengths and to further mimic the native extracellular composition for guided bone regeneration (GBR) applications. In this work, hydrolyzed elastin (ES12, Elastin Products Company, USA) was added to a chitosan spinning solution from 0 to 4 wt% of chitosan. The chitosan–elastin (CE) membranes were examined for fiber morphology using SEM, hydrophobicity using water contact angle measurements, the mechanical tear strength under simulated surgical tacking, and compositions using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and post-spinning protein extraction. In vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the degradation in a lysozyme solution based on the mass loss and growth of fibroblastic cells. Chitosan membranes with elastin showed significantly thicker fiber diameters, lower water contact angles, up to 33% faster degradation rates, and up to seven times higher mechanical strengths than the chitosan membrane. The FTIR spectra showed stronger amide peaks at 1535 cm−1 and 1655 cm−1 in membranes with higher concentrated elastin, indicating the incorporation of elastin into electrospun fibers. The bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay demonstrated an increase in protein concentration in proportion to the amount of elastin added to the CE membranes. In addition, all the CE membranes showed in vitro biocompatibility with the fibroblasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Marine Chitin and Chitosan)
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Article
New Polyketides from the Antarctic Fungus Pseudogymnoascus sp. HSX2#-11
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030168 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 913
Abstract
The species Pseudogymnoascus is known as a psychrophilic pathogenic fungus with a ubiquitous distribution in Antarctica. Meanwhile, the study of its secondary metabolites is infrequent. Systematic research of the metabolites of the fungus Pseudogymnoascus sp. HSX2#-11, guided by the method of molecular networking, [...] Read more.
The species Pseudogymnoascus is known as a psychrophilic pathogenic fungus with a ubiquitous distribution in Antarctica. Meanwhile, the study of its secondary metabolites is infrequent. Systematic research of the metabolites of the fungus Pseudogymnoascus sp. HSX2#-11, guided by the method of molecular networking, led to the isolation of one novel polyketide, pseudophenone A (1), along with six known analogs (27). The structure of the new compound was elucidated by extensive spectroscopic investigation and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Pseudophenone A (1) is a dimer of diphenyl ketone and diphenyl ether, and there is only one analog of 1 to the best of our knowledge. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited antibacterial activities against a panel of strains. This is the first time to use molecular networking to study the metabolic profiles of Antarctica fungi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fungal Metabolites: Structures, Activities and Biosynthesis)
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Prospects of Marine Sterols against Pathobiology of Alzheimer’s Disease: Pharmacological Insights and Technological Advances
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030167 - 20 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1484
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a degenerative brain disorder characterized by a progressive decline in memory and cognition, mostly affecting the elderly. Numerous functional bioactives have been reported in marine organisms, and anti-Alzheimer’s agents derived from marine resources have gained attention as a promising [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a degenerative brain disorder characterized by a progressive decline in memory and cognition, mostly affecting the elderly. Numerous functional bioactives have been reported in marine organisms, and anti-Alzheimer’s agents derived from marine resources have gained attention as a promising approach to treat AD pathogenesis. Marine sterols have been investigated for several health benefits, including anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetes, anti-aging, and anti-Alzheimer’s activities, owing to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Marine sterols interact with various proteins and enzymes participating via diverse cellular systems such as apoptosis, the antioxidant defense system, immune response, and cholesterol homeostasis. Here, we briefly overview the potential of marine sterols against the pathology of AD and provide an insight into their pharmacological mechanisms. We also highlight technological advances that may lead to the potential application of marine sterols in the prevention and therapy of AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Alzheimer Agents from Marine Sources)
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Article
Chitosan Activated with Genipin: A Nontoxic Natural Carrier for Tannase Immobilization and Its Application in Enhancing Biological Activities of Tea Extract
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030166 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 978
Abstract
In this work, a non-toxic chitosan-based carrier was constructed via genipin activation and applied for the immobilization of tannase. The immobilization carriers and immobilized tannase were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Activation conditions (genipin concentration, activation temperature, activation pH [...] Read more.
In this work, a non-toxic chitosan-based carrier was constructed via genipin activation and applied for the immobilization of tannase. The immobilization carriers and immobilized tannase were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Activation conditions (genipin concentration, activation temperature, activation pH and activation time) and immobilizations conditions (enzyme amount, immobilization time, immobilization temperature, immobilization pH, and shaking speed) were optimized. The activity and activity recovery rate of the immobilized tannase prepared using optimal activation and immobilization conditions reached 29.2 U/g and 53.6%, respectively. The immobilized tannase exhibited better environmental adaptability and stability. The immobilized tannase retained 20.1% of the initial activity after 12 cycles and retained 81.12% of residual activity after 30 days storage. The catechins composition analysis of tea extract indicated that the concentration of non-ester-type catechins, EGC and EC, were increased by 1758% and 807% after enzymatic treatment. Biological activity studies of tea extract revealed that tea extract treated with the immobilized tannase possessed higher antioxidant activity, higher inhibitory effect on α-amylase, and lower inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase. Our results demonstrate that chitosan activated with genipin could be an effective non-toxic carrier for tannase immobilization and enhancing biological activities of tea extract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Marine Chitin and Chitosan)
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Marine Natural Products: Promising Candidates in the Modulation of Gut-Brain Axis towards Neuroprotection
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030165 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1557
Abstract
In recent decades, several neuroprotective agents have been provided in combating neuronal dysfunctions; however, no effective treatment has been found towards the complete eradication of neurodegenerative diseases. From the pathophysiological point of view, growing studies are indicating a bidirectional relationship between gut and [...] Read more.
In recent decades, several neuroprotective agents have been provided in combating neuronal dysfunctions; however, no effective treatment has been found towards the complete eradication of neurodegenerative diseases. From the pathophysiological point of view, growing studies are indicating a bidirectional relationship between gut and brain termed gut-brain axis in the context of health/disease. Revealing the gut-brain axis has survived new hopes in the prevention, management, and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Accordingly, introducing novel alternative therapies in regulating the gut-brain axis seems to be an emerging concept to pave the road in fighting neurodegenerative diseases. Growing studies have developed marine-derived natural products as hopeful candidates in a simultaneous targeting of gut-brain dysregulated mediators towards neuroprotection. Of marine natural products, carotenoids (e.g., fucoxanthin, and astaxanthin), phytosterols (e.g., fucosterol), polysaccharides (e.g., fucoidan, chitosan, alginate, and laminarin), macrolactins (e.g., macrolactin A), diterpenes (e.g., lobocrasol, excavatolide B, and crassumol E) and sesquiterpenes (e.g., zonarol) have shown to be promising candidates in modulating gut-brain axis. The aforementioned marine natural products are potential regulators of inflammatory, apoptotic, and oxidative stress mediators towards a bidirectional regulation of the gut-brain axis. The present study aims at describing the gut-brain axis, the importance of gut microbiota in neurological diseases, as well as the modulatory role of marine natural products towards neuroprotection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Human Intestinal Health)
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Article
On the Health Benefits vs. Risks of Seaweeds and Their Constituents: The Curious Case of the Polymer Paradigm
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030164 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1380
Abstract
To exploit the nutraceutical and biomedical potential of selected seaweed-derived polymers in an economically viable way, it is necessary to analyze and understand their quality and yield fluctuations throughout the seasons. In this study, the seasonal polysaccharide yield and respective quality were evaluated [...] Read more.
To exploit the nutraceutical and biomedical potential of selected seaweed-derived polymers in an economically viable way, it is necessary to analyze and understand their quality and yield fluctuations throughout the seasons. In this study, the seasonal polysaccharide yield and respective quality were evaluated in three selected seaweeds, namely the agarophyte Gracilaria gracilis, the carrageenophyte Calliblepharis jubata (both red seaweeds) and the alginophyte Sargassum muticum (brown seaweed). It was found that the agar synthesis of G. gracilis did not significantly differ with the seasons (27.04% seaweed dry weight (DW)). In contrast, the carrageenan content in C. jubata varied seasonally, being synthesized in higher concentrations during the summer (18.73% DW). Meanwhile, the alginate synthesis of S. muticum exhibited a higher concentration (36.88% DW) during the winter. Therefore, there is a need to assess the threshold at which seaweed-derived polymers may have positive effects or negative impacts on human nutrition. Furthermore, this study highlights the three polymers, along with their known thresholds, at which they can have positive and/or negative health impacts. Such knowledge is key to recognizing the paradigm governing their successful deployment and related beneficial applications in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutra-Cosmeceuticals from Algae for Health and Wellness)
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Article
Phagocytosis of Astaxanthin-Loaded Microparticles Modulates TGFβ Production and Intracellular ROS Levels in J774A.1 Macrophages
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030163 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 898
Abstract
Radiation-induced fibrosis is a serious long-lasting side effect of radiation therapy. Central to this condition is the role of macrophages that, activated by radiation-induced reactive oxygen species and tissue cell damage, produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ). [...] Read more.
Radiation-induced fibrosis is a serious long-lasting side effect of radiation therapy. Central to this condition is the role of macrophages that, activated by radiation-induced reactive oxygen species and tissue cell damage, produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ). This, in turn, recruits fibroblasts at the site of the lesion that initiates fibrosis. We investigated whether astaxanthin, an antioxidant molecule extracted from marine and freshwater organisms, could help control macrophage activation. To this purpose, we encapsulated food-grade astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis into micrometer-sized whey protein particles to specifically target macrophages that can uptake material within this size range by phagocytosis. The data show that astaxanthin-loaded microparticles are resistant to radiation, are well-tolerated by J774A.1 macrophages, induce in these cells a significant reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species and inhibit the release of active TGFβ as evaluated in a bioassay with transformed MFB-F11 fibroblasts. Micro-encapsulation of bioactive molecules is a promising strategy to specifically target phagocytic cells and modulate their own functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles from Marine Organisms and Their Biological Activity)
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Article
Structural Characterization and Heparanase Inhibitory Activity of Fucosylated Glycosaminoglycan from Holothuria floridana
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030162 - 18 Mar 2021
Viewed by 697
Abstract
Unique fucosylated glycosaminoglycans (FG) have attracted increasing attention for various bioactivities. However, the precise structures of FGs usually vary in a species-specific manner. In this study, HfFG was isolated from Holothuria floridana and purified by anion exchange chromatography with the yield of ~0.9%. [...] Read more.
Unique fucosylated glycosaminoglycans (FG) have attracted increasing attention for various bioactivities. However, the precise structures of FGs usually vary in a species-specific manner. In this study, HfFG was isolated from Holothuria floridana and purified by anion exchange chromatography with the yield of ~0.9%. HfFG was composed of GlcA, GalNAc and Fuc, its molecular weight was 47.3 kDa, and the -OSO3/-COO molar ratio was 3.756. HfFG was depolymerized by a partial deacetylation–deaminative cleavage method to obtain the low-molecular-weight HfFG (dHfFG). Three oligosaccharide fragments (Fr-1, Fr-2, Fr-3) with different molecular weights were isolated from the dHfFG, and their structures were revealed by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. HfFG should be composed of repeating trisaccharide units -{(L-FucS-α1,3-)d-GlcA-β1,3-d-GalNAc4S6S-β1,4-}-, in which sulfated fucose (FucS) includes Fuc2S4S, Fuc3S4S and Fuc4S residues linked to O-3 of GlcA in a ratio of 45:35:20. Furthermore, the heparanase inhibitory activities of native HfFG and oligosaccharide fragments (Fr-1, Fr-2, Fr-3) were evaluated. The native HfFG and its oligosaccharides exhibited heparanase inhibitory activities, and the activities increased with the increase of molecular weight. Additionally, structural characteristics such as sulfation patterns, the terminal structure of oligosaccharides and the presence of fucosyl branches may be important factors affecting heparanase inhibiting activity. Full article
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Article
Inhibition of Intestinal Lipid Absorption by Cyanobacterial Strains in Zebrafish Larvae
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030161 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1183
Abstract
Obesity is a complex metabolic disease, which is increasing worldwide. The reduction of dietary lipid intake is considered an interesting pathway to reduce fat absorption and to affect the chronic energy imbalance. In this study, zebrafish larvae were used to analyze effects of [...] Read more.
Obesity is a complex metabolic disease, which is increasing worldwide. The reduction of dietary lipid intake is considered an interesting pathway to reduce fat absorption and to affect the chronic energy imbalance. In this study, zebrafish larvae were used to analyze effects of cyanobacteria on intestinal lipid absorption in vivo. In total, 263 fractions of a cyanobacterial library were screened for PED6 activity, a fluorescent reporter of intestinal lipases, and 11 fractions reduced PED6 activity > 30%. Toxicity was not observed for those fractions, considering mortality, malformations or digestive physiology (protease inhibition). Intestinal long-chain fatty acid uptake (C16) was reduced, but not short-chain fatty acid uptake (C5). Alteration of lipid classes by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) or lipid processing by fluorescent HPTLC was analyzed, and 2 fractions significantly reduced the whole-body triglyceride level. Bioactivity-guided feature-based molecular networking of LC-MS/MS data identified 14 significant bioactive mass peaks (p < 0.01, correlation > 0.95), which consisted of 3 known putative and 11 unknown compounds. All putatively identified compounds were known to be involved in lipid metabolism and obesity. Summarizing, some cyanobacterial strains repressed intestinal lipid absorption without any signs of toxicity and could be developed in the future as nutraceuticals to combat obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products and Obesity 2020)
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Article
Farmed Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) by-Products Valorization: Viscera Oil ω-3 Enrichment by Short-Path Distillation and In Vitro Bioactivity Evaluation
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030160 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 843
Abstract
This study shows a pilot scale protocol aimed to obtain an omega 3-enriched oil after the processing of farmed gilthead sea bream viscera (SBV); this was oil was tested in vitro for bioactivity, attesting to the possibility to turn waste into profit The [...] Read more.
This study shows a pilot scale protocol aimed to obtain an omega 3-enriched oil after the processing of farmed gilthead sea bream viscera (SBV); this was oil was tested in vitro for bioactivity, attesting to the possibility to turn waste into profit The quality of the oil, in terms of requirements for animal and human consumption, was assessed by determining some chemical parameters, such as peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), ρ-anisidine (ρ-AV) content, total oxidation value (TOTOX), and phospholipids and free fatty acid (%), both in crude viscera oil (CVO) and refined viscera oil (RVO). Among the extraction conditions, the higher CVO yields were obtained at 60 °C for 10 min (57.89%) and at 80 °C for 10 min (67.5%), and the resulting oxidation levels were low when utilizing both extraction conditions. RVO, obtained from CVO extracted at 60 °C, showed the highest quality on the basis of the assessed parameters. The ethyl esters of the total fatty acid (TFA) contents extracted from RVO were enriched in the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid fraction (PUFAE) up to almost 56% via short path distillation (SPD). Antioxidant activities and adipogenic properties were tested in vitro. PUFAE protected 3T3 L1 cells from oxidative stress and exerted an anti-adipogenic effect in Dicentrarchus labrax pre-adipocytes, attesting to the beneficial properties for both farmed fish and human health. These results could stimulate the adoption of solutions aimed to recover and utilize aquaculture by-products at a higher scale, turning “waste into profit” and indicating a strategy to reach more sustainable business models in aquaculture resource utilization according to the principles of the circular economy. Full article
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Review
Haloarchaea as Cell Factories to Produce Bioplastics
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030159 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1495
Abstract
Plastic pollution is a worldwide concern causing the death of animals (mainly aquatic fauna) and environmental deterioration. Plastic recycling is, in most cases, difficult or even impossible. For this reason, new research lines are emerging to identify highly biodegradable bioplastics or plastic formulations [...] Read more.
Plastic pollution is a worldwide concern causing the death of animals (mainly aquatic fauna) and environmental deterioration. Plastic recycling is, in most cases, difficult or even impossible. For this reason, new research lines are emerging to identify highly biodegradable bioplastics or plastic formulations that are more environmentally friendly than current ones. In this context, microbes, capable of synthesizing bioplastics, were revealed to be good models to design strategies in which microorganisms can be used as cell factories. Recently, special interest has been paid to haloarchaea due to the capability of some species to produce significant concentrations of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), and polyhydroxyvalerate (PHV) when growing under a specific nutritional status. The growth of those microorganisms at the pilot or industrial scale offers several advantages compared to that of other microbes that are bioplastic producers. This review summarizes the state of the art of bioplastic production and the most recent findings regarding the production of bioplastics by halophilic microorganisms with special emphasis on haloarchaea. Some protocols to produce/analyze bioplastics are highlighted here to shed light on the potential use of haloarchaea at the industrial scale to produce valuable products, thus minimizing environmental pollution by plastics made from petroleum. Full article
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Article
The Inhibition Effect of the Seaweed Polyphenol, 7-Phloro-Eckol from Ecklonia Cava on Alcohol-Induced Oxidative Stress in HepG2/CYP2E1 Cells
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030158 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 921
Abstract
The liver is vulnerable to oxidative stress-induced damage, which leads to many diseases, including alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Liver disease endanger people’s health, and the incidence of ALD is increasing; therefore, prevention is very important. 7-phloro-eckol (7PE) is a seaweed polyphenol, which was [...] Read more.
The liver is vulnerable to oxidative stress-induced damage, which leads to many diseases, including alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Liver disease endanger people’s health, and the incidence of ALD is increasing; therefore, prevention is very important. 7-phloro-eckol (7PE) is a seaweed polyphenol, which was isolated from Ecklonia cava in a previous study. In this study, the antioxidative stress effect of 7PE on HepG2/CYP2E1 cells was evaluated by alcohol-induced cytotoxicity, DNA damage, and expression of related inflammation and apoptosis proteins. The results showed that 7PE caused alcohol-induced cytotoxicity to abate, reduced the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), and effectively inhibited DNA damage in HepG2/CYP2E1 cells. Additionally, the expression levels of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and Akt increased, while γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), Bcl-2 related x (Bax), cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and JNK decreased. Finally, molecular docking proved that 7PE could bind to BCL-2 and GSH protein. These results indicate that 7PE can alleviate the alcohol-induced oxidative stress injury of HepG2 cells and that 7PE may have a potential application prospect in the future development of antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Brown Algae)
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Article
Bioactive Indole Diketopiperazine Alkaloids from the Marine Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus sp. YJ191021
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030157 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 883
Abstract
Six new prenylated indole diketopiperazine alkaloids, asperthrins A–F (16), along with eight known analogues (714), were isolated from the marine-derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. YJ191021. Their planar structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by HR-ESI-MS, [...] Read more.
Six new prenylated indole diketopiperazine alkaloids, asperthrins A–F (16), along with eight known analogues (714), were isolated from the marine-derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. YJ191021. Their planar structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by HR-ESI-MS, 1D/2D NMR data, and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT)/ECD calculation. The isolated compounds were assayed for their inhibition against three agricultural pathogenic fungi, four fish pathogenic bacteria, and two agricultural pathogenic bacteria. Compound 1 exhibited moderate antifungal and antibacterial activities against Vibrioanguillarum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzicola, and Rhizoctoniasolani with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 8, 12.5, and 25 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, 1 displayed notable anti-inflammatory activity with IC50 value of 1.46 ± 0.21 μM in Propionibacteriumacnes induced human monocyte cell line (THP-1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fungal Metabolites: Structures, Activities and Biosynthesis)
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Article
Poly- and Oligosaccharide Ulva sp. Fractions from Enzyme-Assisted Extraction Modulate the Metabolism of Extracellular Matrix in Human Skin Fibroblasts: Potential in Anti-Aging Dermo-Cosmetic Applications
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030156 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1125
Abstract
Ulva sp. is known to be a source of bioactive compounds such as ulvans, but their biological activity on human dermal fibroblast extracellular matrix (ECM) is poorly reported. In this work, the regulation of ECM has been investigated for the first time at [...] Read more.
Ulva sp. is known to be a source of bioactive compounds such as ulvans, but their biological activity on human dermal fibroblast extracellular matrix (ECM) is poorly reported. In this work, the regulation of ECM has been investigated for the first time at both proteomic and transcriptomic levels in normal human skin dermal fibroblasts, after 48 h of incubation with poly- and oligosaccharide fractions from Ulva sp. obtained after enzyme-assisted extraction and depolymerization. Cell proliferation enhancement (up to +68%) without exhibiting any cytotoxic effect on fibroblasts was demonstrated at 50 and 1000 µg/mL by both fractions. At the proteomic level, polysaccharide fractions at 1000 µg/mL enhanced the most the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs, up to +57%), total collagen, especially types I (up to +217%) and III, as well as the synthesis and activity of MMP-1 (Matrix Metalloproteinase-1, up to +309%). In contrast, oligosaccharide fractions had no effect on GAGs synthesis but exhibited similarities for collagens and MMP-1 regulation. At the transcriptomic level, the decrease of COL1A1 and COL1A2 expression, and increase of COL3A1 and MMP-1 expression, confirmed the modulation of ECM metabolism by both fractions. Our research emphasizes that poly- and oligosaccharide Ulva sp. fractions exhibit interesting biological activities and supports their potential use in the area of skin renewal for anti-aging dermo-cosmetic applications. Full article
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Article
Expression and Characterization of a Cold-Adapted Alginate Lyase with Exo/Endo-Type Activity from a Novel Marine Bacterium Alteromonas portus HB161718T
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030155 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 848
Abstract
The alginate lyases have unique advantages in the preparation of alginate oligosaccharides and processing of brown algae. Herein, a gene alg2951 encoding a PL7 family alginate lyase with exo/endo-type activity was cloned from a novel marine bacterium Alteromonas portus HB161718T and then [...] Read more.
The alginate lyases have unique advantages in the preparation of alginate oligosaccharides and processing of brown algae. Herein, a gene alg2951 encoding a PL7 family alginate lyase with exo/endo-type activity was cloned from a novel marine bacterium Alteromonas portus HB161718T and then expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant Alg2951 in the culture supernatant reached the activity of 63.6 U/mL, with a molecular weight of approximate 60 kDa. Alg2951 exhibited the maximum activity at 25 °C and pH 8.0, was relatively stable at temperatures lower than 30 °C, and showed a special preference to poly-guluronic acid (polyG) as well. Both NaCl and KCl had the most promotion effect on the enzyme activity of Alg2951 at 0.2 M, increasing by 21.6 and 19.1 times, respectively. The TCL (Thin Layer Chromatography) and ESI-MS (Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry) analyses suggested that Alg2951 could catalyze the hydrolysis of sodium alginate to produce monosaccharides and trisaccharides. Furthermore, the enzymatic hydrolysates displayed good antioxidant activity by assays of the scavenging abilities towards radicals (hydroxyl and ABTS+) and the reducing power. Due to its cold-adapted and dual exo/endo-type properties, Alg2951 can be a potential enzymatic tool for industrial production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carbohydrate-Based Compounds with Medicinal Properties)
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Article
Enzyme-Digested Peptides Derived from Lates calcarifer Enhance Wound Healing after Surgical Incision in a Murine Model
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030154 - 16 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 840
Abstract
Surgical wounds are common injuries of skin and tissues and usually become a clinical problem. Until now, various synthetic and natural peptides have been widely explored as potential drug candidates for wound healing. Inhibition of the TNF-α signaling pathway and promotion of angiogenesis [...] Read more.
Surgical wounds are common injuries of skin and tissues and usually become a clinical problem. Until now, various synthetic and natural peptides have been widely explored as potential drug candidates for wound healing. Inhibition of the TNF-α signaling pathway and promotion of angiogenesis are suggested to be involved in their effects. Angiogenesis at the wound site is one of the essential requisites for rapid healing. In the present study, a novel peptide extract derived from the natural source Lates calcarifer, commonly known as sea bass or barramundi, was evaluated for its wound healing property. The specific acidic and enzymatic approaches were employed for producing sea bass extract containing small size peptides (molecular weight ranging from 1 kD to 5 kD). The cytotoxicity of the extract was examined in HaCaT and NIH3T3. After this, the effects of enzyme digested peptide extracts of sea bass on wound healing in mice were investigated. The peptide extracts (660 and 1320 mg/kg/day) and control protein (1320 mg/kg/day) was orally given to the wounded mice, respectively, for 12 days. The surgical method was improved by implanting a silicone ring at the wound site. The ring avoided the contracting effect in murine wounds, making it more closely related to a clinical condition. The results showed promising improvement at the wound site in mice. Sea bass peptide extracts accelerated the wound healing process and enhanced the microvessel formation at the wound site. The remarkable effects of this novel sea bass peptide extract in healing traumatic injuries revealed a new option for developing wound management. Full article
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Review
Chitin Synthesis and Degradation in Crustaceans: A Genomic View and Application
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030153 - 15 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 916
Abstract
Chitin is among the most important components of the crustacean cuticular exoskeleton and intestinal peritrophic matrix. With the progress of genomics and sequencing technology, a large number of gene sequences related to chitin metabolism have been deposited in the GenBank database in recent [...] Read more.
Chitin is among the most important components of the crustacean cuticular exoskeleton and intestinal peritrophic matrix. With the progress of genomics and sequencing technology, a large number of gene sequences related to chitin metabolism have been deposited in the GenBank database in recent years. Here, we summarized the genes and pathways associated with the biosynthesis and degradation of chitins in crustaceans based on genomic analyses. We found that chitin biosynthesis genes typically occur in single or two copies, whereas chitin degradation genes are all multiple copies. Moreover, the chitinase genes are significantly expanded in most crustacean genomes. The gene structure and expression pattern of these genes are similar to those of insects, albeit with some specific characteristics. Additionally, the potential applications of the chitin metabolism genes in molting regulation and immune defense, as well as industrial chitin degradation and production, are also summarized in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Marine Chitin and Chitosan)
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Article
Dieckol Ameliorates Aβ Production via PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β Regulated APP Processing in SweAPP N2a Cell
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030152 - 15 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 934
Abstract
The proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase (BACE1) and γ-secretase releases amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), which deposits in amyloid plaques and contributes to the initial causative events of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In the present study, the regulatory mechanism of APP processing [...] Read more.
The proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase (BACE1) and γ-secretase releases amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), which deposits in amyloid plaques and contributes to the initial causative events of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In the present study, the regulatory mechanism of APP processing of three phlorotannins was elucidated in Swedish mutant APP overexpressed N2a (SweAPP N2a) cells. Among the tested compounds, dieckol exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on both intra- and extracellular Aβ accumulation. In addition, dieckol regulated the APP processing enzymes, such as α-secretase (ADAM10), β-secretase, and γ-secretase, presenilin-1 (PS1), and their proteolytic products, sAPPα and sAPPβ, implying that the compound acts on both the amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic pathways. In addition, dieckol increased the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) at Ser473 and GSK-3β at Ser9, suggesting dieckol induced the activation of Akt, which phosphorylated GSK-3β. The specific phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 triggered GSK-3β activation and Aβ expression. In addition, co-treatment with LY294002 noticeably blocked the effect of dieckol on Aβ production, demonstrating that dieckol promoted the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, which in turn inactivated GSK-3β, resulting in the reduction in Aβ levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Mechanisms of Action of Bioactive Marine Natural Products)
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Article
N-Amino-l-Proline Methyl Ester from an Australian Fish Gut-Derived Fungus: Challenging the Distinction between Natural Product and Artifact
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030151 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 954
Abstract
Further investigation into a fish gut-derived fungus Evlachovaea sp. CMB-F563, previously reported to produce the unprecedented Schiff base prolinimines A–B (12), revealed a new cryptic natural product, N-amino-l-proline methyl ester (5)—only the second reported [...] Read more.
Further investigation into a fish gut-derived fungus Evlachovaea sp. CMB-F563, previously reported to produce the unprecedented Schiff base prolinimines A–B (12), revealed a new cryptic natural product, N-amino-l-proline methyl ester (5)—only the second reported natural occurrence of an N-amino-proline, and the first from a microbial source. To enable these investigations, we developed a highly sensitive analytical derivitization methodology, using 2,4-dinitrobenzaldehyde (2,4-DNB) to cause a rapid in situ transformation of 5 to the Schiff base 9, with the latter more readily detectable by UHPLC-DAD (400 nm) and HPLC-MS analyses. Moreover, we demonstrate that during cultivation 5 is retained in fungal mycelia, and it is only when solvent extraction disrupts mycelia that 5 is released to come in contact with the furans 78 (which are themselves produced by thermal transformation of carbohydrates during media autoclaving prior to fungal inoculation). Significantly, on contact, 5 undergoes a spontaneous condensation with 78 to yield the Schiff base prolinimines 12, respectively. Observations made during this study prompted us to reflect on what it is to be a natural product (i.e., 5), versus an artifact (i.e., 12), versus a media component (i.e., 78). Full article
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Article
Planococcus maritimus ML1206 Isolated from Wild Oysters Enhances the Survival of Caenorhabditis elegans against Vibrio anguillarum
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030150 - 12 Mar 2021
Viewed by 758
Abstract
With the widespread occurrence of aquaculture diseases and the broad application of antibiotics, drug-resistant pathogens have increasingly affected aquatic animals’ health. Marine probiotics, which live under high pressure in a saltwater environment, show high potential as a substitute for antibiotics in the field [...] Read more.
With the widespread occurrence of aquaculture diseases and the broad application of antibiotics, drug-resistant pathogens have increasingly affected aquatic animals’ health. Marine probiotics, which live under high pressure in a saltwater environment, show high potential as a substitute for antibiotics in the field of aquatic disease control. In this study, twenty strains of non-hemolytic bacteria were isolated from the intestine of wild oysters and perch, and a model of Caenorhabditis elegans infected by Vibrio anguillarum was established. Based on the model, ML1206, which showed a 99% similarity of 16S rRNA sequence to Planococcus maritimus, was selected as a potential marine probiotic, with strong antibacterial capabilities and great acid and bile salt tolerance, to protect Caenorhabditis elegans from being damaged by Vibrio anguillarum. Combined with plate counting and transmission electron microscopy, it was found that strain ML1206 could significantly inhibit Vibrio anguillarum colonization in the intestinal tract of Caenorhabditis elegans. Acute oral toxicity tests in mice showed that ML1206 was safe and non-toxic. The real-time qPCR results showed a higher expression level of genes related to the antibacterial peptide (ilys-3) and detoxification (ugt-22, cyp-35A3, and cyp-14A3) in the group of Caenorhabditis elegans protected by ML1206 compared to the control group. It is speculated that ML1206, as a potential probiotic, may inhibit the infection caused by Vibrio anguillarum through stimulating Caenorhabditis elegans to secrete antibacterial effectors and detoxification proteins. This paper provides a new direction for screening marine probiotics and an experimental basis to support the potential application of ML1206 as a marine probiotic in aquaculture. Full article
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Article
Structural-Based Optimizations of the Marine-Originated Meridianin C as Glucose Uptake Agents by Inhibiting GSK-3β
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030149 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 630
Abstract
Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) is a widely investigated molecular target for numerous diseases, and inhibition of GSK-3β activity has become an attractive approach for the treatment of diabetes. Meridianin C, an indole-based natural product isolated from marine Aplidium meridianum, has been [...] Read more.
Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) is a widely investigated molecular target for numerous diseases, and inhibition of GSK-3β activity has become an attractive approach for the treatment of diabetes. Meridianin C, an indole-based natural product isolated from marine Aplidium meridianum, has been reported as a potent GSK-3β inhibitor. In the present study, applying the structural-based optimization strategy, the pyrimidine group of meridianin C was modified by introducing different substituents based on the 2-aminopyrimidines-substituted pyrazolo pyridazine scaffold. Among them, compounds B29 and B30 showed a much higher glucose uptake than meridianin C (<5%) and the positive compound 4-benzyl-2-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazolidine-3,5-dione (TDZD-8, 16%), with no significant toxicity against HepG2 cells at the same time. Furthermore, they displayed good GSK-3β inhibitory activities (IC50 = 5.85; 24.4 μM). These results suggest that these meridianin C analogues represent novel lead compounds with therapeutic potential for diabetes. Full article
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Article
Fucoidan and Fucoxanthin Attenuate Hepatic Steatosis and Inflammation of NAFLD through Modulation of Leptin/Adiponectin Axis
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030148 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1332
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the emerging cause of chronic liver disease globally and lack of approved therapies. Here, we investigated the feasibility of combinatorial effects of low molecular weight fucoidan and high stability fucoxanthin (LMF-HSFx) as a therapeutic approach against NAFLD. [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the emerging cause of chronic liver disease globally and lack of approved therapies. Here, we investigated the feasibility of combinatorial effects of low molecular weight fucoidan and high stability fucoxanthin (LMF-HSFx) as a therapeutic approach against NAFLD. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of LMF-HSFx or placebo in 42 NAFLD patients for 24 weeks and related mechanism in high fat diet (HFD) mice model and HepaRGTM cell line. We found that LMF-HSFx reduces the relative values of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c in NAFLD patients. For lipid metabolism, LMF-HSFx reduces the scores of controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and increases adiponectin and leptin expression. Interestingly, it reduces liver fibrosis in NAFLD patients, either. The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and interferon-γ are reduced in LMF-HSFx group. In HFD mice, LMF-HSFx attenuates hepatic lipotoxicity and modulates adipogenesis. Additionally, LMF-HSFx modulates SIRI-PGC-1 pathway in HepaRG cells under palmitic acid-induced lipotoxicity environment. Here, we describe that LMF-HSFx ameliorated hepatic steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis and insulin resistance in NAFLD patients. LMF-HSFx may modulate leptin-adiponectin axis in adipocytes and hepatocytes, then regulate lipid and glycogen metabolism, decrease insulin resistance and is against NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine Drugs in the Management of Metabolic Diseases)
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