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Article

Exopolysaccharide from Porphyridium cruentum (purpureum) is Not Toxic and Stimulates Immune Response against Vibriosis: The Assessment Using Zebrafish and White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

1
Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Universitas Brawijaya, 65145 Malang, Indonesia
2
Department of Agricultural Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Brawijaya, 65145 Malang, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030133
Received: 7 December 2020 / Revised: 15 February 2021 / Accepted: 18 February 2021 / Published: 28 February 2021
Exopolysaccharides, or extracellular polysaccharides (EPS, sPS), represent a valuable metabolite compound synthesized from red microalgae. It is a non-toxic natural agent and can be applied as an immunostimulant. The toxicity test of exopolysaccharides from Porphyridium has been done in vivo using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryonic model, or the ZET (zebrafish embryotoxicity test). The administration of extracellular polysaccharides or exopolysaccharides (EPS) from microalgae Porphyridium cruentum (synonym: P. purpureum) to shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated to determine the effect of this immunostimulant on their non-specific immune response and to test if this compound can be used as a protective agent for shrimps in relation to Vibrio infection. For immune response, exopolysaccharides were given to shrimps via the immersion method on day 1 and booster on day 8. Shrimp hemocytes were taken on day 1 (EPS administration), day 7 (no treatment), day 8 (EPS booster) and day 9 (Vibrio infection) and tested for their immune response on each treatment. The result shows that the EPS is not toxic, as represented by the normal embryonic development and the mortality data. In the Pacific white shrimps, an increase in the values of all immune parameters was shown, in line with the increasing EPS concentration, except for the differential hemocyte count (DHC). In detail, an increase was noted in total hemocytes (THC) value, phagocytotic activity (PA) and respiratory burst (RB) in line with the EPS concentration increase. These results and other previous studies indicate that EPS from Porphyridium is safe, enhances immune parameters in shrimp rapidly, and has the ability to act as an immunostimulant or an immunomodulator. It is a good modulator for the non-specific immune cells of Pacific white shrimps, and it can be used as a preventive agent against vibriosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: hemocytes; innate immune cells; phagocytic activity; respiratory burst; white shrimp; microalgae; immunomodulator; toxicity; extracellular polysaccharide; Vibrio harveyi; Danio rerio hemocytes; innate immune cells; phagocytic activity; respiratory burst; white shrimp; microalgae; immunomodulator; toxicity; extracellular polysaccharide; Vibrio harveyi; Danio rerio
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MDPI and ACS Style

Risjani, Y.; Mutmainnah, N.; Manurung, P.; Wulan, S.N.; Yunianta. Exopolysaccharide from Porphyridium cruentum (purpureum) is Not Toxic and Stimulates Immune Response against Vibriosis: The Assessment Using Zebrafish and White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Mar. Drugs 2021, 19, 133. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030133

AMA Style

Risjani Y, Mutmainnah N, Manurung P, Wulan SN, Yunianta. Exopolysaccharide from Porphyridium cruentum (purpureum) is Not Toxic and Stimulates Immune Response against Vibriosis: The Assessment Using Zebrafish and White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Marine Drugs. 2021; 19(3):133. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030133

Chicago/Turabian Style

Risjani, Yenny, Nurul Mutmainnah, Praprianita Manurung, Siti N. Wulan, and Yunianta. 2021. "Exopolysaccharide from Porphyridium cruentum (purpureum) is Not Toxic and Stimulates Immune Response against Vibriosis: The Assessment Using Zebrafish and White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei" Marine Drugs 19, no. 3: 133. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030133

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