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Proceedings, 2018, ECSA-4 2017

The 4th International Electronic Conference on Sensors and Applications

Online |15-30 November 2017

Issue Editors: Stefano Mariani, Francesco Ciucci, Dirk Lehmhus, Thomas B. Messervey, Alberto Vallan and Stefan Bosse


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Cover Story (view full-size image) This issue of Proceedings gathers the papers presented at the 4th International Electronic [...] Read more.
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Open AccessEditorial
Preface: Proceedings of the 4th International Electronic Conference on Sensors and Applications
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2030195 - 22 Jan 2018
Viewed by 895
Abstract
This issue of Proceedings gathers the papers presented at the 4th International Electronic [...] Full article

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Open AccessProceedings
The Alignment Method for Linear Scale Projection Lithography Based on CCD Image Analysis
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04936 - 15 Nov 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 713
Abstract
This paper presents a method to improve the alignment accuracy of mask in linear scale projection lithography, in which the adjacent pixel gray square variance method of CCD image is used to find the best position of the focal length of the motherboard [...] Read more.
This paper presents a method to improve the alignment accuracy of mask in linear scale projection lithography, in which the adjacent pixel gray square variance method of CCD image is used to find the best position of the focal length of the motherboard and then realize the alignment of the focal plane. Two image positions in the focal plane from the CCD are compared the traits overlap through the image splicing principle, and to establish the correction of four typical errors on the basis of the whole grating errors. At the same time, using the rotation error of the mask to summarize Grayscale Variation Function of CCD Image, and threshold functions are used to express the factors including wave crests of the amplitude, period error and phase error, which govern the rotation accuracy and weight alignment accuracy expression of the four error factors is established. In the experiment, it is finally corrected the slope of the mask and be adjusted the same direction of the slide plate with the help of dual-frequency laser interferometer, the influence of alignment error on lithography accuracy was discussed and verified in the static case and the CCD maximum resolution pixel corresponds to 0.1 μm, the accuracy of scale is 0.79 μm in only 200 mm measurement range. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Planar Localization of Radio-Frequency or Acoustic Sources with Two Receivers
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04892 - 14 Nov 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 533
Abstract
Spatial localization of emitting sources is especially interesting in different fields of application. The focus of an earthquake, the determination of cracks in solid structures or the position of bones inside a body are some examples of the use of multilateration techniques applied [...] Read more.
Spatial localization of emitting sources is especially interesting in different fields of application. The focus of an earthquake, the determination of cracks in solid structures or the position of bones inside a body are some examples of the use of multilateration techniques applied to acoustic and vibratory signals. Radar, GPS and wireless sensors networks location are based on radiofrequency emissions and the techniques are the same as in the case of acoustic emissions. This paper is focused on the determination of the position of sources of partial discharges inside electrical insulation for maintenance based on the condition of the electrical machine. The use of this phenomenon is a mere example of the capabilities of the proposed method because its emission can be electromagnetic in the UHF range or acoustic when the insulation is immersed in oil. Generally, when a pulse is radiated from a source, the wave will arrive to two receivers at different times. One of the advantages of measuring these time differences of arrival or TDOA is that it is not required a common clock as in other localization techniques based on the time of arrival (TOA) of the pulse to the receiver. With only two sensors, all the possible points in the plane that would give the same TDOA describe a hyperbola. Using an independent third receiver and calculating the intersection of the three hyperbolas will give the position of the source. Therefore, planar localization of emitters using multilateration techniques can be solved at least with three receivers. This paper presents a method to locate sources in a plane with only two receivers, one of them in a fixed position and the other is placed describing a circumference around the first one. The TDOA are measured at different angles completing a total turn and obtaining a function, angle versus TDOA, that has all the geometric information needed to locate the source. The paper will show how to derive this function analytically with two unknown parameters: the distance and bearing angle from the fixed receiver to the source. Then, it will be demonstrated that it is possible to fit the curve with experimental measurements of the TDOA to obtain the parameters of the position of the source. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Micro Sensing of pH Levels in Biological Samples by Graphene-Based Raman Spectroscopy
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04913 - 14 Nov 2017
Viewed by 393
Abstract
Graphene provides a unique way for sensing local pH level of substances on micrometric scale, with important implications for the monitoring of cellular metabolic activities where protonic excretion could occur. Doping modifications of graphene, induced by the contact of the graphene with different [...] Read more.
Graphene provides a unique way for sensing local pH level of substances on micrometric scale, with important implications for the monitoring of cellular metabolic activities where protonic excretion could occur. Doping modifications of graphene, induced by the contact of the graphene with different pH solutions were investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to develop a pH biosensor. To test the developed biosensor with real biological systems, the pH values of cell culture media in different conditions were evaluated. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Robust and Adaptive Signal Segmentation for Structural Monitoring Using Autonomous Agents
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04917 - 14 Nov 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 548
Abstract
Monitoring of mechanical structures is a Big Data challenge and includes Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) and Non-destructive Testing (NDT). The sensor data produced by common measuring techniques, e.g., guided wave propagation analysis, is characterized by a high dimensionality in the temporal and spatial [...] Read more.
Monitoring of mechanical structures is a Big Data challenge and includes Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) and Non-destructive Testing (NDT). The sensor data produced by common measuring techniques, e.g., guided wave propagation analysis, is characterized by a high dimensionality in the temporal and spatial domain. There are off- and on-line methods applied at maintenance- or run-time, respectively. On-line methods (SHM) usually are constrained by low-resource processing platforms, sensor noise, unreliability, and real-time operation requiring advanced and efficient sensor data processing. Commonly, structural monitoring is a task that maps high-dimensional input data on low-dimensional output data (information, which is feature extraction), e.g., in the simplest case a Boolean output variable “Damaged”. Machine Learning (ML), e.g., supervised learning, can be used to derive such a mapping function. But ML quality and performance depends strongly on the input data size. Therefore, adaptive and reliable input data reduction (that is feature selection) is required at the first layer of an automatic structural monitoring system. Assuming some kind of two-dimensional sensor data (or n-dimensional data in general), image segmentation can be used to identify Regions of Interest (ROI), e.g., of wave propagation fields. Wave propagation in materials underlie reflections that must be distinguished, especially in hybrid materials (e.g., combining metal and fibre-plastic composites) there are complex wave propagation fields. The image segmentation is one of the most crucial parts of image processing. Major difficulties in image segmentation are noise and the differing homogeneity (fuzziness and signal gradients) of regions, complicating the definition of suitable threshold conditions for the edge detection or region splitting/clustering. Many traditional image segmentation algorithms are constrained by this issue. Artificial Intelligence can aid to overcome this limitation by using autonomous agents as an adaptive and self-organizing software architecture, presented in this work. Using a collection of co-operating agents decomposes a large and complex problem in smaller and simpler problems with a Divide-and-Conquer approach. Related to the image segmentation scenario, agents are working mostly autonomous (de-coupled) on dynamically bounded data from different regions of a signal or an image (i.e., distributed with simulated mobility), adapted to the locality, being reliable and less sensitive to noisy sensor data. In this work, self-organizing agents perform segmentation. They are evaluated with measured high-dimensional data from piezo-electric acusto-ultrasonic sensors recording the wave propagation in plate-like structures. Commonly, SHM deploys only a small set of sensors and actuators at static positions delivering only a few temporal resolved sensor signals (1D), whereas NDT methods additionally can use spatial scanning to create images of wave signals (2D). Both one-dimensional temporal and two-dimensional spatial segmentation are considered to find characteristic ROI. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Performance Evaluation of Microtubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Prototypes at a Laboratory Scale and Identification of Needs Related to Gas Sensors
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04910 - 14 Nov 2017
Viewed by 452
Abstract
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC’s) are devices for power generation, usually for stationary applications. Microtubular SOFC’s have been developed for portable applications. The present contribution includes a brief description of the fabrication and some results of the performance evaluation of microtubular SOFC’s (specifically [...] Read more.
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC’s) are devices for power generation, usually for stationary applications. Microtubular SOFC’s have been developed for portable applications. The present contribution includes a brief description of the fabrication and some results of the performance evaluation of microtubular SOFC’s (specifically for samples that are in the process of failing due to the formation of fractures in them or in the cement sealant) at a laboratory scale so that researchers who are developing sensors could improve their prototypes for this type of applications. During the evaluation, safety relies on gas sensors that detect fuel leaks. A low cost hydrogen gas detector—alarm system is also presented. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Deterministic Propagation Modeling for Intelligent Vehicle Communication in Smart Cities
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04898 - 14 Nov 2017
Viewed by 445
Abstract
Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are envisaged to be a critical building block of Smart Cities and Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) where applications for pollution and congestion reduction, vehicle mobility improving, accidents prevention and safer roads are some of the VANETs expected benefits [...] Read more.
Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are envisaged to be a critical building block of Smart Cities and Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) where applications for pollution and congestion reduction, vehicle mobility improving, accidents prevention and safer roads are some of the VANETs expected benefits into the Intelligent Vehicle Communications. Although there is a significant research effort in Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication radio channel characterization, the use of more general methods than theoretical and empirical models is required to understand more accurately the propagation phenomena in urban environments. In this work, a deterministic computational tool based on an in-house 3D Ray-Launching algorithm and standard IEEE 802.11p, is used to represent and analyze some large-scale and small-scale urban radio propagation phenomena for V2I, including the vehicles movement effects on each of the multipath components. Results show the impact of factors as distance, frequency, location of antenna transmitters (TX), obstacles and vehicles speed, in the V2I channel propagation. These results are useful for radio-planning Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) designers and deployment of urban Road Side Units (RSUs). Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Integration of Autonomous Wireless Sensor Networks in Academic School Gardens
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04899 - 14 Nov 2017
Viewed by 431
Abstract
In this work, the combination of capabilities provided by Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) with parameter observation in a school garden is employed in order to provide an environment for school garden integration as a complementary educational activity in primary schools. Wireless transceivers with [...] Read more.
In this work, the combination of capabilities provided by Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) with parameter observation in a school garden is employed in order to provide an environment for school garden integration as a complementary educational activity in primary schools. Wireless transceivers with energy harvesting capabilities are employed in order to provide autonomous system operation, combined with an ad-hoc implemented application called MySchoolGardenApp. The system enables direct parameter observation, data analysis and processing capabilities, which can be employed by students in a cloud based platform. Providing remote data access allows the adaptation of content to specific classroom/homework needs. The proposed monitoring WSN has been deployed in an orchard located in the schoolyard of a primary school, which has been built with EnOcean’s energy harvesting modules. For the assessment of the wireless link quality and the deployment of the modules, especially the central module which needs to receive directly the signals of all the sensor modules, simulation results obtained by an in-house developed 3D Ray Launching deterministic method have been used. Preliminary trials with MySchoolGardenApp have been performed, showing the feasibility of the proposed platform as an educational resource in schools. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Wireless System Integration to Enable Smart Cities and Smart Regions
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04909 - 14 Nov 2017
Viewed by 424
Abstract
The advent of Smart Cities and its extension to Smart Regions requires seamless interaction of systems as well as with users, in a context where a great deal of devices exhibit potential network connectivity. Wireless systems are key elements in order to enable [...] Read more.
The advent of Smart Cities and its extension to Smart Regions requires seamless interaction of systems as well as with users, in a context where a great deal of devices exhibit potential network connectivity. Wireless systems are key elements in order to enable high interactivity, with multiple different systems operating simultaneously within a given region. Multiple network coordination and analysis is compulsory in order to enhance coverage/capcity relations, whilst achieving required bit rates and Quality of Service demands. In this work, the analysis of multiple wireless systems, based on the combination of WLAN/WBAN/NFC will be analyzed in the context of Smart Cities, examining inter-operation performance and overall deployment considerations. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Characterization of Near-Ground Radio Propagation Channel for Wireless Sensor Network with Application in Smart Agriculture
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390//ecsa-4-04922 - 14 Nov 2017
Viewed by 673
Abstract
In this contribution, we present a narrowband radio channel model for a scenario wherein the radio link operates under near-ground conditions, occurring on a ZigBee wireless sensor networks applied to smart agriculture. A near-ground network deployment can be useful to avoid tall antenna [...] Read more.
In this contribution, we present a narrowband radio channel model for a scenario wherein the radio link operates under near-ground conditions, occurring on a ZigBee wireless sensor networks applied to smart agriculture. A near-ground network deployment can be useful to avoid tall antenna masts, or once crops grow. Among the examined scenarios, we analyzed path loss caused when placing sensor nodes in soil, short and tall grass fields. We measured the received power when locating both transmitter and receiver antennas at two different heights. The path loss was then estimated as dependent of the radio link range. In another scenario, RSSI were obtained to analyze the communication quality between sensor nodes using same antennas heights as the previous scenarios, only for the case of a short grass field. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Optimal Robot Path Selection Using Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchical Process
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04905 - 14 Nov 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 415
Abstract
Mobile robots are faced with problems (for ex. path planning) with many alternative solutions (ex. paths) based on several factors, and they must make a selection by quantifying the factors and mathematically evaluating the alternative solutions. Robot path planning is an integral process [...] Read more.
Mobile robots are faced with problems (for ex. path planning) with many alternative solutions (ex. paths) based on several factors, and they must make a selection by quantifying the factors and mathematically evaluating the alternative solutions. Robot path planning is an integral process of mobile robots. A shortest path is generally chosen, however, it is not necessarily the optimal path. Apart from the distance between the start and goal locations, a robot must consider several other factors like the bumpiness, steepness, and crowd on the path. Robots are equipped with sensors like cameras, inertial sensors, and distance sensors to measure these factors. Different paths could be generated between the same start and goal locations considering these factors. The robot must select the optimal path from many paths. The factors which influence the generation of such paths can be dynamic. In this paper we propose to use Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchical Process (Fuzzy-AHP) to analytically select the optimal path from different paths. Fuzzy-AHP provides two navigational approaches, namely, defensive and offensive approaches which can be taken by mobile robots for navigation. In this paper, we present a case study of robot path selection with Fuzzy-AHP. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Elastic Dry-Type Solar Cell Rubber with Photovoltaics and Piezoelectricity for Compressive Sensing
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04890 - 14 Nov 2017
Viewed by 567
Abstract
Ordinary solar cells are too hard to bend, squash by compression, or extend by tensile strength. However, if it were possible to have elastic, flexible and extensible properties, as well as piezoelectricity, that material would be useful and effective for the artificial skin [...] Read more.
Ordinary solar cells are too hard to bend, squash by compression, or extend by tensile strength. However, if it were possible to have elastic, flexible and extensible properties, as well as piezoelectricity, that material would be useful and effective for the artificial skin installed over a human-like robot. It could serve as a husk that generates electric power from solar energy, and perceives any force or temperature changes. To realize an elastic solar cell, in this study we develop a novel solar cell made of natural rubber and electrolytically polymerized with a configuration of magnetic clusters of metal particles by adding a magnetic field. The material corresponds to the MCF rubber we developed as an elastic, flexible, and extensible sensor made of natural rubber. The MCF rubber solar cell is dry-type one. The changing of its photovoltaics by irradiation of visible light was measured under the compression. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Biosensor with UV Spectrophotometric Detection
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04928 - 14 Nov 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 447
Abstract
We have previously investigated the application of cellulose dialysis membrane as a biosensor scaffold medium for protein detection with UV spectrophotometry. That was performed by using minor amounts of sample, through drying the sample on the dialysis membrane. Results proved the feasibility of [...] Read more.
We have previously investigated the application of cellulose dialysis membrane as a biosensor scaffold medium for protein detection with UV spectrophotometry. That was performed by using minor amounts of sample, through drying the sample on the dialysis membrane. Results proved the feasibility of the approach as a quantitative detection scheme of proteins in general, which was tested with the bovine serum albumin protein as a proof of the concept. Standard deviations were high, which revealed the need of improvement. That is achieved here by eliminating the dialysis membrane and drying the sample directly on the quartz cuvette of the instrument. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
An Integrated Framework for Users’ Well-Being
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04908 - 14 Nov 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 407
Abstract
The hygro-thermal comfort (ICQ) is defined as the psychophysical state in which the subject expresses a condition of well-being with respect to environmental variables, a condition known as thermal neutrality. Furthermore, the ICQ represents one pillar of the holistic concept of the Indoor [...] Read more.
The hygro-thermal comfort (ICQ) is defined as the psychophysical state in which the subject expresses a condition of well-being with respect to environmental variables, a condition known as thermal neutrality. Furthermore, the ICQ represents one pillar of the holistic concept of the Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ). The methods for the assessment of ICQ and recognized at international level are mainly two. The former, based on a steady-state approach, described by the EN ISO 7730:2005 and applied to Fully Mechanically Controlled buildings (FMC) equipped with an active conditioning system. The latter, based on an adaptive approach, as defined trough in field activities and described by the technical standard ASHRAE 55 and EN 15,251, instead, considers the users as active subjects that interact with surrounding environment and are influenced in their comfort perception by external conditions. In this case, the thermal comfort concept is not just defined depending on physical, but also psychological, social, economic and cultural aspects. The technical standards provides that this method could be applied in middle seasons when the control of comfort is handled by passive technological methods, i.e., in the so called Natural Ventilated or Free Running buildings (FR). In this approach, methodologies providing the direct involvement of the end user are consolidating, through the collection of physiological, psychological and behavioral personal data as to obtain the better assessment of the comfort conditions. Placing in this field, the article describes the results of a field investigation in an office aimed at defining a framework for the assessment of the thermal comfort based on the two approaches through the use of low cost technology solutions, parametric and freeware models. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
How to Define the Urban Comfort in the Era of Smart Cities through the Use of the Do-It-Yourself Approach and New Pervasive Technologies
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04921 - 14 Nov 2017
Viewed by 372
Abstract
The “Smart” concept applied to the cities intends to improve different fields of the urban context and in particular the life quality of citizens. An important part of the overall well-being is the urban comfort, defined as a function of some environmental parameters. [...] Read more.
The “Smart” concept applied to the cities intends to improve different fields of the urban context and in particular the life quality of citizens. An important part of the overall well-being is the urban comfort, defined as a function of some environmental parameters. The knowledge and the widespread collection of the geospatial information allow the implementation of a model able to estimate the urban comfort level. In this respect, a dynamic monitoring system was developed following the Do It Yourself (DIY) approach that allow to collect and send data to a cloud server. The article describes the implementation phases of the device, a first experimental application conducted in Milan and a critical analysis of this approach. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Automatic Task Selection from Targets Recognition for Swarm Mobile Robots with Specialized Agents
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04911 - 14 Nov 2017
Viewed by 430
Abstract
Considering specialized agents in swarm robotics, with robots dedicated to specific tasks, requires that formation control and efficient transition in the leadership of the swarm is achieved. Here, a task switching approach is formulated by evolving the definition of specialization to match with [...] Read more.
Considering specialized agents in swarm robotics, with robots dedicated to specific tasks, requires that formation control and efficient transition in the leadership of the swarm is achieved. Here, a task switching approach is formulated by evolving the definition of specialization to match with targets recognition in the environment, such as detecting special landmarks via embedded sensors. Specialization zones are defined around each detected target corresponding to a task to be dealt with by a specific robot. Entering within the zone of influence surrounding a target triggers the switching of the leader of the formation. The framework is also further refined by making the targets, and therefore the corresponding zone of influence, dynamic, which leads to the consideration of combined specialization areas. The proposed system is validated in simulation to demonstrate that the group of robots effectively coordinate themselves around targets and dynamically allocate the appropriate specialized agent. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Recent Advances in High-Frequency Oscillations and Seizure Onset Detection Using Laplacian Electroencephalography via Tripolar Concentric Ring Electrodes
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04923 - 14 Nov 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 487
Abstract
Laplacian electroencephalogram signal from novel and noninvasive tripolar concentric ring electrodes has been demonstrated to have superior performance compared to the electroencephalogram from conventional disc electrodes due to its unique capabilities which allow automatic attenuation of common movement and muscle artifacts in applications [...] Read more.
Laplacian electroencephalogram signal from novel and noninvasive tripolar concentric ring electrodes has been demonstrated to have superior performance compared to the electroencephalogram from conventional disc electrodes due to its unique capabilities which allow automatic attenuation of common movement and muscle artifacts in applications including brain-computer interface, seizure onset detection, and detection of high-frequency oscillations and seizure onset zones. This review paper covers the recent advances in the fields of high-frequency oscillations and seizure onset detection based on tripolar Laplacian electroencephalography in animal models and human data to improve the diagnostic yield of electroencephalography for epilepsy. Progression of methodologies utilized including integration of multiple sensors using exponentially embedded families and results obtained including a comparison to the results of others as well as to the performance of the same detector on simultaneously recorded electroencephalogram via conventional disc electrodes is discussed in detail. Specific advantages of using this particular sensor for these particular applications are highlighted. Promising directions for the future work and an overview of currently ongoing research are discussed along with the potential of combining the two detectors and using automatically detected high-frequency oscillations that have been shown to be indicative of early seizure development as auxiliary features for the seizure onset detection. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Influence of Particle Size in the Characterization of Street Dust by Proximal Soil Sensing
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04900 - 14 Nov 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 374
Abstract
Urban road dust can be enriched in different elements and hence it can pose a threat to human and environmental health. Proximal soil sensing allows the swift monitoring of such particles in order to drive attention to any possible risks. The goal of [...] Read more.
Urban road dust can be enriched in different elements and hence it can pose a threat to human and environmental health. Proximal soil sensing allows the swift monitoring of such particles in order to drive attention to any possible risks. The goal of this study is to find the variation in concentrations found when using a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) proximal sensor for the determination of metals in road dust with different degrees of sample pretreatment. In general, although results are element dependent, sieving samples to a particle size of <250 µm is recommended. This study can help field workers to define an expected accuracy when using sensors in street dust analysis. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Recent Advances on SHM of Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Structures Enabled by Self-Sensing Structural Materials
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04889 - 14 Nov 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 842
Abstract
Structural Health Monitoring is aimed at transforming civil structures into self-diagnosing systems able to automatically reveal the occurrence of a fault or a damage after a critical event such as an earthquake. While data science is presently experiencing tremendous advances leading to the [...] Read more.
Structural Health Monitoring is aimed at transforming civil structures into self-diagnosing systems able to automatically reveal the occurrence of a fault or a damage after a critical event such as an earthquake. While data science is presently experiencing tremendous advances leading to the availability of powerful tools and algorithms for extracting relevant information by effectively fusing data provided by different types of sensors, one of the main bottlenecks still limiting the development of SHM in the field of civil engineering is the general lack of reliable sensing technologies that are scalable at the large scale. A very promising solution to this large scale challenge would be leveraging the construction materials for strain sensing and direct damage detection. In this direction, the authors have recently proposed smart concretes and smart bricks that are piezoresistive concretes and clay bricks obtained by doping traditional construction materials with conductive nano- or micro-inclusions. These novel multifunctional materials have the ability to provide measurable electrical output under the application of a mechanical load and to provide information useful for damage detection, localization and quantification. The paper introduces both technologies, discusses their potentials, and illustrates their application to paradigmatic structural elements arranged in the laboratory. The presented results contribute to demonstrating the revolutionary impact that smart concretes and smart bricks may have in the near future on SHM of concrete and masonry structures. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Hyperspectral Survey Method to Detect the Titanium Dioxide Percentage in the Coatings Applied to the Cultural Heritage
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04912 - 14 Nov 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 459
Abstract
Nanotechnologies provide new materials for the consolidation and protection of the Cultural Heritage: innovative solutions are represented by ethyl silicate or silica nanoparticles dispersed in aqueous colloidal suspensions mixed to titanium dioxide in nanometric form. The challenge of this work is to provide [...] Read more.
Nanotechnologies provide new materials for the consolidation and protection of the Cultural Heritage: innovative solutions are represented by ethyl silicate or silica nanoparticles dispersed in aqueous colloidal suspensions mixed to titanium dioxide in nanometric form. The challenge of this work is to provide a quick and non-invasive survey method able to evaluate the titanium dioxide amount in the coatings applied on the treated stones. In fact, the titanium dioxide weight percentage incorporate into the coating depends on both application phase and, over time, environmental biological and chemical conditions. In this paper, we show the preliminary results obtained by spectroradiometric survey carried out on marble samples coated through nanoparticle films. The coatings were prepared increasing weight percentage of the titanium dioxide from 0 w% to 8 w%. The data obtained through a field hyperspectral sensors shown spectral signatures depending on the content of titanium dioxide. In fact, the samples are characterized by different spectral shapes in the wavelength range 350–400 nm, especially. The results are useful to develop a procedure for checking the application phase of coatings on the tangible Cultural Heritage. Moreover, the same method can be used, also, both to analyze the effect of the nanoparticle product on the base stone, before its application, and to verify the efficiency of the coating, over time. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
A Smartphone Application for Supporting the Data Collection and Analysis of the Cultural Heritage Damaged during Natural Disasters
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04930 - 14 Nov 2017
Viewed by 478
Abstract
The adverse impacts of natural disasters on lives and livelihoods, as well as regional and local economies, are increasingly evident, and losses to both tangible and intangible cultural heritage due to these disasters pay an important role in the total amount. In fact, [...] Read more.
The adverse impacts of natural disasters on lives and livelihoods, as well as regional and local economies, are increasingly evident, and losses to both tangible and intangible cultural heritage due to these disasters pay an important role in the total amount. In fact, damages to sites, structures and artifacts of cultural and historical value, as well as impacts to cultural tourism and the financial resources, produce a strong competitive disadvantage on local communities. Emergency decision making, based on awareness of the suffered damages, can play a crucial role in the attempts of improving resilience of the strategic elements; however, this process typically requires a fast overview on large territories. In this work, we propose a novel framework for obtaining an agile solution to quickly collect and analyze picture galleries and information provided by both internal staff and citizens through commercially available mobile devices. This solution virtually generates a network of information sources during emergency time (e.g., a seismic sequence), and allows to produce a situation map in GIS environment, hence supporting the health status analysis of cultural heritage over time. This paper presents the prototype system composed of: (1) a smartphone application for the acquisition of new information and the examination of existing one; (2) a web-service for exchanging data with databases; and (3) a local service that makes use of a proper piece of software for obtaining a 3D reconstruction from new picture galleries. The proposed system results in a scalable, exportable and modular tool useful during the emergency and for preserving memories of local communities. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Novel Food-Safe Spin-Lattice Relaxation Time Calibration Samples for Use in Magnetic Resonance Sensor Development
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04916 - 14 Nov 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 458
Abstract
Magnetic Resonance (MR) sensors are an area of increasing interest for the measurement and monitoring of material properties. There are two relaxation times associated with samples that can be measured with MR sensors: The spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxations. When developing new sensors, it [...] Read more.
Magnetic Resonance (MR) sensors are an area of increasing interest for the measurement and monitoring of material properties. There are two relaxation times associated with samples that can be measured with MR sensors: The spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxations. When developing new sensors, it is desirable to have a series of standards by which instruments can be assessed. The standard calibration materials available typically comprise different concentrations of Nickel Sulphate which is carcinogenic and toxic. In this work we report the use of solutions containing full fat milk powder as a safe and inexpensive material that shortens the longitudinal relaxation time of water over a wide range of values. We demonstrate that concentrations in distilled water from 5% w/v to 64% w/v give T1 values from 1.7 s down to 469 ms respectively in a 1.5T clinical MRI, while within an MR sensor these times were from 1.6 s down to 431 ms. In addition, both systems have the same exponential coefficient (−0.022× concentration) that demonstrates the effectiveness of the NMR sensor in comparison to the clinical MRI. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Refinement of Temperature Sensing Yarns
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04933 - 14 Nov 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 904
Abstract
Body temperature is an important parameter to measure in a number of fields such as medicine and sport. In medicine temperature changes can indicate underlying pathologies such as wound infections, while in sport temperature can be associated to a change in performance. In [...] Read more.
Body temperature is an important parameter to measure in a number of fields such as medicine and sport. In medicine temperature changes can indicate underlying pathologies such as wound infections, while in sport temperature can be associated to a change in performance. In both cases a wearable temperature monitoring solution is preferable. In earlier work a temperature sensing yarn has been developed and characterized. The yarns were constructed by embedding an off-the-shelf thermistor into a polymer resin micro-pod and then into the fibers of a yarn. This process created a temperature sensing yarn that was conformal, drapeable, mechanically resilient, and washable. This work builds on this early study with the purposes of identifying the steady state error bought about on the temperature measurements as a result of the polymer resin and yarn fibers. Here a wider range of temperatures than previously explored were investigated. Additionally two types of polymer resin with different thermal properties have been tested, with varying thicknesses, for the encapsulation of the thermistor. This provides useful additional information for optimizing the temperature sensing yarn design. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Evaluation of Silicon Nanonet Field Effect Transistor as Photodiodes
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04925 - 14 Nov 2017
Viewed by 506
Abstract
Silicon nanowire networks (nanonets) is an emerging candidate technology for sensor applications. In this work, we characterized Field Effect Transistor (FETs) employing silicon nanonet channels and evaluated their performance as photodiodes. We found that shorter and higher density nanonet channels have lower resistance [...] Read more.
Silicon nanowire networks (nanonets) is an emerging candidate technology for sensor applications. In this work, we characterized Field Effect Transistor (FETs) employing silicon nanonet channels and evaluated their performance as photodiodes. We found that shorter and higher density nanonet channels have lower resistance and higher current flow. The drain current of the FETs doubled when irradiated with a continuous wave He-Ne laser (wavelength 632 nm). Finally, we examined the long-term stability of the FETs. The channel resistance increased by one order-of-magnitude after 6 months of storage in open air. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Chatter Vibration Monitoring in the Surface Grinding Process through Digital Signal Processing of Acceleration Signal
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04927 - 14 Nov 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 570
Abstract
The grinding process is a manufacturing process that is performed at the end of the machining chain. In such step, the workpiece has a high added-value and therefore critical problems are not allowed, as they may lead to scrap and significant financial loss. [...] Read more.
The grinding process is a manufacturing process that is performed at the end of the machining chain. In such step, the workpiece has a high added-value and therefore critical problems are not allowed, as they may lead to scrap and significant financial loss. Regenerative chatter is the most common form of self-excited vibration. It can occur often because most metal cutting operations involve overlapping cuts which can be a source of vibration amplification. The occurrence of the chatter phenomenon in the grinding process is considered a critical problem because it causes several negative effects, such as poor surface quality, unacceptable inaccuracy, and disproportionate tool wear, to name a few. The objective of this research work is to monitor the onset of the chatter phenomenon in grinding of SAE 1045 steel with an aluminum oxide grinding wheel by digital signal processing techniques of the acceleration signals. Experimental tests were performed in a surface grinding machine and using a data acquisition system with sampling frequency of 2 MHz. The data was analyzed with respect to the frequency content and the Ratio of Power (ROP) statistical parameter obtained for normal and chatter conditions. Visual inspections through digital images of the workpieces surfaces were conducted and then chatter frequency was determined. Results showed that the magnitudes related to the frequencies close to 30 Hz change as chatter phenomenon occurs. The ROP shows features related to the chatter vibrations. The methodology presented herein therefore allows for the automation and optimization of the grinding process. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Standalone Point-of-Use Device for Gluten Detection in Food: POCT Application Experiment in SMARTER-SI European Project
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04915 - 14 Nov 2017
Viewed by 547
Abstract
In this work, we present an automatic and standalone microfluidic-based immunosensor to detect food allergens for food safety. The system has been developed as an application experiment in the SMARTER-SI European project. It comprises a microfluidic cartridge fabricated in cyclic olefin polymer by [...] Read more.
In this work, we present an automatic and standalone microfluidic-based immunosensor to detect food allergens for food safety. The system has been developed as an application experiment in the SMARTER-SI European project. It comprises a microfluidic cartridge fabricated in cyclic olefin polymer by injection molding, the fluidic components to drive the reagents, two alternative optical detection systems based on fluorescent or colorimetric detection, respectively, and the electronics to manage all the components. As a proof-of-concept, gluten was immunodetected in a sandwich format by using R5 monoclonal antibody as capturing and detector probe. Gluten -antibody binding was revealed by using R5 mAb labelled to Alexa Fluor 647 or conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) for the fluorescence or the colorimetric version, respectively。 Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Ambient Temperature Effects on Data Logging IC’s Power Consumption: Monitoring Ready Meal Delivery Services
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04914 - 14 Nov 2017
Viewed by 427
Abstract
This work presents the effects that ambient temperature causes on the SL900A sensor tag’s current consumption. Temperature conditions inside a metallic tray, transporting ready meal for the service food industry, are replicated through a climatic chamber whereas the current consumption is measured using [...] Read more.
This work presents the effects that ambient temperature causes on the SL900A sensor tag’s current consumption. Temperature conditions inside a metallic tray, transporting ready meal for the service food industry, are replicated through a climatic chamber whereas the current consumption is measured using a DC power analyser. Both active and data logging modes of operation have been used and the correlation between their current consumption and the temperature variation has been analysed. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Signal Acquisition from Piezoelectric Transducers for Impedance-Based Damage Detection
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04894 - 14 Nov 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 525
Abstract
Damage detection in structural health monitoring (SHM) using piezoelectric transducers has received attention in recent decades for increasing safety and reducing maintenance costs of various types of engineering structures. Among the various methods to detect structural damage, the impedance-based method performs the measurement [...] Read more.
Damage detection in structural health monitoring (SHM) using piezoelectric transducers has received attention in recent decades for increasing safety and reducing maintenance costs of various types of engineering structures. Among the various methods to detect structural damage, the impedance-based method performs the measurement of the electrical impedance of piezoelectric transducers attached in the monitored structure, which is related to the mechanical properties of the structure due to the piezoelectric effect. Therefore, the impedance measurement is critical to ensure the correct diagnosis of the structure and this paper presents an analysis of the main techniques of signal acquisition from piezoelectric transducers that have been proposed in the literature to replace the conventional impedance analyzers. Experimental tests were carried out with a piezoelectric transducer attached to an aluminum bar and the acquisition techniques were analyzed and compared regarding the precision and sensitivity to damage. The analysis was performed using the real part of the impedance signatures and a basic damage index based on the correlation coefficient. The results indicate that the signal acquisition techniques have important differences regarding the precision and sensitivity to structural damage that should be considered in the development of impedance-based SHM systems. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Analysis of Piezoelectric Diaphragms in Impedance-Based Damage Detection in Large Structures
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04896 - 14 Nov 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 475
Abstract
The use of low-cost transducers such as piezoelectric diaphragms in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications based on the electromechanical impedance (EMI) method has grown in recent years. Although many studies report the feasibility of such transducers for impedance-based damage detection, the experiments are [...] Read more.
The use of low-cost transducers such as piezoelectric diaphragms in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications based on the electromechanical impedance (EMI) method has grown in recent years. Although many studies report the feasibility of such transducers for impedance-based damage detection, the experiments are typically performed on small structures. Therefore, the objective of this work is to perform an experimental analysis of the feasibility of the piezoelectric diaphragms for the detection of damage in large structures. Several tests were carried out on a large aluminum plate in which a diaphragm was attached. The electrical impedance signatures of the transducer were collected and a basic damage index was calculated in order to verify the feasibility of quantifying the size of the damage at different distances from the transducer. The experimental results indicate that the piezoelectric diaphragms have a good sensitivity to provide a damage size classification in large structures. In addition, the sensitivity to damage detection and classification decrease as the distance between the transducer and the damage increases. Therefore, the results reported in this study indicate that low-cost piezoelectric diaphragms are feasible for impedance-based SHM applications in large structures. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Cost-Benefit Optimization of Sensor Networks for SHM Applications
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04891 - 14 Nov 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 447
Abstract
Structural health monitoring (SHM) is aimed to obtain information about the structural integrity of a system, e.g., via the estimation of its mechanical properties through observations collected with a network of sensors. In the present work, we provide a method to optimally design [...] Read more.
Structural health monitoring (SHM) is aimed to obtain information about the structural integrity of a system, e.g., via the estimation of its mechanical properties through observations collected with a network of sensors. In the present work, we provide a method to optimally design sensor networks in terms of spatial configuration, number and accuracy of sensors. The utility of the sensor network is quantified through the expected Shannon information gain of the measurements with respect to the parameters to be estimated. At assigned number of sensors to be deployed over the structure, the optimal sensor placement problem is ruled by the objective function computed and maximized by combining surrogate models and stochastic optimization algorithms. For a general case, two formulations are introduced and compared: (i) the maximization of the information obtained through the measurements, given the appropriate constraints (i.e., identifiability, technological and budgetary ones); (ii) the maximization of the utility efficiency, defined as the ratio between the information provided by the sensor network and its cost. The method is applied to a large-scale structural problem, and the outcomes of the two different approaches are discussed. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Zero Group Velocity Lamb Waves in Diamond/AlN-Based Layered Structures
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04924 - 14 Nov 2017
Viewed by 370
Abstract
The propagation of the Lamb-like modes along a diamond/AlN thin supported structure was simulated in order to exploit the intrinsic zero group velocity (ZGV) features to design high frequency electroacoustic resonators. As the ZGV points are associated with an intrinsic energy localization under [...] Read more.
The propagation of the Lamb-like modes along a diamond/AlN thin supported structure was simulated in order to exploit the intrinsic zero group velocity (ZGV) features to design high frequency electroacoustic resonators. As the ZGV points are associated with an intrinsic energy localization under the metal electrodes, acoustic micro-resonators can be designed that employ only one interdigital transducer (IDT) and no reflectors, thus reducing both the device size and technological complexity. The ZGV resonant conditions in the diamond/AlN composite plate, i.e., the frequencies where the mode group velocity vanishes while the phase velocity remains finite, were investigated in the frequency range from few hundreds of MHz up to 3500 MHz. Thin film bulk acoustic resonators (TFBARs) based on c-AlN and on 45° c-axis tilted AlN film on diamond suspended membrane were simulated that operate in longitudinal and shear mode: the former is a thickness-extensional mode, while the latter is a thickness-in plane-shear mode that is suitable for liquid sensing applications. A smart structure based on diamond/AlN composite suspended membrane was modelled that provides several integrated functions including sensing in gaseous and liquid environment, and stable frequency source. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Theoretical Study of Quasi-Longitudinal Lamb Modes in SiN/c-AlN Thin Composite Plates for Liquid Sensing Applications
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04906 - 14 Nov 2017
Viewed by 349
Abstract
The propagation of quasi-longitudinal Lamb mode along SiN/c-AlN thin composite plates was modeled and analyzed aimed at the design of a sensor able to detect the parameters change of a liquid environment, such as added mass and viscosity changes. Three modes were identified [...] Read more.
The propagation of quasi-longitudinal Lamb mode along SiN/c-AlN thin composite plates was modeled and analyzed aimed at the design of a sensor able to detect the parameters change of a liquid environment, such as added mass and viscosity changes. Three modes were identified that have high phase velocity and quite good electroacoustic coupling efficiency: the fundamental quasi symmetric mode (qS0) and two higher order quasi-longitudinal modes (qL1 and qL2) with a dominantly longitudinal displacement component at one plate side. The velocity and attenuation of these modes were calculated for different liquid viscosities, and the gravimetric and viscosity sensitivities of both the phase velocity and attenuation were theoretically calculated. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
An Overview of Medium Access Control Protocols for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04963 - 18 Jan 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 797
Abstract
In recent year, the most emerging and growing field of research and development is “Internet of Things” (IoT). This is due to advancement in wireless sensor network (WSN) which operate in the unlicensed industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) spectrum band. However, many wireless [...] Read more.
In recent year, the most emerging and growing field of research and development is “Internet of Things” (IoT). This is due to advancement in wireless sensor network (WSN) which operate in the unlicensed industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) spectrum band. However, many wireless technologies operate in the same unlicensed spectrum, make it overcrowded and hence resulted in spectrum scarcity among those bands, the performance of WSN will degrade as their popularity increases. According to FCC report, most of the licensed spectrum is underutilized, sharing of underutilized licensed spectrum among unlicensed devices is a promising solution to the spectrum scarcity issue. Cognitive Radio (CR) is one of the capable technology that allows sensor nodes (as a Secondary Users (SUs)) to detect and use the underutilized licensed spectrum temporarily when Primary Users (PUs) not using it. With recent advances in Cognitive Radio (CR) technology, possible to apply the Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) model in WSNs to get access to underutilized licensed spectrum, possibly with better propagation characteristics, but as the existing protocols and algorithms developed for CRNs and WSNs are not directly applicable to CR-based WSNs and required new protocols. In this paper, we present a survey on the novel design of CR-based MAC, identify the main advantages and challenges of using CR technology, and compare the different method of improving energy efficiency. We believe that CR-WSN is the next-generation WSN. In this paper, we also discussed the open issues to motivate new research interest in this field. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Detecting Anomalous Noise Events on Low-Capacity Acoustic Sensor in Dynamic Road Traffic Noise Mapping
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04897 - 18 Jan 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 924
Abstract
One of the main aspects affecting the life of people living in urban and suburban areas is their continued exposure to high road traffic noise (RTN) levels, traditionally measured by specialists working on the field. Nowadays, the deployment of Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks [...] Read more.
One of the main aspects affecting the life of people living in urban and suburban areas is their continued exposure to high road traffic noise (RTN) levels, traditionally measured by specialists working on the field. Nowadays, the deployment of Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN) has allowed to automate noise mapping in Smart Cities. In order to obtain a reliable picture of the RTN levels affecting citizens, those anomalous noise events (ANE) unrelated to road traffic should be removed from the noise map computation. For this purpose, an Anomalous Noise Event Detector (ANED) designed to differentiate in real-time between RTN and ANE should be developed to run on the low-cost acoustic sensors of the WASN. In this work, the viability of implementing the ANED algorithm to run on low-capacity (LowCap) μ controller-based acoustic sensors developed within the DYNAMAP project is presented, after being designed and implemented for the high-capacity sensors. The algorithm is based on the comparison between RTN and ANE spectral differences using real-life acoustic data from both suburban and urban scenarios. The results show significant spectral differences between RTN and ANE classes in both environments, after being parametrized using Gammatone Cepstral Coefficients. However, further research should be conducted to determine the most discriminant subbands, which should be taken into account for the implementation of the ANED LowCap version. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Real-Time Audio Event Detection over a Low-Cost GPU Platform for Surveillance in Remote Elderly Monitoring
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04895 - 14 Nov 2017
Viewed by 992
Abstract
The average of life expectancy of the population and the prioritization of authorities in active and home aging has increased recently. This has led governments and private organizations to increase efforts in caring the elder and dependant segment of the population. The latest [...] Read more.
The average of life expectancy of the population and the prioritization of authorities in active and home aging has increased recently. This has led governments and private organizations to increase efforts in caring the elder and dependant segment of the population. The latest advances in technology and communications point out new ways to monitor those people with special needs at their own home, increasing their quality of life of the elderly or the dependant in a cost-affordable way. This same proposal can improve the quality of caring in retirement homes, giving support to the caring services. The purpose of this paper is to present an Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) able to identify, analyze and detect specific events in the daily life environment—mostly, at home or in a residence—defined by medical and assistant staff that can be considered as an emergency situation. It is designed to be deployed in controlled environments, where social services or medical staff are thought to be nearby. This hybrid network service is intended activate several alarms in the central services when certain situations occur in the monitored place. This tele-care proposal for certain predefined risk situations is validated through a proof of concept that takes benefit of the high performance computing capabilities of a NVIDIA Graphical Processing Unit on an embedded system named Jetson TK1 to be able to process and detect the events locally, even the situations that last in time. This platform holds the basic implementation of the acoustic event detection system, for both in-home or residence-based caring service. The system is nowadays designed to identify eight different situations along time, and set the correspondent alarm when one of the situations is detected. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Observability and Performance Analysis of Velocity Measurements with Lever Arm Aided INS
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04893 - 14 Nov 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 489
Abstract
In most autonomous vehicles the navigation subsystem is based on Inertial Navigation System (INS). Regardless of the INS grade, its navigation solution drifts in time. To avoid such a drift, the INS is fused with external sensor measurements. Recent publications show that the [...] Read more.
In most autonomous vehicles the navigation subsystem is based on Inertial Navigation System (INS). Regardless of the INS grade, its navigation solution drifts in time. To avoid such a drift, the INS is fused with external sensor measurements. Recent publications show that the lever-arm, the relative position between the INS and aiding sensor, has influence on the navigation performance. Most published research in this field is focused on INS/GNSS fusion with GNSS position updates only where performance and analytical observability analysis were made to examine the consequence of vehicle maneuvers on the estimation of the lever-arm states. Yet, besides position updates, a variety of sensors measuring the vehicle velocity vector are available including GNSS and a Doppler velocity log. As in position measurements, when performing INS/velocity measurements fusion, the lever-arm must be taken account for. In this paper, performance analysis for velocity measurements with lever-arm aided INS is made for different maneuvers. Two error-states models are used in the analysis. Simulation results show the sensitivity of the error-states to lever arm and vehicle maneuver. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Underwater Communication Using Acoustic Parametric Arrays
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04907 - 14 Nov 2017
Viewed by 470
Abstract
This paper presents a study of different types of parametric signals with application to submarine acoustic telecommunications. In all of them, the carrier frequency is 200 kHz, which corresponds to that resonation of the transducer under study, while they differ by the different [...] Read more.
This paper presents a study of different types of parametric signals with application to submarine acoustic telecommunications. In all of them, the carrier frequency is 200 kHz, which corresponds to that resonation of the transducer under study, while they differ by the different modulations they present. In this sense, we study modulations with sweeps (4 to 40 kHz), in which represent binary codes (zeros and ones), getting closer to the application in acoustic telecommunications. The different properties of the transmitting signals in terms of communication speed, directivity, efficiency and power needed are discussed as well. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Optical Remote Sensing Method for Detecting Urban Green Space as Indicator Serving City Sustainable Development
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04932 - 14 Nov 2017
Viewed by 602
Abstract
Urban green space, discovered by optical remote sensors, is the area covered by terrestrial vegetation in urban areas, and is considered an important factor in urban sustainability. Two sensors ALOS/AVNIR-2 and Landsat/OLI&TIR were used in this study to determine green space by Maximum [...] Read more.
Urban green space, discovered by optical remote sensors, is the area covered by terrestrial vegetation in urban areas, and is considered an important factor in urban sustainability. Two sensors ALOS/AVNIR-2 and Landsat/OLI&TIR were used in this study to determine green space by Maximum Likelihood Classification method. The investigated area was Nha Trang city, located in the central Vietnam. This was found that the impervious surfaces were rapidly increased leading to significantly reduce urban green space within 10 years from 2007–2017. In urban areas, the green index was very low compared to the TCXDVN 9257: 2012. Based on the Markov chain, it is projected that over the next 10 years, the total vegetation cover of the city will continue to decline compared to that of today. This is likely to lead to increase catastrophe and environmental risks, especially floods and erosion in the coastal city of Nha Trang. The process could be very useful in mapping urban green space as indicator serving city sustainable development. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Calibration of Mobile Robotic Systems: A Pilot Study
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04931 - 14 Nov 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 409
Abstract
The type of wheeled mobile robots (WMRs) may affect the level of positional errors during motion. The errors are inevitable, as caused by imperfections in design to fabrication, and need to be rectified using calibration techniques. This paper uses the odometry method to [...] Read more.
The type of wheeled mobile robots (WMRs) may affect the level of positional errors during motion. The errors are inevitable, as caused by imperfections in design to fabrication, and need to be rectified using calibration techniques. This paper uses the odometry method to provide improved short-term accuracy with high sampling rates. Odometry is economical and requires fewer landmarks and simpler sensory system to localize WMRs, compared to other existing techniques such as 3D camera error detection. The context introduces an odometry-based method to correct the motion of a WMR with two-wheeled mechanism. Experimental results showed that positional errors were significantly improved after applying outcome of the calibration. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
A 3D Visual Attention Model to Guide Tactile Data Acquisition for Object Recognition
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04901 - 14 Nov 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 667
Abstract
Drawing inspiration from the human vision-touch interaction that demonstrates the ability of vision in assisting tactile manipulation tasks, this paper addresses the issue of 3D object recognition from tactile data whose acquisition is guided by visual information. An improved computational visual attention model [...] Read more.
Drawing inspiration from the human vision-touch interaction that demonstrates the ability of vision in assisting tactile manipulation tasks, this paper addresses the issue of 3D object recognition from tactile data whose acquisition is guided by visual information. An improved computational visual attention model is initially applied on images collected from multiple viewpoints over the surface of an object to identify regions that attract visual attention. Information about color, intensity, orientation, symmetry, curvature, contrast and entropy are advantageously combined for this purpose. Interest points are then extracted from these regions of interest using an innovative technique that takes into consideration the best viewpoint of the object. As the movement and positioning of the tactile sensor to probe the object surface at the identified interest points take generally a long time, the local data acquisition is first simulated to choose the most promising approach to interpret it. To enable the object recognition, the tactile images are analyzed with the help of various classifiers. A method based on similarity is employed to select the best candidate tactile images to train the classifier. Among the tested algorithms, the best performance is achieved using the k-nearest neighbor classifier both for simulated data (87.89% for 4 objects and 75.82% for 6 objects) and real tactile sensor data (72.25% for 4 objects and 70.47% for 6 objects). Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Combining Water Indices for Water and Background Threshold in Landsat Image
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04902 - 14 Nov 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 707
Abstract
Accurate and frequent update of surface water has been made possible by remote sensing technology. Index methods are mostly used for surface water estimation which separates the water from background based on a threshold value. Generally threshold is a fixed value but can [...] Read more.
Accurate and frequent update of surface water has been made possible by remote sensing technology. Index methods are mostly used for surface water estimation which separates the water from background based on a threshold value. Generally threshold is a fixed value but can be challenging in case of shades, hills, forest and urban areas. In such case, determination of threshold is done manually which is subjective and areal variation. In order to widen the difference between water and background with easier threshold selection, a combination of multiple water indices can be used. This could widen the gap between classes and the threshold sensitivity can be minimized. In this study, we summed Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Modified NDWI, Water Ratio Index and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index to form a new raster and explore the efficiency of thresholding compared to individual indices on Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) image of Nepal. The combined index showed much better separation of water with background and can be further used for automated binary classification of surface water. The process could be very useful in mapping surface water accurately. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
UV Total Dose Nonvolatile Sensor Using Fluorine-Treated SOHOS Capacitor Device
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04904 - 14 Nov 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 380
Abstract
The fluorine-treated silicon–silicon oxide–hafnium oxide–silicon oxide–silicon capacitor device (hereafter F-SOHOS) could be a candidate for UV radiation total dose (hereafter TD) nonvolatile sensor. The UV radiation induces a significant increase in the threshold voltage VT of the F-SOHOS capacitor, and the change [...] Read more.
The fluorine-treated silicon–silicon oxide–hafnium oxide–silicon oxide–silicon capacitor device (hereafter F-SOHOS) could be a candidate for UV radiation total dose (hereafter TD) nonvolatile sensor. The UV radiation induces a significant increase in the threshold voltage VT of the F-SOHOS capacitor, and the change in VT for F-SOHOS capacitor also has a strong correlation to UV TD up to 100 mW·s/cm2 after UV irradiation. The experimental results indicate that UV TD radiation-induced increase of VT in F-SOHOS capacitor under gate positive bias stress (hereafter PVS) is nearly 4 V after UV TD 100 mW·s/cm2 irradiation. Moreover, the VT-retention loss of the nonvolatile F-SOHOS capacitor device after 10 years retention is below 15%. The UV TD data can be permanently stored and accumulated in the non-volatile F-SOHOS capacitor device. Furthermore, the UV TD data in the F-SOHOS capacitor devices can be erased to original null state by positive charges injection under gate negative bias stress (hereafter NVS). The F-SOHOS capacitor device in this study has demonstrated the feasibility of non-volatile UV TD radiation sensing. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Smartphone Motion Mode Recognition
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04929 - 14 Nov 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 476
Abstract
The possibility of using mobile devices, such as smartphones, for locating a person indoor is becoming more attractive for many applications. Among them are health care and safety services, commercial and emergency applications. One of the approaches to find the smartphone position is [...] Read more.
The possibility of using mobile devices, such as smartphones, for locating a person indoor is becoming more attractive for many applications. Among them are health care and safety services, commercial and emergency applications. One of the approaches to find the smartphone position is known as Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR). PDR relies on the smartphone low-cost sensors, such as accelerometers, gyroscopes, barometer and magnetometers. An appropriate calibration phase to find the step length algorithm gains is required before PDR can be applied. These gains are very sensitive to the user and smartphone mode. In this research, we employ machine learning classifications algorithms in order to recognize and classify the pedestrian and smartphone modes. A methodology of training on a single user and testing on multiple users is proposed and experimentally evaluated Results show successes in classifying the user and smart phone modes. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Wireless Monitoring of Pavement Temperature Based on Low Cost Computing Platform
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04903 - 14 Nov 2017
Viewed by 430
Abstract
Nowadays, the preservation, the maintenance, the rehabilitation and improvement of the road network are key issues. Many of the parameters that define the road surface conditions are influenced by various environmental factors, mainly temperature. Hence the importance of having databases enriched form real-time [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the preservation, the maintenance, the rehabilitation and improvement of the road network are key issues. Many of the parameters that define the road surface conditions are influenced by various environmental factors, mainly temperature. Hence the importance of having databases enriched form real-time monitoring systems that enable the analysis and modeling of the properties of the road. The main goal of this work is the design and development of a road monitoring system for temperature measurement at different pavement depths, capable of transmitting the information to a moving vehicle. The practical realization required a modular device, of easy installation, low cost and with reduced energy consumption. The proposed monitoring system makes easy the auscultation procedure, improving the reliability of the measures collected which, in turn is the basement to estimate the useful life of the pavement. The results of the tests and validation of the proposed prototype in either static system with two types of pavement (asphalt and concrete), and in real driving situations, demonstrate the good performance and accuracy of the proposed monitoring system. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
Recent Applications of Electronic-Nose Technologies for the Noninvasive Early Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Diseases
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04918 - 14 Nov 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 607
Abstract
Conventional methods for diagnosing gastrointestinal (GI) diseases have involved analysis of headspace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the breath, urine, or fecal samples of patients. Most previous diagnostic testing methods have utilized purely metabolomic-type approaches to analyze VOCs with analytical instruments such [...] Read more.
Conventional methods for diagnosing gastrointestinal (GI) diseases have involved analysis of headspace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the breath, urine, or fecal samples of patients. Most previous diagnostic testing methods have utilized purely metabolomic-type approaches to analyze VOCs with analytical instruments such as gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics, selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS), proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), and field asymmetric ion mobility spectroscopy (FAIMS). These sophisticated and expensive methods usually involve the use of large immobile (non-portable) benchtop instruments, requiring extensive data manipulations and analyses along with advanced modeling procedures to achieve diagnostic interpretations of complex chemical data. Colonoscopies and biopsies are more invasive and discourage patient-participation in prophylactic GI-disease screenings. The more recent availability of portable electronic nose gas-sensing devices, developed with the aim of simplifying disease diagnoses by analysis of headspace VOC mixtures collectively using multi-sensor arrays, allow the production of disease-specific aroma signatures (VOC profiles) based on detection of precise complex mixtures of disease biomarker metabolites. Electronic-nose (e-nose) devices provide very fast results, are easy to operate, and are more readily applicable to clinical practice. This paper summarizes some very recent e-nose technologies being developed and tested for GI-disease diagnostic applications, including ones with dual-technology and multi-technology sensor arrays for both pattern recognition and identification of key-metabolite chemical species. In addition, novel portable electronic devices, developed with new operational mechanisms and sensor types, are described which offer possibilities of providing new means of diagnosing GI-tract diseases. Full article
Open AccessProceedings
A Domain Specific Language for Smart Cities
Proceedings 2018, 2(3), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/ecsa-4-04926 - 14 Nov 2017
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Abstract
In Smart Cities Systems, one of the main problems of its development is the integration of different devices and sensors. Many of them are incompatible with each other (different platforms, communication protocols, etc.). In this paper a Domain Specific Language (DSL) for Smart [...] Read more.
In Smart Cities Systems, one of the main problems of its development is the integration of different devices and sensors. Many of them are incompatible with each other (different platforms, communication protocols, etc.). In this paper a Domain Specific Language (DSL) for Smart Cities is presented. This DSL allow to describe the system of a Smart City using domain concepts, without considering platforms, protocols, etc. This DSL has been developed using a Model Driven Approach (MDA). Has therefore been developed a metamodel, adding additional constraints to validate the language and a textual and graphical syntax to enable the modeling of the Smart City System in an easy and simple way. Full article
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