Next Issue
Volume 10, May
Previous Issue
Volume 10, March
 
 

Horticulturae, Volume 10, Issue 4 (April 2024) – 117 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Basal rot disease affects onion cultivation worldwide. Indeed, field studies on the Fusarium species in northeastern Israel led to the discovery of a new Neocosmospora (previously known as Fusarium solani) species complex, which is widely distributed. This species was less virulent in the seed germination and bulb pathogenicity assays than other species were. While the yellow Orlando cv. in the Hula Valley field (Galilee region) is colonized by Neocosmospora, together with F. oxysporum, f. sp. cepae, and F. acutatum, the Golan Heights field's Fusarium community shows host specificity. These variations in species composition require tailored pest control solutions. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
13 pages, 5201 KiB  
Review
Traditional Foods as a Way to Preserve the Genetic Diversity of the Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) in Tunisia
by Olfa Saddoud Debbabi, Mounira Ben Slimane, Rym Bouhlal Ben Hadj Alouane, Cinzia Montemurro, Hager Snoussi and Monica Marilena Miazzi
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040423 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 677
Abstract
Tunisia has a long tradition of viticulture, and the grapevine is used for a variety of traditional foods. The country has many plant-based dishes, which may have different compositions and names depending on the region of origin. Unfortunately, over the years, traditional preparations [...] Read more.
Tunisia has a long tradition of viticulture, and the grapevine is used for a variety of traditional foods. The country has many plant-based dishes, which may have different compositions and names depending on the region of origin. Unfortunately, over the years, traditional preparations are no longer as popular as they used to be, due to both changing lifestyles and the introduction of new crops and foods. For example, the use of grapevine in traditional dishes has declined as traditions have been lost and habits have changed in favor of new, ready-to-eat foods. The close link between grapevine, culture and territory requires an appropriate evaluation and characterization of traditional foods in order to enhance and extend their use, ensure their sustainability and preserve the varieties used to produce them. This review analyzes the use of local grapevine varieties in different traditional dishes as a means to preserve an invaluable natural and cultural resource and heritage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Mediterranean Biodiversity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 1284 KiB  
Article
Establishment of a Virus-Induced Gene-Silencing (VIGS) System in Passiflora edulis Sims and Its Use in the Functional Analysis of PechlH
by Lijuan Zhang, Xiaoyan Yi, Shaojuan Wang, Muhammad Moaaz Ali, Yiping Zheng, Zhimin Lin and Faxing Chen
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040422 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 613
Abstract
Passion fruit is a very important tropical and subtropical fruit that not only has a good edible flavour, but also has high ornamental value. However, the functions of important trait genes in passion fruit have been difficult to elucidate due to the difficulty [...] Read more.
Passion fruit is a very important tropical and subtropical fruit that not only has a good edible flavour, but also has high ornamental value. However, the functions of important trait genes in passion fruit have been difficult to elucidate due to the difficulty of stable genetic transmission in passion fruit. The VIGS system for the tobacco rattle virus (TRV) has been widely used in a number of crops, but no success has been reported in passion fruit. In this study, we used the PePDS marker gene to unravel the passion fruit VIGS system. The use of albino phenotype observation and quantitative PCR to detect gene expression showed that the PDS albino phenotype was successfully induced in the young leaves of passion fruit seedlings after 7 days, while a significant down-regulation of expression occurred in the phenotypic plants. The albino phenotype can be maintained for 14–16 d. In addition, we chose the chlorophyll-synthesis-related gene PechlH for the VIGS silencing of passion fruit leaves. When the PechlH gene was knocked out, the leaves of the passion fruit lost their green colour and showed yellowing symptoms. This revealed that the PechlH gene was involved in the chloroplast synthesis pathway. Finally, using different OD600 gradients in PePDS, we demonstrated that the silencing efficiency reached 46.70% at an OD600 of 0.8. Thus, an effective and stable VIGS system was achieved in passion fruit. This will help to accelerate the study of gene function in passion fruit in the future. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 4251 KiB  
Article
Metabolome Comparison of Sichuan Dried Orange Peels (Chenpi) Aged for Different Years
by Wenling Zhang, Xun Fu, Yan Zhang, Xingyu Chen, Tingting Feng, Chunmei Xiong and Qingyu Nie
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040421 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 556
Abstract
Chuan chenpi is obtained by aging the peel of Citrus reticulata cv. ‘Dahongpao’, a traditional Chinese citrus variety. Chenpi has been used in traditional Chinese medicine since ancient times. It is believed that the longer the ripening period, the better the health properties. [...] Read more.
Chuan chenpi is obtained by aging the peel of Citrus reticulata cv. ‘Dahongpao’, a traditional Chinese citrus variety. Chenpi has been used in traditional Chinese medicine since ancient times. It is believed that the longer the ripening period, the better the health properties. The composition of the metabolome of Chuan chenpi and how different aging periods affect it are not known. Current analysis was performed using Chuan chenpi aged for one (CR1), five (CR5) and ten (CR10) years. Initially, the total flavonoid and phenolic content were quantified, and then the global metabolomic profiles of CR1, CR5 and CR10 were studied. The total flavonoid and phenolic content increased significantly in CR5 compared to CR1 and then decreased in CR10. The metabolomic analyses led to the identification of 781 compounds belonging to more than 19 classes. Flavonoids and phenolic acids accounted for almost half (~48%) of the Chuan chenpi metabolome. Other major classes included amino acids (~8%), alkaloids (7.17%), organic acids (~7%), sugars (5.5%), nucleotides and derivatives (~5%), free fatty acids (3.33%) and other classes. The metabolite diversity of glycerol esters, terpenoids and stilbenes was constant during the three storage periods, whereas those of lignans, vitamins, coumarins, lipids and free fatty acids showed slight variations. The subclass distribution of phenylpropanoids, quinones, sphingolipids, and organic acids showed a decrease in diversity from CR1 to CR5, with CR10 showing a further decrease or remaining constant. Amino acids and derivatives, phenolic acids and flavonoids showed an increasing trend in the number of metabolites over the storage period. Compared to CR5, CR10 showed a higher number of differentially accumulated metabolites; in particular, flavonoids, phenolic acids and organic acids showed increased accumulation in CR10. In conclusion, the metabolome of Chuan chenpi is rich in flavonoids and phenols. Aging significantly affects the metabolome composition. Both CR5 and CR10 may be useful materials for health studies depending on the objectives of pharmacological use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Genetics, Genomics, Breeding, and Biotechnology (G2B2))
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 3978 KiB  
Article
Transcriptome and Pigment Analyses Provide Insights into Carotenoids and Flavonoids Biosynthesis in Camellia nitidissima Stamens
by Yi Feng, Kunkun Zhao, Jiyuan Li, Minyan Wang, Hengfu Yin, Zhengqi Fan, Xinlei Li and Weixin Liu
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040420 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 601
Abstract
Camellia nitidissima is famous for its golden flowers. Its flowers are rich in secondary metabolites, and they have ornamental, medicinal, and edible value. Pigment composition and regulation has been studied in the golden petals, but there has been little research on pigment composition [...] Read more.
Camellia nitidissima is famous for its golden flowers. Its flowers are rich in secondary metabolites, and they have ornamental, medicinal, and edible value. Pigment composition and regulation has been studied in the golden petals, but there has been little research on pigment composition or the molecular mechanism underlying yellow stamens in C. nitidissima. To explore the molecular mechanism of yellow stamen formation, three developmental stages (S0, S1, and S2) were used for transcriptome and pigment analyses. Pigment analysis showed that the flavonoid content increased sharply from the S0 to S1 stage and decreased from the S1 to S2 stage, and the carotenoid content increased sharply during yellow stamen formation (from the S1 to S2 stage). RNA-seq analysis showed that a total of 20,483 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. KEGG and heatmap analyses showed that flavonoid and carotenoid biosynthesis pathways were enriched, and we identified 14 structural genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis and 13 genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis and degradation. In addition, the expression of carotenoid- and flavonoid-related genes was consistent with carotenoid and flavonoid content. In addition, correlation network analysis indicated that the WARYK, MYB, bHLH, and AP2/ERF transcription factor families were screened for involvement in the biosynthesis of flavonoids and carotenoids. In this study, we describe the pathway associated with color formation in the stamens of C. nitidissima. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultivation and Breeding of Ornamental Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1205 KiB  
Article
Inclusion of Antifungal and Probiotic Lactiplantibacillus plantarum Strains in Edible Alginate Coating as a Promising Strategy to Produce Probiotic Table Grapes and Exploit Biocontrol Activity
by Nicola De Simone, Angela Scauro, Danial Fatchurrahman, Pasquale Russo, Vittorio Capozzi, Giuseppe Spano and Mariagiovanna Fragasso
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040419 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 703
Abstract
The use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for the probiotic enrichment of minimally processed fruit is a well-established practice in the literature. In addition, several LAB demonstrated a strain-specific ability to control harmful microorganisms and decay agents, improving shelf life, maintaining quality, and [...] Read more.
The use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for the probiotic enrichment of minimally processed fruit is a well-established practice in the literature. In addition, several LAB demonstrated a strain-specific ability to control harmful microorganisms and decay agents, improving shelf life, maintaining quality, and promoting the safety of fruits and vegetables. Edible coatings can help modulate the phenomena of gas exchange and water loss by fruits, representing protection from physical damage and spoilage phenomena linked to oxidation and the development of undesired microorganisms. At the same time, the coating can represent an innovative delivery matrix for the LAB strains of potential interest to improve safety and quality in the postharvest management of fruits. In this work, five Lactiplantibacillus plantarum strains, previously characterised for their probiotic and antifungal activity, were incorporated into a sodium alginate coating to develop edible probiotic coatings with antifungal properties for table grapes cv. Italia. The bacterial transfer and their survival were evaluated by comparing coated and uncoated table grapes during 14 days of cold storage at 4 °C. The alginate edible coating increased the number of viable cells transferred to the surface of the berries from about 5 to more than 7 Log CFU/g, with a crucial impact on the potential functional attributes of the final product. The ability of the functionalised coatings to counteract the decay development was evaluated on table grape berries artificially contaminated with Aspergillus niger CECT 2805. A significant reduction in lesion diameter was observed in the alginate coating with L. plantarum 11-A, with a reduction from 15.40 ± 1.14 mm of uncoated berries to 8.40 ± 1.14 mm of berries coated with L. plantarum 11-A. The lesion diameter reduction was also accompanied by a reduction in the symptoms of infection, such as browning around the wound. These results suggest the application of selected strains of L. plantarum as promising bio-resources to enhance the overall value of ready-to-eat fruits and vegetables, particularly in combination with edible coating as a carrier matrix. While a strain-dependent effect was not detected with respect to the improvement in the number of cells in the edible coating, a variability depending on the biotype used was detected for the properties linked to biocontrol, suggesting that the inclusion in edible packaging may represent an innovative criterion in the selection of lactobacilli to be applied postharvest. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 3160 KiB  
Article
Vermicompost Rate Effects on Soil Fertility and Morpho-Physio-Biochemical Traits of Lettuce
by Muhammad Danish Toor, Abdurrahman Ay, Izhar Ullah, Salih Demirkaya, Rıdvan Kızılkaya, Adil Mihoub, Adil Zia, Aftab Jamal, Ayman A. Ghfar, Annamaria Di Serio and Domenico Ronga
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040418 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 958
Abstract
The use of agricultural chemicals has adversely affected soil health and the environment. Organic farming practices, particularly vermicompost (VC), are gaining attention for their potential to improve soil fertility and crop productivity. This study investigated VC rate applications on lettuce growth, yield, soil [...] Read more.
The use of agricultural chemicals has adversely affected soil health and the environment. Organic farming practices, particularly vermicompost (VC), are gaining attention for their potential to improve soil fertility and crop productivity. This study investigated VC rate applications on lettuce growth, yield, soil fertility, nutrient dynamics, enzyme activity, biological parameters, and biochemical aspects under greenhouse conditions in Samsun, Turkey during 2022–2023. Experimentally, VC was applied at rates of V1: 1%, V2: 2%, and V3: 4% w/w, with a control group without VC application, V0: 0% w/w. Batavia lettuce, which is sensitive to environmental conditions and nutrient deficiency, was subjected to these treatments in a randomized complete block design, replicated thrice. Results showed consistent improvements in plant dry weight across all VC treatments, with the 2% application rate (V2) yielding the highest increase in lettuce yield (56.43%). Soil pH varied across treatments, with V1 being slightly alkaline and V3 showing high electrical conductivity and increased nitrogen content. Phosphorus content increased in all treatments, while potassium varied, with V3 having the highest values. Soil enzyme activities increased with VC concentrations, with V3 showing the highest urease activity. Pearson correlations confirmed positive associations with growth parameters and soil enzymatic activity. These findings highlight vermicompost as a sustainable solution for lettuce production and soil improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 2234 KiB  
Article
Genotyping of Croatian Olive Germplasm with Consensus SSR Markers
by Snježana Bolarić, Aleš Vokurka, Kristina Batelja Lodeta and Đani Benčić
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040417 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 515
Abstract
Leaf samples of 226 cultivated olive trees were collected from traditionally managed olive orchards and genotyped with eleven consensual SSR markers. The proportion of shared allele distance was used for the estimation of distances between olive genotypes. Cluster analyses were performed using a [...] Read more.
Leaf samples of 226 cultivated olive trees were collected from traditionally managed olive orchards and genotyped with eleven consensual SSR markers. The proportion of shared allele distance was used for the estimation of distances between olive genotypes. Cluster analyses were performed using a Fitch–Margoliash least-squares algorithm. The number of different genetic subgroups of olive genotypes (K) was investigated using STRUCTURE analysis. The standardization of allele lengths was performed to enable the comparison SSR profiles of Croatian olive genotypes with olive profiles obtained with the same SSR primers in OleaDB and WOGB databases. Overall, 73 SSR profiles of known Croatian varieties and 53 profiles of unknown olive genotypes were differentiated. Synonyms were detected in 18 varieties, and we found intra-varietal differences in 15 varieties. Three genetic subgroups of olive genotypes were determined. Following allele length standardization achieved using nine referral samples, the genetic profiles of 126 cultivated olive genotypes were compared to OleaDB and WOGB databases, out of which 92 genotypes were found to be unique to Croatian olive germplasm. The results revealed the wide genetic diversity of olive germplasm beyond the known, registered varieties. The FAZ_oliveDB database containing the profiles of 126 Croatian olive genotypes was created and made available for public use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Genetics, Genomics, Breeding, and Biotechnology (G2B2))
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2812 KiB  
Article
Tomato Brown Rugose Fruit Virus Is Transmissible through a Greenhouse Hydroponic System but May Be Inactivated by Cold Plasma Ozone Treatment
by Jing Zhou, Andrea Gilliard and Kai-Shu Ling
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040416 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1267
Abstract
Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) is an emerging tobamovirus infecting tomatoes and peppers, resulting in a pandemic in recent years. In addition to its abilities of being seed-borne, transmitted mechanically and overcoming current resistance, we speculated other factors may also contribute to [...] Read more.
Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) is an emerging tobamovirus infecting tomatoes and peppers, resulting in a pandemic in recent years. In addition to its abilities of being seed-borne, transmitted mechanically and overcoming current resistance, we speculated other factors may also contribute to such catastrophic effect on tomato production in a hydroponic greenhouse. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether ToBRFV can be transmissible through recirculating hydroponic systems and, more importantly, search for an effective approach to contain its spread. We not only detected ToBRFV in the runoff water samples collected from three greenhouses but also determined the virus’ infectivity through a bioassay. We then conducted a water treatment using cold plasma ozone to assess its efficacy in inactivating ToBRFV. The results showed that, with a high concentration of ToBRFV (inoculum in 1:100 dilution), a prolonged exposure (72 min) to two higher ozone concentrations (0.6 mg/L and 1.0 mg/L) achieved partial effects. With a medium virus concentration (inoculum in 1:1000 dilution), an exposure to ozone for 48 min was sufficient to completely suppress the virus’ infectivity. However, with a low virus concentration (inoculum in 1:10,000 dilution), the virus was completely inactivated even with just a short ozone exposure (24 min). Future work will need to confirm the efficacy of the ozone treatment against ToBRFV as well as its impact on tomato plants in a hydroponic greenhouse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative System for Disinfection in Greenhouses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3206 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Transcriptome and Expression of C4H and FLS Genes on Four Flower Colors of Impatiens uliginosa
by Xiaoli Zhang, Yi Tan, Xinyi Li, Zengdong Liu, Fan Li, Haiquan Huang and Meijuan Huang
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040415 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 492
Abstract
Flower color is a major feature of ornamental plants, and the rich flower color of plants is an important factor in determining their ornamental and economic values, so flower color is an important research target for gardening and horticulture breeders at home and [...] Read more.
Flower color is a major feature of ornamental plants, and the rich flower color of plants is an important factor in determining their ornamental and economic values, so flower color is an important research target for gardening and horticulture breeders at home and abroad. Our research group collected four colors of Impatiens uliginosa (white, pink, red, and deep red) during the collection of germplasm resources in the field. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptomes of the four flower colors of I. uliginosa by using RNA-Seq technology. The transcriptomes were screened to identify candidate genes related to flower color, and the coloring mechanisms of four flower colors were revealed at the molecular level. The main findings were as follows: (1) The number of the four different transcripts ranged from 64,723 to 93,522 and contained a total of 100,705 unigenes. (2) The analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed structural genes including C4H, FLS, PAL, and ANS and transcription factors including MYB, MYB-related, AP2-EREBP, and bHLH. (3) Among the four flower colors of I. uliginosa, the C4H1 gene had the highest expression in pink flowers, and the C4H2 gene had the highest expression in red flowers. This indicated that C4H genes positively regulated the red flower color of I. uliginosa. However, FLS expression was the highest in white flowers, and with deepening flower color, FLS gene expression gradually weakened, acting as a negative regulator. The results of this study could lay the theoretical foundation for investigating the mechanism of coloration and flower color variation in I. uliginosa. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1476 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Postharvest Storage Temperatures on Fruit Flavor Constituents in ‘Wushancuili’ Plum
by Qinyu Feng, Zhichao Wang, Wei Xiong, Wenbin Kong, Ming Huang, Wanpeng Xi and Kun Zhou
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040414 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 556
Abstract
Chinese plum (Prunus salicina) cv. Wushancuili has a green coloration, high fruit quality, and is economically important in eliminating poverty and protecting ecology in the Yangtze River Three Gorges Reservoir. However, large-scale production and synchronous ripening times present a huge postharvest [...] Read more.
Chinese plum (Prunus salicina) cv. Wushancuili has a green coloration, high fruit quality, and is economically important in eliminating poverty and protecting ecology in the Yangtze River Three Gorges Reservoir. However, large-scale production and synchronous ripening times present a huge postharvest storage challenge. This study investigated the effect of different postharvest storage temperatures on the ‘Wushancuili’ plum fruit flavor. The dynamics of soluble sugars, organic acids, and aroma substances were investigated at four temperatures mimicking large-scale commercial storage applications: 0–2 °C, 4–6 °C, 8–10 °C, and 20 °C, for 0, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 days. Storage under the 0–2 °C regime was the best at preserving fruit flavor and reducing decay compared to the other settings. At 0–2 °C, fruit maintained a stable level of soluble sugars and organic acids during storage. Moreover, this storage temperature facilitated the formation of aroma compounds such as alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and acids, which contributed to the distinct fruit aromatic characteristics. Taken together, our findings indicate that 0–2 °C is the most favorable temperature for commercial storage and maintenance of the ‘Wushancuili’ plum flavor. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 5244 KiB  
Article
Structural and Spatial Shifts in the Viticulture Potential of Main European Wine Regions as an Effect of Climate Change
by Liviu Mihai Irimia, Cristian Valeriu Patriche, Théo Petitjean, Cyril Tissot, Luis Gonzaga Santesteban, Etienne Neethling, Chris Foss, Renan Le Roux and Hervé Quénol
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040413 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 599
Abstract
Climate change modifies the base climate of the wine regions and, with it, the structure of their traditional types of wine production, imposing measures to adapt, mitigate, or capitalize on the newly emerging conditions. In order to assess the impact of climate change [...] Read more.
Climate change modifies the base climate of the wine regions and, with it, the structure of their traditional types of wine production, imposing measures to adapt, mitigate, or capitalize on the newly emerging conditions. In order to assess the impact of climate change and establish the appropriate adaptation measures for each wine region, regional and local studies are needed, which allow knowledge of their current climate profile. The aim of this research was to identify the changes that appeared as an effect of climate change in the initial climate profile and the initial structure of the traditional types of wine production of Bordeaux (France), Loire Valley (France), Rhine-Main-Nahe (Germany), La Rioja (Spain) and Cotnari (Romania) wine regions, and also in climate suitability for wine production of the Sussex area from the UK. The study uses multi-year averages for the 1951–1990 and 1991–2010 time periods of reference bioclimatic indices for viticulture, namely the Average Temperature of the Growing Season (AvGST), the Huglin Index (HI), and the Oenoclimatic Aptitude Index (IAOe). The results of this research reveal significant changes in climate suitability for wine production of the studied wine regions: in the Bordeaux wine region, climate change led to the appearance of conditions for the cultivation of the Mediterranean climate varieties Grenache, Syrah, and Carignan; in the cool climate wine regions Rhine-Main-Nahe and Cotnari, traditional producers of white wines, the climate has also become suitable for the cultivation of Pinot noir and Cabernet franc varieties, and implicitly for the production of red wines; in all studied wine regions, the classes of climate suitability for viticulture shifted higher in altitude, as is the case of the La Rioja region, where, in the recent period, the grapevine can be grown up to 922.9 m asl, higher by 206.2 m compared to the 1951–1990 time period; in the low area of each wine region, one or even two new climate suitability classes for wine grape growing appeared. The shifts revealed by this research generate solid conclusions regarding the effect of climatic change on the viticultural potential of geographical areas, namely: in the context of climate change, the altitude of the wine region has a major influence on the evolution of the local viticulture potential; a higher topography allows a better adaptation of the wine region to climate change; low-elevation wine regions are more vulnerable to climate changes, especially the further south they are located; as an effect of climate change, conditions appear in the wine regions for the cultivation of new grapevine varieties and the production of new types of wine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Effects of Climate Change on Viticulture (Grape))
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 7870 KiB  
Article
Transcriptomic Analysis of Flower Color Changes in Impatiens uliginosa in Response to Copper Stress
by Yi Tan, Xiaoli Zhang, Qinmei Li, Xinyi Li, Liang Luo, Haihao He, Guangrong Liang, Haiquan Huang and Meijuan Huang
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040412 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 630
Abstract
Impatiens uliginosa is a native and potential water body-restoring ornamental plant. In this study, RNA-Seq technology was used to analyze the transcriptome of its floral organs. Candidate genes related to flower color changes under copper stress were investigated through transcriptome screening, and the [...] Read more.
Impatiens uliginosa is a native and potential water body-restoring ornamental plant. In this study, RNA-Seq technology was used to analyze the transcriptome of its floral organs. Candidate genes related to flower color changes under copper stress were investigated through transcriptome screening, and the intrinsic mechanism of the effects of different concentrations of copper on I. uliginosa was revealed at the molecular level. The main findings were as follows: (1) Transcriptome sequencing analysis was performed on the flower organs of I. uliginosa treated with different concentrations of copper (0 mg·L−1, 10 mg·L−1, and 20 mg·L−1). A total of 70,319 transcripts and 39,949 unigenes were obtained. An analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed structural genes including GT, ANS, CHI, and PAL; transcription factors including MYB and WD40; and transport factors including GST and ABC. (2) The gene expression levels of flower color changed in the flowering period of I. uliginosa at different copper concentrations. The expression levels of IuGT and IuGST genes in I. uliginosa were significantly different under different concentrations of copper treatments. Their expression levels were the highest at a copper concentration of 0 mg·L−1 and the lowest at 20 mg·L−1. In summary, the low expression of IuGT and IuGST genes was more conducive to the formation of white flowers of I. uliginosa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiological and Molecular Biology Research on Ornamental Flower)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 1384 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Intensity and Spectral Quality of LED Light on Growth and Quality of Spinach Indoors
by Alejandro Martínez-Moreno, Antonio Frutos-Tortosa, Huertas Diaz-Mula, Teresa Carmen Mestre and Vicente Martínez
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040411 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 864
Abstract
In recent years, much effort has been devoted to understanding the response of plants to different light properties, largely due to advances in the light-emitting diode (LED) industry. This work studied the effect of different light intensities and qualities on yield or quality [...] Read more.
In recent years, much effort has been devoted to understanding the response of plants to different light properties, largely due to advances in the light-emitting diode (LED) industry. This work studied the effect of different light intensities and qualities on yield or quality of indoor hydroponic spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Two trials were carried out at two different times. The intensity assay was carried out with the same type of light (AP673L, Valoya Ltd., Helsinki, Finland) at different luminous intensities (150, 290, and 430 µmol m−2 s−1). In the second trial, four different luminance spectra (Valoya Ltd., Helsinki, Finland) were used (NS12, AP67, AP673L, G2). Then, the fresh and dry weight, nutritional status, and concentration of primary metabolites were determined. Both lights parameters induced changes in vegetative performance and other physiological traits, as well as their quality and nutritional composition (minerals, organic acids, sugars, and amino acids). The increase in light intensity increased Fv’/Fv’, fresh weight, leaf area, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and potassium concentration. The light intensity effectively controlled nitrate accumulation in an inverse relationship. The effect of the light spectrum on spinach characteristics was not clearly observed when multivariate statistics were applied to the data. No linear relationship was found between the different R/B ratios. This is perhaps due to commercial lights having a complex combination of wavelengths, in addition to the main R/B proportion. Within the overall results, 6 R/B presented the best results for the indoor cultivation of spinach. More studies are needed, since breeding for controlled environments shifts the focus of the desired crop attributes towards rapid growth and harvest quality instead of stress adaptability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Vegetable Production Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1480 KiB  
Article
Exogenous Application of Gamma Aminobutyric Acid Improves the Morpho-Physiological and Biochemical Attributes in Lavandula dentata L. under Salinity Stress
by Awad Y. Shala, Amira N. Aboukamar and Mayank A. Gururani
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040410 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 515
Abstract
Saline water has been proposed as a solution to partially supply plants with their water requirements due to a lack of fresh water for cultivation in arid and semi-arid sites. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid participating in numerous metabolic processes [...] Read more.
Saline water has been proposed as a solution to partially supply plants with their water requirements due to a lack of fresh water for cultivation in arid and semi-arid sites. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid participating in numerous metabolic processes to mitigate the undesirable effects of salinity. A pot experiment was carried out during 2021 and 2022 at Sakha Horticulture Research Station to investigate the effect of foliar application of GABA at 20 and 40 mM on vegetative growth and biochemical changes in French lavender under increasing levels of sea water salinity irrigation treatments (0, 1000, 2000, and 3000 ppm). Results indicated that increasing salinity concentration noticeably decreased plant height, number of branches, herb fresh and dry weight, root length, root fresh and dry weights, photosynthetic pigments, relative water content, and essential oil percentage. On the other hand, accumulation of proline and antioxidant enzymes was increased under increasing salinity concentrations. We conclude that foliar application of GABA acid at 40 mM can alleviate the adverse effects of salinity on the abovementioned French lavender plant characteristics by improving vegetative growth and root characteristics, as well as diminishing chlorophyll degradation, maintaining high leaf relative water content, increasing proline accumulation and antioxidant activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tolerance and Response of Ornamental Plants to Abiotic Stress)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 5786 KiB  
Article
Cytogenetics Study of Four Edible and Ornamental Zingiber Species (Zingiberaceae) from Thailand
by Piyaporn Saensouk, Surapon Saensouk, Rattanavalee Senavongse, Duangkamol Maensiri and Phetlasy Souladeth
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040409 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 709
Abstract
A cytological study was carried out on four Zingiber species from Thailand, namely, Z. chrysostachys, Z. isanense, Z. junceum, and Z. niveum, which are edible and beautiful ornamental plants. They all have somatic chromosomal numbers of 2n = [...] Read more.
A cytological study was carried out on four Zingiber species from Thailand, namely, Z. chrysostachys, Z. isanense, Z. junceum, and Z. niveum, which are edible and beautiful ornamental plants. They all have somatic chromosomal numbers of 2n = 22. This research contributes to karyological knowledge regarding this species. The somatic chromosomal counts of Z. niveum and Z. isanense are reported for the first time, as are the NFs of all species, which were all discovered to be 44. All four edible and ornamental species had their karyotypes: 16m + 6sm for Z. chrysostachys, 4m + 18sm for Z. isanense, 12m + 10sm for Z. junceum, and 14m + 4sm + 4st for Z. niveum. The dominant characteristics of these four Zingiber species are as follows: Z. chrysostachys has yellow bracts, pale yellow flowers, and a red labellum with white dots; Z. isanensis has red-brown bracts, white flowers, and a white labellum; Z. junceum has green bracts, yellow flowers, and a yellow labellum; and Z. niveum has white bracts, yellow flowers, and a yellow labellum. Additionally, principal component analysis (PCA) of the karyotype formula was used to divide the four Zingiber species into two groups via various points using the chromosome indexes (CIs): Z. niveum (D) with Z. chrysostachys (A), and Z. junceum (C) with Z. isanensis (B). This finding implies that, while being in the same stage, the CIs of these four Zingiber species can be used to distinguish them, revealing their resemblance at unique stages and close relationship. Accordingly, the chromosomal structure, karyotype formulae, and CIs can be used to distinguish these four edibles and ornamental Zingiber species from Thailand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Molecular Breeding of Fruit Tree Species)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 4621 KiB  
Article
Genetic and Hormonal Regulation of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) Maturity across Altitudinal Gradients
by Diana Nacouzi and Walid El Kayal
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040408 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 619
Abstract
Lebanon is recognized as a major producer of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) within the Mediterranean region. This non-climacteric fruit is grown at various altitudes, leading to considerable variation in maturity dates among cultivated varieties and altitudes and subsequently influencing harvest timing. [...] Read more.
Lebanon is recognized as a major producer of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) within the Mediterranean region. This non-climacteric fruit is grown at various altitudes, leading to considerable variation in maturity dates among cultivated varieties and altitudes and subsequently influencing harvest timing. The interaction between genotype and environment significantly affects fruit maturity dates and physicochemical attributes. Fruit maturation entails the regulated activity of numerous genes. In this study, we analyzed gene expression in the berries of six sweet cherry varieties (“Skeena”, “Teliani”, “Banni”, “Feraouni”, “Mkahal”, and “Irani”) cultivated at five locations, ranging from 1130 m to 2080 m above sea level, from May to July. This research focused on the genes potentially associated with auxin response factors, Abscisic acid receptors, ethylene receptors, gibberellin, and cytokinin regulations. Additionally, hormone analysis encompassing Benzyl Adenine (BA), Zeatin, Salicylic acid (SA), Gibberellic acid (GA3), and Abscisic acid (ABA) quantification was conducted on the same samples. The results revealed significant differences in gene expression concerning harvest dates, varieties, and locations. Abscisic acid and Salicylic acid exhibited higher concentrations in the tested fruits throughout the season. Benzyl Adenine had the lowest detected content in fruits. Data also revealed dynamic changes in phytohormones, especially ABA content, among varieties. When comparing phytohormones for different harvest dates in the same location, significant differences were observed. This work contributes to a deeper understanding of the role of plant hormones and their gene expression in the maturation of non-climacteric fruits. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2286 KiB  
Article
Biocontrol Potential of Bacteria Isolated from Vermicompost against Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato and Cucumber Crops
by Chen Liang, Diwen Yang, Feiyu Dong, Jingxia Shang, Xuguang Niu, Guoxian Zhang, Lijuan Yang and Yonghuan Wang
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040407 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 547
Abstract
Root-knot nematodes are the major diseases in protected cultivation around the world. Bio-organic fertilizer has become a research hotspot, with a variety of microorganisms that control various vegetable soil-borne diseases. This study screened nematocidal microorganisms from fresh vermicompost, explored the inhibitory substances produced [...] Read more.
Root-knot nematodes are the major diseases in protected cultivation around the world. Bio-organic fertilizer has become a research hotspot, with a variety of microorganisms that control various vegetable soil-borne diseases. This study screened nematocidal microorganisms from fresh vermicompost, explored the inhibitory substances produced by biocontrol agents, and evaluated their potential biocontrol ability in the pot and field under greenhouse conditions. The highly effective antagonistic microbes of Meloidogyne incognita (M. incognita) were screened. Strains YL1 and YL31 were identified as Peribacillus frigoritolerans, and strain YL6 was identified as Lysinibacillus fusiformis. The three strains all produced chitinase and protease, which prevented the normal development of eggs and the second-stage juveniles (J2) by destroying their appearance. The three strains all improved potassium-dissolving ability, and the strains YL1 and YL6 also enhanced phosphorus-dissolving ability. Pot experiments showed that tomato root knots were reduced, and plant growth improved. Field tests showed that the root-knot index and nematode population were reduced significantly, and cucumber growth and yield were enhanced. Strain YL1 had the best control effect with 70.6%, and the yield increased by 14.9% compared with the control. Overall, this study showed the ability of antagonistic bacteria YL1, YL6, and YL31 to control root-knot nematodes, and these antagonistic bacteria could be developed as biocontrol agents for sustainable agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Control Against Horticultural Pests)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 14651 KiB  
Article
Lasiodiplodia iraniensis and Diaporthe spp. Are Associated with Twig Dieback and Fruit Stem-End Rot of Sweet Orange, Citrus sinensis, in Florida
by Valeria Piattino, Dalia Aiello, Greta Dardani, Ilaria Martino, Mauricio Flores, Srđan G. Aćimović, Davide Spadaro, Giancarlo Polizzi and Vladimiro Guarnaccia
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040406 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 638
Abstract
Florida ranks among the most important citrus growing regions in the USA. The present study investigates the occurrence, diversity, and pathogenicity of fungal species associated with symptomatic sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) cv. Valencia plants and fruit. The survey was conducted on [...] Read more.
Florida ranks among the most important citrus growing regions in the USA. The present study investigates the occurrence, diversity, and pathogenicity of fungal species associated with symptomatic sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) cv. Valencia plants and fruit. The survey was conducted on twigs and fruit collected in Southwest Florida during 2022. Based on morphological and molecular characteristics, the identified isolates belonged to the species Lasiodiplodia iraniensis, Diaporthe pseudomangiferae, and Diaporthe ueckerae. The pathogenicity of representative isolates was evaluated on citrus fruit and plants. Lasiodiplodia iraniensis was the most virulent on fruit and plants, followed by Diaporthe pseudomangiferae. Diaporthe ueckerae had the lowest virulence on fruit, and it was not pathogenic to plants. In vitro tests were performed to assess the effect of temperature on mycelial radial growth. The optimum temperature of growth ranged from 26.0 to 28.4 °C for all the evaluated species, and L. iraniensis showed the fastest mycelial growth. This study represents the first report of L. iraniensis as a causal agent of tree dieback and fruit stem-end rot on C. sinensis worldwide. Moreover, D. pseudomangiferae and D. ueckerae are reported here for the first time in association with citrus diseases worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Pathology and Disease Management (PPDM))
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2923 KiB  
Article
Effects of Progressive Drought Stress on the Growth, Ornamental Values, and Physiological Properties of Begonia semperflorens
by Zhimin Zhao, Airong Liu, Yuanbing Zhang, Xiaodong Yang, Shuyue Yang and Kunkun Zhao
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040405 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 497
Abstract
Water is one of the most important elements affecting the growth of ornamental plants. To investigate the effects of drought stress on the growth, ornamental values, and physiological properties of Begonia semperflorens, watering treatments with 250 mL (control check, CK), 200 mL [...] Read more.
Water is one of the most important elements affecting the growth of ornamental plants. To investigate the effects of drought stress on the growth, ornamental values, and physiological properties of Begonia semperflorens, watering treatments with 250 mL (control check, CK), 200 mL (extremely light drought, ELD), 150 mL (light drought, LD), 100 mL (moderate drought, MD), 50 mL (severe drought, SD), and 25 mL (extremely severe drought, ESD) on the B. semperflorens variety “Chao Ao” were performed in this study. As a result, compared to the control (CK), the number of flowers, leaves, and branches, leaf size, plant height, crown diameter, as well as water content, transpiration rate, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, and chlorophyll content in leaves decreased, followed by an increased amount of drought stress. The contents of the osmotic adjustment substances, such as soluble sugar, soluble protein, proline, and betaine, were increased under drought stress. Indicators related to antioxidant activities, such as SOD activity, increased and then decreased. The POD activity, CAT activity, MDA content, and plasma membrane permeability of B. semperflorens were higher under increased drought stress than in the control condition. The APX activity decreased and then increased under drought stress. In conclusion, B. semperflorens responds to drought stress by increasing osmotic adjustment substances and antioxidant activities and reducing the water loss, growth potential, and photosynthetic rate. The correlation analysis showed that, except for APX, the drought resistance coefficients of 23 other indexes were correlated in different degrees. Therefore, this study suggests that B. semperflorens has a strong drought resistance ability, retaining high ornamental values in conditions of moderate drought stress, and can still survive under extremely high drought stress. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3635 KiB  
Article
Micropropagation Protocols for Three Elite Genotypes of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni
by Luis Alfonso Rodriguéz-Páez, Yirlis Yadeth Pineda-Rodriguez, Marcelo F. Pompelli, Ana Melisa Jimenez-Ramirez, Osmin José Genes-Avilez, Juan de Dios Jaraba-Navas, Alfredo Jarma-Orozco, Enrique Combatt-Caballero, Luis Eliécer Oviedo Zumaqué, Isidro Elias Suarez-Padron, Maria Ileana Oloriz-Ortega and Novisel Veitía Rodríguez
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040404 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 812
Abstract
The Stevia rebaudiana Germplasm Bank at the University of Cordoba, Colombia, plays a pivotal role in conserving and efficiently utilizing the genetic variability of this species. Despite safeguarding promising genotypes with valuable traits, such as late flowering or a significant diterpenoid glycoside content, [...] Read more.
The Stevia rebaudiana Germplasm Bank at the University of Cordoba, Colombia, plays a pivotal role in conserving and efficiently utilizing the genetic variability of this species. Despite safeguarding promising genotypes with valuable traits, such as late flowering or a significant diterpenoid glycoside content, there is a need for an efficient mass propagation protocol for elite genotypes. This study aims to develop efficient in vitro micropropagation protocols for three elite S. rebaudiana genotypes (L020, L102, and Morita II). The methods employed various combinations of cytokinins and auxins following organogenesis protocols. The results showed that optimal shoot multiplication (17.3 shoots per explant) for L020 was achieved when cultures were grown on a basal medium MS supplemented with 1 μM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). For L102, optimal shoot multiplication (18.5 shoots per explant) was achieved in MS supplemented with 1 μM BAP and 0.5 μM naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), while for Morita II, the best treatment was an MS supplemented with 2 μM BAP and 0.5 μM NAA, producing 16.4 shoots per explant. This study successfully achieved micropropagation for promising S. rebaudiana genotypes, highlighting the significant impact of genotype on tissue culture, particularly in shoot multiplication. Developing a successful micropropagation system is crucial for the conservation and improvement of S. rebaudiana, with significant implications for its future use and performance. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 4236 KiB  
Article
Fine Mapping and Candidate Gene Validation of Tomato Gene Carpelloid Stamen and Parthenocarpy (CSP)
by Shanshan Li, Kai Wei, Li Zhang, Yu Ning, Feifei Lu, Xiaoxuan Wang, Yanmei Guo, Lei Liu, Xin Li, Can Zhu, Yongchen Du, Junming Li and Zejun Huang
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040403 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 609
Abstract
Parthenocarpy and male sterility are highly desirable traits in tomato breeding and molecular study. The stamen carpelloid mutant generally displays male sterility. A natural mutant displaying carpelloid stamen and parthenocarpy (csp) was identified in our research group. In this study, the [...] Read more.
Parthenocarpy and male sterility are highly desirable traits in tomato breeding and molecular study. The stamen carpelloid mutant generally displays male sterility. A natural mutant displaying carpelloid stamen and parthenocarpy (csp) was identified in our research group. In this study, the csp locus was finely mapped to a 65 kb interval, which contained six putative genes. One of them, Solyc04g081000, encodes the tomato class B MADS box gene TAP3 (syn. SlDEF). Sequencing data revealed that a copia long terminal repeat retrotransposon was inserted in the first intron of the TAP3 gene of the csp mutant. qRT-PCR showed that the expression of TAP3 was significantly down-regulated in the petals and stamens of the csp mutant. A phenotypic analysis of the TAP3 gene-edited mutants and allelism tests indicated that TAP3 was the gene underlying csp, and csp was a novel allelic mutation of TAP3. The results of this study will lay the foundation for a further analysis of the function of TAP3 and provide materials and a basis for a further study of the functional differentiation of tomato B-class genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Genetics, Genomics, Breeding, and Biotechnology (G2B2))
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2032 KiB  
Article
Description of Phenological Events of Persian Walnut (Juglans regia L.) according to the Extended BBCH Scale and Historical Scales
by Julie Robin, Anthony Bernard, Lisa Albouy, Sibylle Papillon, Eloise Tranchand, Marie-Neige Hebrard, Jean-Baptiste Philibert, Marine Barbedette, Sadia Schafleitner, Bénédicte Wenden, Teresa Barreneche, Marine Delmas, Fabrice Lheureux and Julien Toillon
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040402 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 774
Abstract
Walnut trees are grown worldwide for their edible fruits, which have high nutritional value. To address climate change, researchers have studied walnut phenology to create cultivars adapted to warmer climates. The objective of this study is to propose a scale for phenological Persian [...] Read more.
Walnut trees are grown worldwide for their edible fruits, which have high nutritional value. To address climate change, researchers have studied walnut phenology to create cultivars adapted to warmer climates. The objective of this study is to propose a scale for phenological Persian walnut observations using the Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt, und CHemische Industrie (BBCH) codification and alignment with historical alphameric scales. Here, the principal growth stages (PGSs) of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) are described using stages from a previously available alphanumeric scale. This standardised phenological scale describes Persian walnut growth from the dormant vegetative state through reproductive budding and senescence. This phenological scale is expected to increase the efficiency of walnut phenological monitoring. Fifty-seven stages are used to describe the life cycle of Persian walnut in this BBCH scale. Of these 57 stages, 3 stages are dedicated to seed germination (PGS-0), 4 stages are dedicated to bud development (PGS-0), 7 stages are dedicated to leaf development (PGS-1), 4 stages are dedicated to stem elongation (PGS-3), 8 stages are dedicated to inflorescence emergence (PGS-5), 5 stages are dedicated to male flowering (PGS-6), 5 stages are dedicated to female flowering (PGS-6), 5 stages are dedicated to fruit development (PGS-7), 12 stages are dedicated to fruit ripening (PGS-8), and 4 stages are dedicated to leaf senescence (PGS-9). Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

20 pages, 16993 KiB  
Article
Metabolically Tailored Selection of Ornamental Rose Cultivars through Polyamine Profiling, Osmolyte Quantification and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities
by Marko Kebert, Milena Rašeta, Saša Kostić, Vanja Vuksanović, Biljana Božanić Tanjga, Olivera Ilić and Saša Orlović
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040401 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 786
Abstract
Roses (genus Rosa), renowned for their economic significance and aesthetic appeal, face multifaceted challenges in cultivation due to biotic and abiotic stressors. To address these challenges, this study explores the role of osmolytes, particularly polyamines, proline and glycine betaine, as well as [...] Read more.
Roses (genus Rosa), renowned for their economic significance and aesthetic appeal, face multifaceted challenges in cultivation due to biotic and abiotic stressors. To address these challenges, this study explores the role of osmolytes, particularly polyamines, proline and glycine betaine, as well as antioxidant capacities and condensed tannins, in enhancing stress tolerance in roses. Despite the genetic diversity inherent in roses, the metabolic aspect of stress tolerance has been underexplored in breeding programs. This paper investigates the intraspecific variability among 22 rose cultivars, focusing on osmolyte content (proline and glycine betaine), individual polyamines (putrescine, spermine and spermidine), as well as antioxidant activities, measuring radical scavenging capacity against 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS•+) and NO radicals. Employing a targeted metabolomic approach, we quantified the levels of individual polyamines in both the petals and leaves of rose cultivars. This was achieved through high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescent detection following a derivatization pretreatment process. Within the evaluated cultivars, “Unique Aroma”, “Andre Rieu”, “Aroma 3”, “Frayla Marija” and “Trendy Fashion” stood out for their significantly elevated levels of total foliar polyamines. The predominant polyamine detected at both petal and leaf levels was putrescine, with concentrations ranging from 335.81 (“Zora Frayla”) to 2063.81 nmol g−1 DW (“Unique Aroma”) at the leaf level. Following putrescine, foliar spermidine levels varied from 245.08 (“Olivera Frayla”) to 1527.16 nmol g−1 DW (“Andre Rieu”). Regarding antioxidant capacity, the leaf extracts of rose cultivars “Zora Frayla” and “Natalija Frayla” were prominent by showing 68.08 and 59.24 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE) g−1 DW, respectively. The results highlight the intricate biochemical variability across rose cultivars and show that osmolytes, such as glycine betaine, proline and polyamines, and other biochemical markers can be used as reliable criteria for the selection of rose cultivars that are more resilient to biotic stress factors, especially powdery and downy mildew. Bridging fundamental research with practical applications, this study aims to contribute to the development of stress-tolerant rose cultivars adaptable to dynamic environmental conditions. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 1988 KiB  
Article
Effects of Protein Hydrolysate Derived from Anchovy By-Product on Plant Growth of Primrose and Root System Architecture Analysis with Machine Learning
by Mehmet Tütüncü
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040400 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 790
Abstract
Protein hydrolysates (PHs) derived from waste materials are promising for sustainable practices in agricultural production. This study evaluated the effects of PH enzymatically derived from anchovy by-products on the root system architecture (RSA) and aboveground development of potted primrose. The plants were treated [...] Read more.
Protein hydrolysates (PHs) derived from waste materials are promising for sustainable practices in agricultural production. This study evaluated the effects of PH enzymatically derived from anchovy by-products on the root system architecture (RSA) and aboveground development of potted primrose. The plants were treated with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 g/L concentrations of PH by drenching with 100 mL/pot at two-week intervals and irrigated once a week with 100 mL/pot during winter and twice weekly during spring. The results revealed that the 1.5 g/L treatment statistically significantly improved dry weight and leaf area, while the highest leaf chlorophyll content was observed with the 1.0 g/L treatment. The treatments did not influence leaf and flower numbers. Treatment with 1.0 g/L produced the most substantial improvement in root surface area, projected area, volume, length, tips, and forks. Additionally, the study employed machine learning (ML) algorithms, including GP, RF, XGBoost, and an ANN-based MLP. The input variables (root surface area, projected area, volume, length, tips, and forks) were assessed to model and predict the root traits. The ML and ANN algorithms’ R-squared rates were noted in the following order: MLP > GP > RF > XGBoost. These outcomes hold significant implications for enhancing primrose growth. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 5013 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Quality and Microbial Communities in Fermented Chinese Mustard Greens from Guangdong Province, China
by Sarengaowa, Yongxi Kuang, Yun Ding, Hao Xie, Xinyang Tong, Wenzhong Hu and Ke Feng
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040399 - 13 Apr 2024
Viewed by 672
Abstract
Fermented Chinese mustard greens are popular fermented vegetable foods in Guangdong Province, China. In this study, the quality characteristics and microbial composition of fermented Chinese mustard greens from different regions, including Shantou (ST), Meizhou (MZ), Yunfu (YF), and Guangzhou (GZ), were evaluated. The [...] Read more.
Fermented Chinese mustard greens are popular fermented vegetable foods in Guangdong Province, China. In this study, the quality characteristics and microbial composition of fermented Chinese mustard greens from different regions, including Shantou (ST), Meizhou (MZ), Yunfu (YF), and Guangzhou (GZ), were evaluated. The colour and texture of fermented Chinese mustard greens were significantly different from those of ST, MZ, YF, and GZ. L* values were 48.62, 42.30, 32.43, and 34.02 in the stem parts of ST, MZ, YF, and GZ, respectively. The chewiness value was greater in GZ (131.26 N) than in MZ (53.25 N), YF (39.99 N), and GZ (24.22 N) zones. The microbial community structure determined by high-throughput sequencing (HTS) demonstrated that Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Campilobacterota were the predominant phyla. Lactobacillus was the most predominant microorganism in the MZ and GZ samples and accounted for a greater proportion of the microorganisms in the ST and YF samples. In addition to Lactobacillus, the relative abundances of Cobetia and Weissella were greater in the ST group, while those of Halomonas and Pediococcus were greater in the YF group. There was a significant correlation between the microbial composition and quality indices (colour and texture) among the samples from the four regions. The quality of the fermented Chinese mustard greens in MZ and GZ was significantly different from that of other samples in ST and YF. The Lactobacillus genus (Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus selangorensis) in MZ and GZ contributed to changes in colour (b*, C*, L*, a*) and texture (firmness and chewiness). This study provided a comprehensive correlation between quality and microbial composition of fermented Chinese mustard greens from different regions in Guangdong Province. The evaluation and correlation between quality and microbiota are helpful for guiding future improvements in fermentation processes and manufacturing high-quality fermented Chinese mustard greens. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2428 KiB  
Article
Adapting the Segment Anything Model for Plant Recognition and Automated Phenotypic Parameter Measurement
by Wenqi Zhang, L. Minh Dang, Le Quan Nguyen, Nur Alam, Ngoc Dung Bui, Han Yong Park and Hyeonjoon Moon
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040398 - 13 Apr 2024
Viewed by 624
Abstract
Traditional phenotyping relies on experts visually examining plants for physical traits like size, color, or disease presence. Measurements are taken manually using rulers, scales, or color charts, with all data recorded by hand. This labor-intensive and time-consuming process poses a significant obstacle to [...] Read more.
Traditional phenotyping relies on experts visually examining plants for physical traits like size, color, or disease presence. Measurements are taken manually using rulers, scales, or color charts, with all data recorded by hand. This labor-intensive and time-consuming process poses a significant obstacle to the efficient breeding of new cultivars. Recent innovations in computer vision and machine learning offer potential solutions for accelerating the development of robust and highly effective plant phenotyping. This study introduces an efficient plant recognition framework that leverages the power of the Segment Anything Model (SAM) guided by Explainable Contrastive Language–Image Pretraining (ECLIP). This approach can be applied to a variety of plant types, eliminating the need for labor-intensive manual phenotyping. To enhance the accuracy of plant phenotype measurements, a B-spline curve is incorporated during the plant component skeleton extraction process. The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated through experimental results, which show that the proposed framework achieves a mean absolute error (MAE) of less than 0.05 for the majority of test samples. Remarkably, this performance is achieved without the need for model training or labeled data, highlighting the practicality and efficiency of the framework. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2165 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Vine Nutrition and Productivity Based on Statistical Indicators
by Florin Sala, Dorin Camen, Mihai Valentin Herbei and Cosmin Blidariu
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040397 - 13 Apr 2024
Viewed by 549
Abstract
Different fertilization systems, methods and techniques result in differences in plant nutrition, with variations in the mineral element contents in the leaves and values of physiological, yield, and production quality indices. This results in large datasets that are often relatively difficult to interpret. [...] Read more.
Different fertilization systems, methods and techniques result in differences in plant nutrition, with variations in the mineral element contents in the leaves and values of physiological, yield, and production quality indices. This results in large datasets that are often relatively difficult to interpret. Starting from these aspects, the present study analyzed data on the state of plant nutrition (N, P, K, Ca, and Mg content in leaves, in % of dry matter; Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn content in leaves, in mg/kg of dry matter), physiological indices (chlorophyll leaf content—Chl; leaf area—LA), yield (kg/vine, t/ha), and grape berry quality (sugar and acidity content in berries) of the ‘Burgund mare’ grape cultivar in relation to organic, mineral and foliar fertilization. According to a PCA multivariate analysis, four groups of components were obtained: PC1 including five factors, with positive action in the case of K (r = 0.963), P (r = 0.770) and Cu (r = 0.752), and negative action in the case of Mg (r = −0.940) and Mn (r = −0.759); PC2 including three factors, with positive action for Chl (r = 0.938), LA (r = 0.938) and Ca (r = 0.722); PC3 including one factor (N), with negative action (r = −0.916); and PC4 including two factors, with positive action for Fe (r = 0.869) and Zn (r = 0.761). Based on the one-sample t test (parametric) and the Wilcoxon test (non-parametric) and a threshold value of α = 0.05, the differences between the index values for fertilization variants T2–T13 compared with those for the control variant (T1) were verified. Significant differences were recorded in PC1 for P, Mg and Cu; in PC2 for Chl, LA and Ca; and in PC3 for N. Insignificant differences were recorded in PC1 for K and Mn and in PC4 for Fe and Zn. In the case of the productivity elements and quality indices, significant differences were recorded. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Viticulture)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 825 KiB  
Article
The First Study on Cultivating Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.) for Its Flower and Essential Oil in Southeast Serbia
by Vladimir Filipović, Tatjana Marković, Snežana Dimitrijević, Aiping Song, Željana Prijić, Sara Mikić, Natalija Čutović and Vladan Ugrenović
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040396 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 702
Abstract
Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.) is a perennial herbaceous medicinal plant species that has not yet been thoroughly researched in terms of the influence of growing conditions on its morphological characteristics, flower yield, and the content and quality of its essential [...] Read more.
Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.) is a perennial herbaceous medicinal plant species that has not yet been thoroughly researched in terms of the influence of growing conditions on its morphological characteristics, flower yield, and the content and quality of its essential oil (EO). The plant material was harvested in the subsequent two production years at three localities in Southeast Serbia, differing in soil type (Alluvial soil, Rendzina, and Calcomelanosol). Based on two-year average values, the best results were obtained from plants grown on Rendzina, including the yield of fresh flowers (1850.2 g/m2), the highest plant height (49.3 cm), the number of branches (4.1), leaves (11.6), and flower heads (3.6), the flower diameter (1.6 cm), and the essential oil content (1.6%). The major EO constituent obtained from the plants growing on Rendzina and Calcomelanosol was 3-methyl pentyl angelate (20.8% and 15.2%, respectively). In the EO obtained from the plants growing on Alluvial soil, the major EO constituent was isobutyl angelate (13.0%), while the content of 3-methyl pentyl angelate was close to it (12.2%). The outcomes of this study provide guidelines for further research related to the cultivation of a Roman chamomile genotype on various soil types in a hilly region of Southeast Serbia, where most cultivated plants cannot be grown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Insights into the Phenology of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 5740 KiB  
Article
Re-Sequencing the Mitochondrial Genome Unveils a Novel Isomeric Form of NWB CMS Line in Radish and Functional Verification of Its Candidate Sterile Gene
by Xiaomei Li, Le Liang, Jianzhao Ran, Feng Yang, Maolin Ran, Xiaoping Yong, Chuibao Kong, Yi Tang and Huanxiu Li
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040395 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 606
Abstract
Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a globally significant vegetable and relies on cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines for hybrid seed production. The NWB CMS type is favored over Ogura CMS for its ease in maintainer screening. Despite its varied mitochondrial configurations and [...] Read more.
Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a globally significant vegetable and relies on cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines for hybrid seed production. The NWB CMS type is favored over Ogura CMS for its ease in maintainer screening. Despite its varied mitochondrial configurations and unvalidated sterile gene, we re-sequenced the mitochondrial genome of NWB CMS Tibet A and verified the function of the sterility gene via genetic transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana. The mitochondrial genomes of Tibet A could be assembled into circular DNA molecules, with a mitochondrial genome size of 239,184 bp. Our analysis indicated that the specific orf463a was the CMS-associated gene in Tibet A, sharing sequence consistency with the CMS gene in DCGMS and NWB CMS YB-A. Collinearity analysis showed that the mitochondrial genomes of NWB CMS Tibet A, DCGMS, and NWB CMS YB-A share the same mitotype, with structural variations due to recombination via a 9731 bp long repeat sequence and a 508 bp short repeat sequence. Driven by the Ap3 promoter, transgenic Arabidopsis with orf463a exhibited male sterility, confirming the gene’s potential role in CMS. In this study, we assembled a new isomeric form of NWB CMS mitochondrial genome and proved the function of the candidate sterile gene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Genetics, Genomics, Breeding, and Biotechnology (G2B2))
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 3834 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aroma of Eight Bamboo Species Leaves
by Huiling Wang, Zhe Su, Pengfei Deng, Leiru Chen, Mengqing Yang and Xiaoniu Xu
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040394 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 614
Abstract
Bamboo forest healthcare tourism is a practical and sustainable management model that utilizes the medicinal functions of bamboo. However, the mechanism and potential functions of bamboo’s healthcare functions are still unclear. In this study, the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are the core [...] Read more.
Bamboo forest healthcare tourism is a practical and sustainable management model that utilizes the medicinal functions of bamboo. However, the mechanism and potential functions of bamboo’s healthcare functions are still unclear. In this study, the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are the core factor of bamboo forest healthcare were analyzed. The foliar VOCs of eight bamboo species, including Pleioblastus amarus (Keng) P. C. Keng, Pleioblastus maculatus (McClure) C. D. Chu et C. S. Chao, Pleioblastus juxianensis T. H. Wen, C. Y. Yao et S. Y. Chen, Acidosasa chienouensis (T. H. Wen) C. S. Chao et T. H. Wen, Pseudosasa amabilis (McClure) P. C. Keng ex S. L. Chen et al., Pseudosasa amabilis (McClure) Keng f., Phyllostachys rubromarginata McClure, and Phyllostachys hirtivagina G. H. Lai were qualitatively and semi-quantitatively analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Screening compounds by aroma vitality value (OAV) determined the key aromas. The results showed that a total of 40 VOCs were identified from the leaves of the eight bamboo species. The compounds with relatively high content were (Z)-3-Hexen-1-ol, (E)-2-Hexen-1-ol, 1-Hexanol, (E, E)-2,4-Hexadienal, Limonene, and so on. The commonality of different bamboo species was that the dominant groups consisted of alcohols and aldehydes. The significant differences in leaf VOCs among species presented classification. Pleioblastus amarus, Acidosasa chienouensis, Pseudosasa amabilis, and Phyllostachys rubromarginata were noticeably clustered together. The aroma of bamboo leaves is a combination of grassy, fruity, and piney notes by 24 VOCs. The key aroma from Pleioblastus amarus is leaf alcohol, which contributes to the grassy scent, while the piney aroma is dominant in Pseudosasa amabilis and Phyllostachys rubromarginata. The study provides a reference value for enriching the chemical information of subtropical bamboo and developing the functional potential of bamboo forest healthcare tourism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinals, Herbs, and Specialty Crops)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop