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Vet. Sci., Volume 6, Issue 1 (March 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Migratory ducks are a predominant natural host and environmental reservoir of influenza A viruses. [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Immunostaining for p53 and p16CDKN2A Protein Is Not Predictive of Prognosis for Dogs with Malignant Mammary Gland Neoplasms
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010034
Received: 24 January 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 25 March 2019
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Abstract
Mammary gland tumors (MGTs) are common in dogs and show a variable clinical behavior that is difficult to predict. Currently, few immunohistochemical markers have been established to predict the prognosis of a canine MGT. However, p53 immunostaining has been variably reported to be [...] Read more.
Mammary gland tumors (MGTs) are common in dogs and show a variable clinical behavior that is difficult to predict. Currently, few immunohistochemical markers have been established to predict the prognosis of a canine MGT. However, p53 immunostaining has been variably reported to be prognostic for canine MGTs. Additionally, while p16CDK2NA protein (p16) immunostaining has been found to be prognostic for human breast cancers, this marker has never been evaluated as a prognostic marker for canine neoplasms. In the present study, the prognostic utility of p53 and p16 was evaluated in 35 canine malignant MGTs. It was observed that 19 (54%) dogs died due to their MGTs with an overall mean survival time (MST) of 882 days. Seven MGTs showed p53 immunostaining, but this was not significantly associated with death (4 of 7 vs. 15 of 28; p = 0.6) or MST (670 vs. 934 days; p = 0.57). Five dogs had MGTs with no p16 immunostaining, 28 MGTs had intermediate p16 immunostaining, and two MGTs had increased p16 immunostaining. Neither death due to MGT (4 of 5, 14 of 28, or 1 of 2; p = 0.28) nor MST (683, 927, and 307 days; p = 0.31) were significantly associated with p16 immunostaining. Interestingly, p53 immunostaining was significantly associated with an increase or loss of p16 immunostaining. This is the first time that p16 has been evaluated as a prognostic marker for canine neoplasms. While these results suggest that a proportion of canine MGTs develop by cellular mechanisms that alter both p53 and p16 expression, there was no evidence that defects in p53 or p16 alter the behavior of a MGT. Neither p53 nor p16 was found to significantly predict prognosis, although this could reflect the limited number of MGTs included in the study. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Use of Minimally Invasive Surgery in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer in Dogs and Cats
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010033
Received: 17 January 2019 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
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Abstract
Surgical management of neoplastic disease is common in veterinary medicine. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has gained widespread acceptance by veterinary surgeons and is experiencing rapid growth and frequency of use. Many neoplastic diseases in the abdomen and thorax of dogs and cats can [...] Read more.
Surgical management of neoplastic disease is common in veterinary medicine. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has gained widespread acceptance by veterinary surgeons and is experiencing rapid growth and frequency of use. Many neoplastic diseases in the abdomen and thorax of dogs and cats can be treated as effectively with MIS as with traditional open surgery. Additionally, MIS allows for less invasive options for organ biopsy in cancer patients either for initial diagnosis or for staging to inform prognosis and treatment. Despite the recent increase in MIS, additional research is required to further characterize the benefits to oncology patients and to ensure that surgical oncologic principles and patient outcomes are not compromised by the use of MIS. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Elucidating Transmission Patterns of Endemic Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Using Molecular Epidemiology
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010032
Received: 22 February 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 14 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
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Abstract
Mycobacterial diseases are persistent and characterized by lengthy latent periods. Thus, epidemiological models require careful delineation of transmission routes. Understanding transmission routes will improve the quality and success of control programs. We aimed to study the infection dynamics of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis [...] Read more.
Mycobacterial diseases are persistent and characterized by lengthy latent periods. Thus, epidemiological models require careful delineation of transmission routes. Understanding transmission routes will improve the quality and success of control programs. We aimed to study the infection dynamics of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causal agent of ruminant Johne’s disease, and to distinguish within-host mutation from individual transmission events in a longitudinally MAP-defined dairy herd in upstate New York. To this end, semi-annual fecal samples were obtained from a single dairy herd over the course of seven years, in addition to tissue samples from a selection of culled animals. All samples were cultured for MAP, and multi-locus short-sequence repeat (MLSSR) typing was used to determine MAP SSR types. We concluded from these precise MAP infection data that, when the tissue burden remains low, the majority of MAP infections are not detectable by routine fecal culture but will be identified when tissue culture is performed after slaughter. Additionally, we determined that in this herd vertical infection played only a minor role in MAP transmission. By means of extensive and precise longitudinal data from a single dairy herd, we have come to new insights regarding MAP co-infections and within-host evolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycobacterial Diseases in Animals)
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Open AccessArticle
Correlation of BRAF Variant V595E, Breed, Histological Grade and Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Canine Transitional Cell Carcinomas
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010031
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 11 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
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Abstract
The presence of BRAF variant V595E, as well as an increased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in canine transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) are well-described in the literature. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between breed (terrier versus non-terrier dogs), histological [...] Read more.
The presence of BRAF variant V595E, as well as an increased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in canine transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) are well-described in the literature. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between breed (terrier versus non-terrier dogs), histological grade, COX-2 expression, and BRAF mutation in canine TCC. Therefore, transmural TCC biopsies from 65 dogs (15 terriers, 50 non-terriers) were graded histologically into low- and high-grade. Immunohistochemical evaluation of the intensity of COX-2 expression was performed using an immunoreactive score (IRS). Exon 15 of chromosome 16 was examined for the BRAF variant c.1799T>A by TaqMan® SNP assay. TCC was low-grade in 20 cases (one terrier, 19 non-terriers) and high-grade in 45 cases (14 terriers, 31 non-terriers). Contrary to humans, histological grade was not significantly correlated to the intensity of COX-2 expression. BRAF mutation was detected in 11/15 (73%) TCC of terriers and in 18/50 (36%) TCC of non-terriers. Histological grade and BRAF mutation were not correlated significantly (p = 0.2912). Terriers had a considerably higher prevalence of high-grade tumors (p < 0.0001), as well as of BRAF mutation (p ≤ 0.05) compared to non-terriers. In non-terriers, neoplasms with BRAF mutation showed a significantly higher intensity of COX-2 expression than those without BRAF mutation (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, in contrast to humans, testing for BRAF mutation in canine TCC is a sensitive diagnostic method especially in terriers (73%) and may be recommended as a screening test. However, evidence of BRAF mutation in canine TCC is not a predictor for the histological grade. Moreover, a positive correlation between histological grade and the intensity of COX-2 expression was not found. Further studies are necessary to clarify the clinical and prognostic relevance of the elevated intensity of COX-2 expression of TCC with BRAF mutation detected in non-terriers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Oxidative Effects of Potassium Dichromate on Biochemical, Hematological Characteristics, and Hormonal Levels in Rabbit Doe (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010030
Received: 28 January 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
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Abstract
The present study was conducted to evaluate the toxicity induced by the increasing doses of potassium dichromate in rabbit doe. Twenty-eight adult does of 6 months of age were divided into four groups (A, B, C, and D; n = 7), with comparable [...] Read more.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the toxicity induced by the increasing doses of potassium dichromate in rabbit doe. Twenty-eight adult does of 6 months of age were divided into four groups (A, B, C, and D; n = 7), with comparable average body weight (bw). Group A rabbits received only distilled water daily and served as a control, while groups B, C, and D received, respectively, 10 mg/kg bw, 20 mg/ kg bw, and 40 mg/kg bw of potassium dichromate via gavage for 28 days, after which animals were anesthetized with ether vapor and sacrificed. Blood samples were obtained via cardiac puncture and collected without anticoagulant for biochemical dosages and with anticoagulant (EDTA) for complete blood count. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and estradiol (E2) were dosed in serum and in homogenates of ovary with the help of AccuDiagTM ELISA kits from OMEGA DIAGNOSTICS LTD (Scotland, England) while respecting the immuno-enzymatic method. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver, kidney, ovary and uterus were measured. Hematology revealed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in mean values of hemoglobin and platelets while white blood cells and lymphocytes showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in exposed groups. No significant (p > 0.05) difference was registered in monocytes, red blood cells, hematocrits, and plaquetocrits values with respect to the control. No matter the organ considered, no significant (p > 0.05) change was recorded in weight and volume. Nephrotoxicity analysis registered a significant (p < 0.05) increase in urea and creatinine, unlike renal tissue protein, which decreased significantly (p < 0.05). However, hepatotoxicity registered no significant (p > 0.05) variation in aspartate aminotransferase but total protein, alanine aminotransferase, and total cholesterol increased significantly (p < 0.05), while hepatic tissue protein revealed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease. Analysis on reproductive parameters showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in ovarian and uterine tissue proteins, as well as in follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and estradiol. Oxidative stress markers recorded no significant (p > 0.05) difference in glutathione reductase except in ovary where a significant (p < 0.05) decrease was seen when compared with the control, while catalase revealed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease, except in liver where there was no significant (p > 0.05) change. Superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde recorded a significant (p < 0.05) decrease and increase respectively, with respect to the control. Results obtained from this study showed that the reduction process of chromium in tissues may cause the generation of reactive oxygen species, which are involved in hematoxic, nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, and reproductive toxicity effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Caenorhabditis elegans Infrared-Based Motility Assay Identified New Hits for Nematicide Drug Development
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010029
Received: 6 February 2019 / Revised: 5 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 17 March 2019
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Abstract
Nematode parasites have a profound impact on humankind, infecting nearly one-quarter of the world’s population, as well as livestock. There is a pressing need for discovering nematicides due to the spread of resistance to currently used drugs. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is [...] Read more.
Nematode parasites have a profound impact on humankind, infecting nearly one-quarter of the world’s population, as well as livestock. There is a pressing need for discovering nematicides due to the spread of resistance to currently used drugs. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a formidable experimentally tractable model organism that offers key advantages in accelerating nematicide discovery. We report the screening of drug-like libraries using an overnight high-throughput C. elegans assay, based on an automated infrared motility reader. As a proof of concept, we screened the “Pathogen Box” library, and identical results to a previous screen using Haemonchus contortus were obtained. We then screened an in-house library containing a diversity of compound families. Most active compounds had a conjugation of an unsaturation with an electronegative atom (N, O, or S) and an aromatic ring. Importantly, we identified symmetric arylidene ketones and aryl hydrazine derivatives as novel nematicides. Furthermore, one of these compounds, (1E,2E)-1,2-bis(thiophen-3-ylmethylene)hydrazine, was active as a nematicide at 25 µm, but innocuous to the vertebrate model zebrafish at 50 µm. Our results identified novel nematicidal scaffolds and illustrate the value of C. elegans in accelerating nematicide discovery using a nonlabor-intensive automated assay that provides a simple overnight readout. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Exposure of People to Questing Ticks Carrying Agents of Zoonoses in Aosta Valley, Italy
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010028
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 17 March 2019
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Abstract
We estimated the probability of exposure of people to questing ticks, infected with bacterial agents of the tick—borne zoonoses—in Aosta Valley, western Alps, Italy. We collected ticks by dragging, and from collectors’ clothes in three hiking trails, which were divided into an internal [...] Read more.
We estimated the probability of exposure of people to questing ticks, infected with bacterial agents of the tick—borne zoonoses—in Aosta Valley, western Alps, Italy. We collected ticks by dragging, and from collectors’ clothes in three hiking trails, which were divided into an internal path, with short vegetation, and an external part with taller grass. Dragging yielded 285 Ixodes ricinus nymphs and 31 adults, and two Dermacentor marginatus adults. Eleven I. ricinus nymphs and 9 adults were collected from collectors’ clothes. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. was identified by PCR in 12 out of 30 I. ricinus nymphs (prevalence = 40.0%, 95% confidence interval = 22.5, 57.5). The prevalence of infection by Rickettsia spp. was 13.3% (95% CI = 1.2, 25.5). The probability of encountering at least one questing I. ricinus infected by each bacterial agent (probability of exposure, E) in 100 m2 was obtained by combining the number of collected nymphs, the prevalence of infection by each bacterial agent, the frequency of passage by visitors, and the probability of tick attachment to people. The mean number of nymphs collected by dragging was greatest in the internal part of hiking trails (mean = 7.9). Conversely, E was greater in the external part (up to 0.14 for B. burgdorferi s.l., and 0.07 for Rickettsia spp.), due to a greater probability of tick attachment to people in relatively tall vegetation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Italian Society of the Veterinary Sciences SISVet 2018)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Urinalysis and Urinary GGT-to-Urinary Creatinine Ratio in Dogs with Acute Pancreatitis
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010027
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
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Abstract
In acute pancreatitis (AP), kidney injury (KI) can occur. Urinalysis and some urinary biomarkers have been proposed as prognostic tools in human AP. The aim of the study was to evaluate urinalysis and urinary GGT-to-urinary creatinine (uGGT/uCr) in canine AP and their association [...] Read more.
In acute pancreatitis (AP), kidney injury (KI) can occur. Urinalysis and some urinary biomarkers have been proposed as prognostic tools in human AP. The aim of the study was to evaluate urinalysis and urinary GGT-to-urinary creatinine (uGGT/uCr) in canine AP and their association with possible outcomes. AP diagnosis was based on clinical and laboratory parameters, abnormal SNAP® cPL™ test and compatible imaging. Urinary KI (uKI) was defined if dogs had urinary casts and/or proteinuria. Dogs (n = 70) were divided in survivors and non-survivors according to the 15-day outcome. Data were analyzed using statistical software. Seventy dogs were retrospectively included, of which 24 dogs (34%) died. uKI was detected in 36 dogs (37%) which was associated with mortality (p = 0.01, Odds ratio (OR) 3.9, 95% CI 1.3–11.56). Non-survivors showed higher dipstick bilirubin levels than survivors (p = 0.0022). By excluding active sediments, urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC) ≥2 was associated with mortality (p = 0.001, OR 47.5, 95% CI 4–571.9). The uGGT/uCr was available in 40 dogs, although no association of this factor with any outcome was found. The UPC ≥2 can be a negative prognostic factor in canine AP and further studies on uGGT/uCr are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Italian Society of the Veterinary Sciences SISVet 2018)
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Open AccessReview
Cellular Innate Immunity against PRRSV and Swine Influenza Viruses
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010026
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 21 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
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Abstract
Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is a polymicrobial syndrome that results from a combination of infectious agents, such as environmental stressors, population size, management strategies, age, and genetics. PRDC results in reduced performance as well as increased mortality rates and production costs in [...] Read more.
Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is a polymicrobial syndrome that results from a combination of infectious agents, such as environmental stressors, population size, management strategies, age, and genetics. PRDC results in reduced performance as well as increased mortality rates and production costs in the pig industry worldwide. This review focuses on the interactions of two enveloped RNA viruses—porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and swine influenza virus (SwIV)—as major etiological agents that contribute to PRDC within the porcine cellular innate immunity during infection. The innate immune system of the porcine lung includes alveolar and parenchymal/interstitial macrophages, neutrophils (PMN), conventional dendritic cells (DC) and plasmacytoid DC, natural killer cells, and γδ T cells, thus the in vitro and in vivo interactions between those cells and PRRSV and SwIV are reviewed. Likewise, the few studies regarding PRRSV-SwIV co-infection are illustrated together with the different modulation mechanisms that are induced by the two viruses. Alterations in responses by natural killer (NK), PMN, or γδ T cells have not received much attention within the scientific community as their counterpart antigen-presenting cells and there are numerous gaps in the knowledge regarding the role of those cells in both infections. This review will help in paving the way for future directions in PRRSV and SwIV research and enhancing the understanding of the innate mechanisms that are involved during infection with these viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex)
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Open AccessArticle
Flaxseed and Carbohydrase Enzyme Supplementation Alters Hepatic n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Molecular Species and Expression of Genes Associated with Lipid Metabolism in Broiler Chickens
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010025
Received: 17 January 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 8 March 2019
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Abstract
Flaxseed is rich in α-linolenic acid and is used in broiler chicken diets to enrich tissues with n-3 fatty acids (FA). However, non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in flaxseed decreases nutrient digestibility and limits the availability of n-3 FA. Addition of carbohydrase enzymes to flaxseed-based [...] Read more.
Flaxseed is rich in α-linolenic acid and is used in broiler chicken diets to enrich tissues with n-3 fatty acids (FA). However, non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in flaxseed decreases nutrient digestibility and limits the availability of n-3 FA. Addition of carbohydrase enzymes to flaxseed-based diets can decrease the anti-nutritive effects of NSP. We hypothesized that flaxseed and enzyme supplementation affect lipid content and alter expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in broiler liver. Five day-old broiler chicks were fed a corn-soybean basal diet with 0% flaxseed, a basal diet with 10% of flaxseed, or 10% flaxseed + 0.05% enzyme diet up to day 42 of growth. Total lipids, including long-chain (≥20C) n-3 FA and monounsaturated FA, were increased in flax-fed broiler livers. Enzyme addition reduced arachidonic acid and total long chain n-6 FA. These changes were similarly reflected in phosphatidylcholine lipid species. Dietary flax and enzyme treatments up-regulated PPARα target genes CPT1A and ACOX1 while reducing expression of de novo FA synthesis-related genes. This study concludes that flaxseed and enzyme supplementation in broiler diets enhances LC n-3 FA species, while reducing n-6 FA species in hepatic phospholipids (PL). Flaxseed-based diets changes the expression of genes involved in FA lipid metabolism without affecting growth or production performance in broilers. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Endoparasites of Domesticated Animals That Originated in the Neo-Tropics (New World Tropics)
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010024
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
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Abstract
This review serves to summarize parasites found in Domesticated animals which were found in the Neo-Tropics. Indigenous domesticated Neo-tropical animals include South American camelids, (Lama gunacoa, Lama glama, Lama pacos, Vicuna vicuna), guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), [...] Read more.
This review serves to summarize parasites found in Domesticated animals which were found in the Neo-Tropics. Indigenous domesticated Neo-tropical animals include South American camelids, (Lama gunacoa, Lama glama, Lama pacos, Vicuna vicuna), guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera), turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and ducks (Cairina moschata, Anas platyrhynchos, Dendrocyga autumnalis). These animals were chosen due to their origin of existence (Neo-tropics) and over time these animals became domesticated and were distributed throughout the world. Over eighty (80) references were collected for this review and the papers spanned over eighty (80) years from 1934 to 2018. The gastrointestinal parasites reported for each animal were tabulated and their effects in the animal noted. Parasites reported in domesticated Neo-tropical animals had little to no effect on wild and free ranging animals with a few cases of illness and decreased productivity. The majority of articles viewed these animals as reservoir host which can infect humans and other domesticated livestock. It must also be noted that research done in the past did not focus on the effect these parasites had on these animals but only observed their potential as reservoirs for parasitic diseases. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Intracoronary Gene Delivery of the Cytoprotective Factor Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-B167 in Canine Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy: A Short-Term Feasibility Study
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010023
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 17 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
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Abstract
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a myocardial disease of dogs and humans characterized by progressive ventricular dilation and depressed contractility and it is a frequent cause of heart failure. Conventional pharmacological therapy cannot reverse the progression of the disease and, in humans, cardiac transplantation [...] Read more.
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a myocardial disease of dogs and humans characterized by progressive ventricular dilation and depressed contractility and it is a frequent cause of heart failure. Conventional pharmacological therapy cannot reverse the progression of the disease and, in humans, cardiac transplantation remains the only option during the final stages of heart failure. Cytoprotective gene therapy with vascular endothelial growth factor-B167 (VEGF-B167) has proved an effective alternative therapy, halting the progression of the disease in experimental studies on dogs. The aim of this work was to test the tolerability and feasibility of intracoronary administration, under fluoroscopic guidance, of VEGF-B167 carried by adeno-associated viral vectors in canine DCM patients. Ten patients underwent the gene delivery procedure. The intraoperative phase was well tolerated by all dogs. Clinical and echocardiographic assessments at 7- and 30-days post-procedure showed stable conditions compared to the pre-procedure phase. The results of this work indicate that intracoronary VEGF-B167 gene delivery is feasible and tolerated in dogs with DCM. Further monitoring/investigations are ongoing to evaluate the effects of this therapy on disease progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Italian Society of the Veterinary Sciences SISVet 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Collagen Fibers (I, III, IV) and Elastin of Normal and Neoplastic Canine Prostatic Tissues
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010022
Received: 7 January 2019 / Revised: 20 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 2 March 2019
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Abstract
This study aimed to investigate collagen (Coll-I, III, IV) and elastin in canine normal prostate and prostate cancer (PC) using Picrosirius red (PSR) and Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. Eight normal prostates and 10 PC from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples were used. Collagen fibers area was [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate collagen (Coll-I, III, IV) and elastin in canine normal prostate and prostate cancer (PC) using Picrosirius red (PSR) and Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. Eight normal prostates and 10 PC from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples were used. Collagen fibers area was analyzed with ImageJ software. The distribution of Coll-I and Coll-III was approximately 80% around prostatic ducts and acini, 15% among smooth muscle, and 5% surrounding blood vessels, in both normal prostate and PC. There was a higher median area of Coll-III in PC when compared to normal prostatic tissue (p = 0.001 for PSR and p = 0.05 for IHC). Immunostaining for Coll-IV was observed in the basal membrane of prostate acini, smooth muscle, blood vessels, and nerve fibers of normal and PC samples. Although there was no difference in Coll-IV area between normal tissue and PC, tumors with Gleason score 10 showed absence of Coll-IV, when compared to scores 6 and 8 (p = 0.0095). Elastic fibers were found in the septa dividing the lobules and around the prostatic acini of normal samples and were statistically higher in PC compared to normal tissue (p = 0.00229). Investigation of ECM components brings new information and should be correlated with prognosis in future studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Anatomy and Pathology of the Texel Sheep Larynx
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010021
Received: 23 January 2019 / Revised: 17 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 27 February 2019
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Abstract
Laryngeal chondritis, or “Texel throat”, is a disease affecting the upper respiratory tract of sheep with breeds like the Texel appearing to be predisposed. Previous work suggests the conformation of these breeds of sheep may be predisposing these animals to laryngeal disease. This [...] Read more.
Laryngeal chondritis, or “Texel throat”, is a disease affecting the upper respiratory tract of sheep with breeds like the Texel appearing to be predisposed. Previous work suggests the conformation of these breeds of sheep may be predisposing these animals to laryngeal disease. This study evaluated the anatomy of the Texel sheep larynx and describes incidental pathology. Forty-three larynges from rams of the Texel and Bluefaced Leicester breeds of sheep were measured and photographed. A larynx from each breed was submitted for computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Measurements, photography, CT, and MRI demonstrated a difference in the anatomy of the larynx between breeds and a higher proportion of Texel sheep had laryngeal lesions. This study supports the hypothesis that the anatomy of the Texel sheep could be pre-disposing the breed to laryngeal chondritis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anatomy, Histology and Pathology)
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Open AccessArticle
Salmonella Surveillance Systems in Swine and Humans in Spain: A Review
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010020
Received: 10 January 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 16 February 2019 / Published: 20 February 2019
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Abstract
Non-typhoid salmonellosis is a common and problematic foodborne zoonotic disease in which pork and pork products can be an important potential source of infection. To prevent this disease, important efforts to monitor the situation in the main source, livestock, are conducted in most [...] Read more.
Non-typhoid salmonellosis is a common and problematic foodborne zoonotic disease in which pork and pork products can be an important potential source of infection. To prevent this disease, important efforts to monitor the situation in the main source, livestock, are conducted in most developed countries. In the European Union, European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) and European Center for Disease Control (ECDC) compile information at the member-state level, even though important differences in production systems and surveillance systems exist. Here, Salmonella surveillance systems in one of the main sources of foodborne salmonellosis, swine, and humans in Spain were reviewed to identify potential gaps and discuss potential ways of integration under a “One-Health” approach. Despite the extensive information generated through the surveillance activities, source attribution can be only routinely performed through ad-hoc outbreak investigations, and national reports on human outbreaks do not provide sufficiently detailed information to gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of the pathogen. Human and animal monitoring of Salmonella would benefit from a better exchange of information and collaboration. Analysis of spatio-temporal trends in livestock and humans could help to identify likely sources of infection and to target surveillance efforts in areas with higher prevalence or where specific strains are found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic and Emerging Diseases at Human-Animal Interface)
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Open AccessArticle
Attitudes toward Animals and Their Welfare among Italian Veterinary Students
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010019
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 20 February 2019
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Abstract
As members of the public and the veterinary profession are increasingly concerned about animal welfare, there has been an increased scholarly interest in the attitudes of veterinarians and students toward animals, as these may impact human behavior, which ultimately impacts animal welfare. Here [...] Read more.
As members of the public and the veterinary profession are increasingly concerned about animal welfare, there has been an increased scholarly interest in the attitudes of veterinarians and students toward animals, as these may impact human behavior, which ultimately impacts animal welfare. Here we investigated Italian veterinary students’ demographic data and perceptions about nonhuman animal welfare issues that might be predictive of their attitudes. A survey eliciting information about demographics, knowledge, experience, and perceptions regarding different categories of animals, and including the Animal Attitude Scale (AAS), was administered to undergraduate veterinary medicine students in three Italian universities. Data were analyzed using nonparametric tests, and a value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. In total, 876 students completed the questionnaire, with females (75.1%) making up a majority of students in all years of the course. Although veterinary students showed pro-animal welfare attitudes (mean score = 64.20 ± 0.24 out of 100), the findings suggested that year of study, gender, and geographical location had a significant impact (p < 0.05). In this study, we found a set of factors that, either individually or combined, help predict a student’s attitude toward animal welfare issues, which will be useful in improving the curriculum strategy in veterinary education in Italy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Italian Society of the Veterinary Sciences SISVet 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
41 Cases of Treatment of Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture with Porous TTA: Three Years of Follow Up
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010018
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 20 February 2019
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Abstract
Tibial Tuberosity Advancement (TTA) is a surgical technique based on a linear osteotomy that determines a cranial advancement of the tibial tuberosity in patients suffering from cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCL). The aim is to neutralize the cranial tibial thrust (CTT) and to [...] Read more.
Tibial Tuberosity Advancement (TTA) is a surgical technique based on a linear osteotomy that determines a cranial advancement of the tibial tuberosity in patients suffering from cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCL). The aim is to neutralize the cranial tibial thrust (CTT) and to reach a 90° angle between the patellar tendon and the tibial plateau with a physiological knee extension of 135°. In our study, a Ti6AI4V ELI (Titanium Aluminium Vanadium) titanium scaffold for the Porous TTA, with excellent properties of osteointegration and osteoconduction when subjected to cyclic loading has been adopted. Based on the previous scientific work on an ovine model, the use of this type of porous scaffolds has subverted the previous models. Scaffold production technology is based on direct mechanical manufacturing called Electron Beam Melting (EBM). For this study, 41 dogs, different breeds, medium-large size, weighing between 10 and 80 kg, aged between 1 and 13 years, were enrolled. The inclusion criteria were based on clinical evaluations (different gaits), drawer test and tibial compression, LOAD score (Liverpool Osteoarthritis in Dogs questionnaire), radiographic diagnosis in sedation with a 135° positioning of the joint and baropodometric investigations (Stance Analyzer). The results show that Porous TTA is an excellent method for functional recovery of the knee joint following the partial and total rupture of the CCL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Italian Society of the Veterinary Sciences SISVet 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Pulse Pressure Variation Can Predict the Hemodynamic Response to Pneumoperitoneum in Dogs: A Retrospective Study
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010017
Received: 6 December 2018 / Revised: 7 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 20 February 2019
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Abstract
Pneumoperitoneum may induce important hemodynamic alterations in healthy subjects. Pulse pressure variation (PPV) is a hemodynamic parameter able to discriminate preload dependent subjects. Anesthesia records of dogs undergoing laparoscopy were retrospectively evaluated. The anesthetic protocol included acepromazine, methadone, propofol and isoflurane administered with [...] Read more.
Pneumoperitoneum may induce important hemodynamic alterations in healthy subjects. Pulse pressure variation (PPV) is a hemodynamic parameter able to discriminate preload dependent subjects. Anesthesia records of dogs undergoing laparoscopy were retrospectively evaluated. The anesthetic protocol included acepromazine, methadone, propofol and isoflurane administered with oxygen under mechanical ventilation. The hemodynamic parameters were considered five minutes before (BASE) and ten minutes after (P10) the pneumoperitoneum. Based on the cardiac index (CI) variation, at P10, dogs were classified as sensitive (S group, CI ≤ 15%) and non-sensitive (NO-S group). Data were analyzed with the ANOVA test and the ROC curve (p < 0.05). Fifty-five percent of dogs (S) had a reduction of CI ≥ 15% at P10 (2.97 ± 1.4 L/min/m2) compared to BASE (4.32 ± 1.62 L/min/m2) and at P10 in the NO-S group (4.51 ± 1.41 L/min/m2). PPV at BASE was significantly higher in the S group (22.4% ± 6.1%) compared to the NO-S group (10.9% ± 3.3%). The ROC curve showed a threshold of PPV > 16% to distinguish the S and NO-S groups. PPV may be a valid predictor of the hemodynamic response to pneumoperitoneum in dogs. A PPV > 16% can identify patients that may require fluid administration before the creation of pneumoperitoneum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Italian Society of the Veterinary Sciences SISVet 2018)
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Open AccessArticle
Tumor–Microenvironment Interaction: Analysis of Mast Cell Populations in Normal Tissue and Proliferative Disorders of the Canine Prostate
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010016
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
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Abstract
Mast cells (MCs) are involved in angiogenesis, tissue remodeling and immunomodulation in several human and animal tumors, although their exact role is still controversial. Since no information is available in canine prostate carcinoma (PC) and normal prostate tissues, the aims of this study [...] Read more.
Mast cells (MCs) are involved in angiogenesis, tissue remodeling and immunomodulation in several human and animal tumors, although their exact role is still controversial. Since no information is available in canine prostate carcinoma (PC) and normal prostate tissues, the aims of this study were to evaluate the possible correlations between MC distribution, molecular expression and microvessel density (MVD) in normal prostatic tissue and proliferative disorders of the canine prostate. All samples (6 normal, 15 benign prostate hyperplasia-BPH, 8 PC) were stained with Toluidine Blue and immunohistochemically evaluated for tryptase, c-Kit (CD117) and CD31. Mast cell density (MCD) and MVD were quantified by the hot-spot method. MCD was significantly increased in periglandular/peritumoral areas, when compared with intraglandular/intratumoral areas, in all groups (p = 0.03). C-Kit expression was strongly associated with PC (ρ = 0.75 p = 0.03), whereas positive correlation between tryptase and c-Kit expression (ρ = 0.64 p = 0.01) was observed in periglandular areas of BPH. MVD showed a correlation with MCD in BPH (ρ = 0.54 p = 0.04). Our data support the importance of c-Kit in regulating MC proliferation. The predominant location of MCs in peritumoral areas of canine PC was similar to the human counterpart, in which PC cells are supposed to produce substances attracting MCs to the tumor microenvironment. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Review of Immunotherapeutic Strategies in Canine Malignant Melanoma
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010015
Received: 4 January 2019 / Revised: 6 February 2019 / Accepted: 8 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
In dogs, melanomas are relatively common tumors and the most common form of oral malignancy. Biological behavior is highly variable, usually aggressive, and frequently metastatic, with reported survival times of three months for oral or mucosal melanomas in advanced disease stages. Classical clinical [...] Read more.
In dogs, melanomas are relatively common tumors and the most common form of oral malignancy. Biological behavior is highly variable, usually aggressive, and frequently metastatic, with reported survival times of three months for oral or mucosal melanomas in advanced disease stages. Classical clinical management remains challenging; thus, novel and more efficacious treatment strategies are needed. Evidence-based medicine supports the role of the immune system to treat neoplastic diseases. Besides, immunotherapy offers the possibility of a precise medicinal approach to treat cancer. In recent years, multiple immunotherapeutic strategies have been developed, and are now recognized as a pillar of treatment. In addition, dogs represent a good model for translational medicine purposes. This review will cover the most relevant immunotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of canine malignant melanoma, divided among five different categories, namely, monoclonal antibodies, nonspecific immunotherapy activated by bacteria, vaccines, gene therapy, and lymphokine-activated killer cell therapy. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Molecular Detection of Bovine Papillomavirus DNA in the Placenta and Blood of Healthy Mares and Respective Foals
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010014
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 24 January 2019 / Accepted: 3 February 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
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Abstract
Despite the characteristic species specificity of Papillomaviruses (PVs), the bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types 1, 2, and—more rarely—13, can cross-infect equids, where they are involved in the pathogenesis of sarcoid neoplasms. Sarcoids are locally invasive fibroblastic skin tumors that represent the most common skin [...] Read more.
Despite the characteristic species specificity of Papillomaviruses (PVs), the bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types 1, 2, and—more rarely—13, can cross-infect equids, where they are involved in the pathogenesis of sarcoid neoplasms. Sarcoids are locally invasive fibroblastic skin tumors that represent the most common skin neoplasms in horses worldwide. The transmission mechanism of BPV is still controversial in horses. Thus far, direct and indirect routes have been implicated, while vertical transmission has been suggested after the detection of viral DNA in the semen of healthy stallions. Testing of the blood and placenta of non-sarcoid baring mares and their respective foals revealed that the equine placenta can harbor BPV DNA, leading us to speculate a possible prenatal vertical DNA transmission in equids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Italian Society of the Veterinary Sciences SISVet 2018)
Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Exposure of Turkey Farmers to Antimicrobial Resistance Associated with Working Practices
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010013
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 24 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
The objective of the present study was the identification of farming practices in the production of turkeys for human consumption, and their ranking in terms of the occupational probability of exposure to antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria, for farm workers. We gathered evidence and [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was the identification of farming practices in the production of turkeys for human consumption, and their ranking in terms of the occupational probability of exposure to antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria, for farm workers. We gathered evidence and data from scientific literature, on risk factors for AMR in farmers, and on the prevalence of those hazards across farming phases. We administered semi-structured interviews to public and private veterinarians in Northern Italy, to obtain detailed information on turkey farming phases, and on working practices. Data were then integrated into a semi-quantitative Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA). Those working practices, which are characterized by direct contact with numerous animals, and which are carried out frequently, with rare use of personal protection devices resulted as associated with the greatest probability of exposure to AMR. For methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), these included vaccination and administration of any individual therapy, and removal and milling of litter, given the exposure of farmers to high dust level. Indeed, levels of occupational exposure to MRSA are enhanced by its transmission routes, which include direct contact with animal, as well as airborne transmission. Level of exposure to extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) is more strictly associated with direct contact and the oral-fecal route. Consequently, exposure to ESBL resulted and associated with the routinely tipping over of poults turned on their back, and with the individual administration of therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Italian Society of the Veterinary Sciences SISVet 2018)
Open AccessErratum
Household Behavior with Respect to Meat Consumption: Differences between Households with and without Children. Vet. Sci. 2017, 4, 53
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010012
Received: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
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Abstract
Due to an error during production, the order of the first and last names of the authors are incorrect in the published paper [...] Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Prevention and Control of Diseases at the Interface of Livestock, Wildlife and Humans
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010011
Received: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 22 January 2019
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Abstract
Relatively few scientists are investigating health at the wildlife–livestock interface [...] Full article
Open AccessReview
Anomalies of the Portal Venous System in Dogs and Cats as Seen on Multidetector-Row Computed Tomography: An Overview and Systematization Proposal
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010010
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 13 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
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Abstract
This article offers an overview of congenital and acquired vascular anomalies involving the portal venous system in dogs and cats, as determined by multidetector-row computed tomography angiography. Congenital absence of the portal vein, portal vein hypoplasia, portal vein thrombosis and portal collaterals are [...] Read more.
This article offers an overview of congenital and acquired vascular anomalies involving the portal venous system in dogs and cats, as determined by multidetector-row computed tomography angiography. Congenital absence of the portal vein, portal vein hypoplasia, portal vein thrombosis and portal collaterals are described. Portal collaterals are further discussed as high- and low-flow connections and categorized in hepatic arterioportal malformation, arteriovenous fistula, end-to-side and side-to-side congenital portosystemic shunts, acquired portosystemic shunts, cavoportal and porto-portal collaterals. Knowledge of different portal system anomalies helps understand the underlying physiopathological mechanism and is essential for surgical and interventional approaches. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Challenges for Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) Vaccine Design: Reviewing Virus Glycoprotein Interactions with CD163 and Targets of Virus Neutralization
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010009
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
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Abstract
One of the main participants associated with the onset and maintenance of the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) syndrome is porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an RNA virus that has plagued the swine industry for 30 years. The development of effective [...] Read more.
One of the main participants associated with the onset and maintenance of the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) syndrome is porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an RNA virus that has plagued the swine industry for 30 years. The development of effective PRRS vaccines, which deviate from live virus designs, would be an important step towards the control of PRRS. Potential vaccine antigens are found in the five surface proteins of the virus, which form covalent and multiple noncovalent interactions and possess hypervariable epitopes. Consequences of this complex surface structure include antigenic variability and escape from immunity, thus presenting challenges in the development of new vaccines capable of generating broadly sterilizing immunity. One potential vaccine target is the induction of antibody that disrupts the interaction between the macrophage CD163 receptor and the GP2, GP3, and GP4 heterotrimer that protrudes from the surface of the virion. Studies to understand this interaction by mapping mutations that appear following the escape of virus from neutralizing antibody identify the ectodomain regions of GP5 and M as important immune sites. As a target for antibody, GP5 possesses a conserved epitope flanked by N-glycosylation sites and hypervariable regions, a pattern of conserved epitopes shared by other viruses. Resolving this apparent conundrum is needed to advance PRRS vaccine development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of PAG2 mRNA Expression in Water Buffalo Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes from Maternal Blood at the Peri-Implantation Period
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010008
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
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Abstract
The main objective of this study was to assess PAG2 mRNA expression in maternal blood cells at the peri-implantation period in water buffalo; moreover, we wanted to evaluate the earliest time in which PAG-2 could be detected in maternal blood. Thirty-two lactating buffaloes [...] Read more.
The main objective of this study was to assess PAG2 mRNA expression in maternal blood cells at the peri-implantation period in water buffalo; moreover, we wanted to evaluate the earliest time in which PAG-2 could be detected in maternal blood. Thirty-two lactating buffaloes artificially inseminated (AI) were utilized. Blood was collected at Days 0, 14, 18, 28, 40 after AI (AI = day 0). Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasound at Days 28 and 40 post AI. Out of 32 buffaloes, 14 were pregnant (P group) and 18 were not pregnant (NP group). The plasma PAG-2 threshold of 1.0 ng/mL in the P group was reached at day 40 post AI. PAG2 mRNA expression differed between the P and NP groups, and was either evaluated in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) or Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes (PMN), starting from day 14. However, both the estimated marginal means and multiple comparisons showed that PAG2 mRNA expression was higher in PMN than PBMC. In the present study, PAG-2 appeared in the blood (40 Days post AI), and an early expression of PAG2 mRNA at Day 14 post AI was also observed. Although further research is undoubtedly required, PAG2 mRNA in peripheral blood leukocytes could be using to better understand the role that PAGs play during pregnancy in buffalo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Italian Society of the Veterinary Sciences SISVet 2018)
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Veterinary Sciences in 2018
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010007
Received: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 11 January 2019
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Abstract
Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Survey of Pain Knowledge and Analgesia in Dogs and Cats by Colombian Veterinarians
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010006
Received: 6 December 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 5 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
A questionnaire study was conducted among 131 veterinarians practicing in the city of Medellin, Colombia, to assess views on pain evaluation and management in dogs and cats. When pain recognition and quantification abilities were used as a perceived competence of proper pain assessment, [...] Read more.
A questionnaire study was conducted among 131 veterinarians practicing in the city of Medellin, Colombia, to assess views on pain evaluation and management in dogs and cats. When pain recognition and quantification abilities were used as a perceived competence of proper pain assessment, only 83/131 (63.4%, confidence interval (CI) 0.55–0.72) were deemed to have satisfactory skills, with the rest considered to be deficient. There were 49/131 (37.4) veterinarians who had participated in continuing education programs and were more confident assessing pain, with an odds ratio (±standard error) of 2.84 ± 1.15 (p = 0.01; CI 1.27–6.32). In addition, the odds of using pain scales was 4.28 ± 2.17 (p < 0.01, CI 1.58–11.55) greater if they had also participated in continuing education programs. The term multimodal analgesia was familiar to 77 (58.7%) veterinarians who also claimed to use more than one approach to pain control. Nevertheless, homeopathy was the preferred alternative approach in 71/77 (92%). There were major misconceptions on side effects and/or contraindications for use of opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by most veterinarians. In addition, the lack of multimodal analgesia by at least 40% of the practitioners, combined with heavy reliance on weak analgesics (i.e., tramadol) or those with no proven record of efficacy (homeopathic remedies), denotes major deficits in education at the undergraduate level and a need for additional continuing education designed to fulfill the gaps in knowledge identified in this study, and overcome ideological convictions not supported by scientific evidence. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Innate Immune Responses to Avian Influenza Viruses in Ducks and Chickens
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010005
Received: 2 November 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
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Abstract
Mallard ducks are important natural hosts of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses and many strains circulate in this reservoir and cause little harm. Some strains can be transmitted to other hosts, including chickens, and cause respiratory and systemic disease. Rarely, these highly [...] Read more.
Mallard ducks are important natural hosts of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses and many strains circulate in this reservoir and cause little harm. Some strains can be transmitted to other hosts, including chickens, and cause respiratory and systemic disease. Rarely, these highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses cause disease in mallards, while chickens are highly susceptible. The long co-evolution of mallard ducks with influenza viruses has undoubtedly fine-tuned many immunological host–pathogen interactions to confer resistance to disease, which are poorly understood. Here, we compare innate responses to different avian influenza viruses in ducks and chickens to reveal differences that point to potential mechanisms of disease resistance. Mallard ducks are permissive to LPAI replication in their intestinal tissues without overtly compromising their fitness. In contrast, the mallard response to HPAI infection reflects an immediate and robust induction of type I interferon and antiviral interferon stimulated genes, highlighting the importance of the RIG-I pathway. Ducks also appear to limit the duration of the response, particularly of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Chickens lack RIG-I, and some modulators of the signaling pathway and may be compromised in initiating an early interferon response, allowing more viral replication and consequent damage. We review current knowledge about innate response mediators to influenza infection in mallard ducks compared to chickens to gain insight into protective immune responses, and open questions for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Human and Animal Influenzas: A Shared Public Health Concern)
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