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Challenges for Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) Vaccine Design: Reviewing Virus Glycoprotein Interactions with CD163 and Targets of Virus Neutralization

Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
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Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010009
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex)
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Abstract

One of the main participants associated with the onset and maintenance of the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) syndrome is porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an RNA virus that has plagued the swine industry for 30 years. The development of effective PRRS vaccines, which deviate from live virus designs, would be an important step towards the control of PRRS. Potential vaccine antigens are found in the five surface proteins of the virus, which form covalent and multiple noncovalent interactions and possess hypervariable epitopes. Consequences of this complex surface structure include antigenic variability and escape from immunity, thus presenting challenges in the development of new vaccines capable of generating broadly sterilizing immunity. One potential vaccine target is the induction of antibody that disrupts the interaction between the macrophage CD163 receptor and the GP2, GP3, and GP4 heterotrimer that protrudes from the surface of the virion. Studies to understand this interaction by mapping mutations that appear following the escape of virus from neutralizing antibody identify the ectodomain regions of GP5 and M as important immune sites. As a target for antibody, GP5 possesses a conserved epitope flanked by N-glycosylation sites and hypervariable regions, a pattern of conserved epitopes shared by other viruses. Resolving this apparent conundrum is needed to advance PRRS vaccine development. View Full-Text
Keywords: porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus; PRRSV; CD163; GP4; GP5; neutralizing antibody porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus; PRRSV; CD163; GP4; GP5; neutralizing antibody
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Stoian, A.M.M.; Rowland, R.R.R. Challenges for Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) Vaccine Design: Reviewing Virus Glycoprotein Interactions with CD163 and Targets of Virus Neutralization. Vet. Sci. 2019, 6, 9.

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