Special Issue "Mycobacterial Diseases in Animals"

A special issue of Veterinary Sciences (ISSN 2306-7381).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Shigetoshi Eda

Professor, Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries
Adjunct Professor, Department of Microbiology
Associate Director, Center for Wildlife Health
Senior Personnel, NIMBioS, 274 Ellington Plant Science Building, 2431 Joe Johnson Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: infectious diseases, immunology, epidemiology, mathematical modeling, diagnosis, biosensor
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Graham J. Hickling

Institute of Agriculture, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: wildlife disease ecology, zoonotic disease

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mycobacterial diseases are a significant threat to humans and other animals. According to WHO statistics, tuberculosis (TB) is one of the top 10 causes of human deaths worldwide, with 10 million people falling ill with TB in 2017, and 1.6 million dying from the disease. Bovine tuberculosis, mainly caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a zoonotic risk and a significant economic threat to agricultural industries. Johne’s disease, a mycobacterial disease that mainly affects ruminants, is another economic threat to agriculture. Mycobacteria in wild species as diverse as seals and armadillos are of potential zoonotic concern.

Mycobacteria are sturdy organisms that can persist in the environment. Therefore, system-oriented solutions and One Health approaches are critically important for control and eventual eradication of mycobacterial diseases. In this Special Issue, we will collect scientific works from a broad range of research fields to better understand current challenges, opportunities and successes in the research field of “Mycobacterial Diseases in Animals”.

Suitable topics for contributions to the Special Issue include:

  • Microbiology and genetics of mycobacteria
  • Host immunity against mycobacterial infection
  • Host–pathogen interactions
  • Host susceptibility
  • Experimental methods
  • Epidemiology and mathematical modeling of mycobacterial disease
  • Zoonotic risk
  • Diagnosis, treatment and vaccination
  • Opportunities and alternatives for mycobacterial disease management and control

Contributions are not limited to the above list; we particularly encourage submissions with a focus on systems and/or One Health approaches in this field of study.

Prof. Dr. Shigetoshi Eda
Prof. Dr. Graham J. Hickling
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Veterinary Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Mycobacterium bovis
  • Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
  • microbiology
  • immunology
  • susceptibility
  • epidemiology
  • diagnosis
  • control and management
  • Johne's disease
  • bovine tuberculosis

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis ELISA Responses in Milk Samples from Vaccinated and Nonvaccinated Dairy Goat Herds in The Netherlands
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020058
Received: 27 April 2019 / Revised: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 22 June 2019
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Abstract
The aims of our study were to calculate the most appropriate cut-off value for milk samples in a serum-validated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) ELISA and to analyze MAP ELISA responses in milk samples from vaccinated and nonvaccinated dairy goats in the Netherlands. [...] Read more.
The aims of our study were to calculate the most appropriate cut-off value for milk samples in a serum-validated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) ELISA and to analyze MAP ELISA responses in milk samples from vaccinated and nonvaccinated dairy goats in the Netherlands. Analyzed herds were representative for location and herd size of dairy goat herds in the Netherlands. A significantly higher proportion of the analyzed 49 herds were organic as compared with the total Dutch dairy goat population. First, the MAP ELISA was optimized using 992 paired serum and milk samples. At a cut-off of 25 S/P%, the relative sensitivity (Se) was 58.4% (n = 992, 95% CI: 48.8%−67.6%) and relative specificity (Sp) was 98.5% (n = 992, 95% CI: 97.5%−99.2%), as compared to serum ELISA results. The percentage of positively tested herds was 78.2% (n = 49, 95% CI: 63.4%−88.1%). The percentage of positive milk samples per herd (n = 22) was on average 4.6% (median, min, and max of 4.7%, 0.0%, and 10.7%, respectively). Average age of ELISA-positive (3.2 years) and -negative goats (3.2 years) was not different. Significantly more vaccinated goats tested positive (6.7%) as compared with nonvaccinated goats (1.1%). This study shows that a high number of vaccinated and nonvaccinated commercial dairy goat herds in the Netherlands have MAP-ELISA-positive goats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycobacterial Diseases in Animals)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Novel Amphiphilic Cyclobutene and Cyclobutane cis-C18 Fatty Acid Derivatives Inhibit Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Growth
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020046
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) is the etiologic agent of Johne’s disease in ruminants and has been associated with Crohn’s disease in humans. An effective control of Map by either vaccines or chemoprophylaxis is a paramount need for veterinary and possibly human medicine. [...] Read more.
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) is the etiologic agent of Johne’s disease in ruminants and has been associated with Crohn’s disease in humans. An effective control of Map by either vaccines or chemoprophylaxis is a paramount need for veterinary and possibly human medicine. Given the importance of fatty acids in the biosynthesis of mycolic acids and the mycobacterial cell wall, we tested novel amphiphilic C10 and C18 cyclobutene and cyclobutane fatty acid derivatives for Map inhibition. Microdilution minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) with 5 or 7 week endpoints were measured in Middlebrook 7H9 base broth media. We compared the Map MIC results with those obtained previously with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Several of the C18 compounds showed moderate efficacy (MICs 392 to 824 µM) against Map, while a higher level of inhibition (MICs 6 to 82 µM) was observed for M. tuberculosis for select analogs from both the C10 and C18 groups. For most of these analogs tested in M. smegmatis, their efficacy decreased in the presence of bovine or human serum albumin. Compound 5 (OA-CB, 1-(octanoic acid-8-yl)-2-octylcyclobutene) was identified as the best chemical lead against Map, which suggests derivatives with better pharmacodynamics may be of interest for evaluation in animal models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycobacterial Diseases in Animals)
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Open AccessArticle
Elucidating Transmission Patterns of Endemic Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Using Molecular Epidemiology
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010032
Received: 22 February 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 14 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
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Abstract
Mycobacterial diseases are persistent and characterized by lengthy latent periods. Thus, epidemiological models require careful delineation of transmission routes. Understanding transmission routes will improve the quality and success of control programs. We aimed to study the infection dynamics of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis [...] Read more.
Mycobacterial diseases are persistent and characterized by lengthy latent periods. Thus, epidemiological models require careful delineation of transmission routes. Understanding transmission routes will improve the quality and success of control programs. We aimed to study the infection dynamics of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causal agent of ruminant Johne’s disease, and to distinguish within-host mutation from individual transmission events in a longitudinally MAP-defined dairy herd in upstate New York. To this end, semi-annual fecal samples were obtained from a single dairy herd over the course of seven years, in addition to tissue samples from a selection of culled animals. All samples were cultured for MAP, and multi-locus short-sequence repeat (MLSSR) typing was used to determine MAP SSR types. We concluded from these precise MAP infection data that, when the tissue burden remains low, the majority of MAP infections are not detectable by routine fecal culture but will be identified when tissue culture is performed after slaughter. Additionally, we determined that in this herd vertical infection played only a minor role in MAP transmission. By means of extensive and precise longitudinal data from a single dairy herd, we have come to new insights regarding MAP co-infections and within-host evolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycobacterial Diseases in Animals)
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