Next Article in Journal
Elucidating Transmission Patterns of Endemic Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Using Molecular Epidemiology
Next Article in Special Issue
Use of Minimally Invasive Surgery in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer in Dogs and Cats
Previous Article in Journal
Oxidative Effects of Potassium Dichromate on Biochemical, Hematological Characteristics, and Hormonal Levels in Rabbit Doe (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Characterization of Collagen Fibers (I, III, IV) and Elastin of Normal and Neoplastic Canine Prostatic Tissues
Article Menu
Issue 1 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Correlation of BRAF Variant V595E, Breed, Histological Grade and Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Canine Transitional Cell Carcinomas

Laboklin GmbH & Co. KG, 97688 Bad Kissingen, Germany
Institute of Veterinary Pathology, Freie Universität Berlin, 14163 Berlin, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 31;
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 11 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
PDF [5055 KB, uploaded 19 March 2019]


The presence of BRAF variant V595E, as well as an increased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in canine transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) are well-described in the literature. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between breed (terrier versus non-terrier dogs), histological grade, COX-2 expression, and BRAF mutation in canine TCC. Therefore, transmural TCC biopsies from 65 dogs (15 terriers, 50 non-terriers) were graded histologically into low- and high-grade. Immunohistochemical evaluation of the intensity of COX-2 expression was performed using an immunoreactive score (IRS). Exon 15 of chromosome 16 was examined for the BRAF variant c.1799T>A by TaqMan® SNP assay. TCC was low-grade in 20 cases (one terrier, 19 non-terriers) and high-grade in 45 cases (14 terriers, 31 non-terriers). Contrary to humans, histological grade was not significantly correlated to the intensity of COX-2 expression. BRAF mutation was detected in 11/15 (73%) TCC of terriers and in 18/50 (36%) TCC of non-terriers. Histological grade and BRAF mutation were not correlated significantly (p = 0.2912). Terriers had a considerably higher prevalence of high-grade tumors (p < 0.0001), as well as of BRAF mutation (p ≤ 0.05) compared to non-terriers. In non-terriers, neoplasms with BRAF mutation showed a significantly higher intensity of COX-2 expression than those without BRAF mutation (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, in contrast to humans, testing for BRAF mutation in canine TCC is a sensitive diagnostic method especially in terriers (73%) and may be recommended as a screening test. However, evidence of BRAF mutation in canine TCC is not a predictor for the histological grade. Moreover, a positive correlation between histological grade and the intensity of COX-2 expression was not found. Further studies are necessary to clarify the clinical and prognostic relevance of the elevated intensity of COX-2 expression of TCC with BRAF mutation detected in non-terriers. View Full-Text
Keywords: dog; terrier; urothelial carcinoma; histological grading; BRAF mutation; COX-2 dog; terrier; urothelial carcinoma; histological grading; BRAF mutation; COX-2

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Grassinger, J.M.; Merz, S.; Aupperle-Lellbach, H.; Erhard, H.; Klopfleisch, R. Correlation of BRAF Variant V595E, Breed, Histological Grade and Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Canine Transitional Cell Carcinomas. Vet. Sci. 2019, 6, 31.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Vet. Sci. EISSN 2306-7381 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top