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Flaxseed and Carbohydrase Enzyme Supplementation Alters Hepatic n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Molecular Species and Expression of Genes Associated with Lipid Metabolism in Broiler Chickens

1
Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, OR 97331, USA
2
Department of Animal and Rangeland Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010025
Received: 17 January 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 8 March 2019
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Abstract

Flaxseed is rich in α-linolenic acid and is used in broiler chicken diets to enrich tissues with n-3 fatty acids (FA). However, non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in flaxseed decreases nutrient digestibility and limits the availability of n-3 FA. Addition of carbohydrase enzymes to flaxseed-based diets can decrease the anti-nutritive effects of NSP. We hypothesized that flaxseed and enzyme supplementation affect lipid content and alter expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in broiler liver. Five day-old broiler chicks were fed a corn-soybean basal diet with 0% flaxseed, a basal diet with 10% of flaxseed, or 10% flaxseed + 0.05% enzyme diet up to day 42 of growth. Total lipids, including long-chain (≥20C) n-3 FA and monounsaturated FA, were increased in flax-fed broiler livers. Enzyme addition reduced arachidonic acid and total long chain n-6 FA. These changes were similarly reflected in phosphatidylcholine lipid species. Dietary flax and enzyme treatments up-regulated PPARα target genes CPT1A and ACOX1 while reducing expression of de novo FA synthesis-related genes. This study concludes that flaxseed and enzyme supplementation in broiler diets enhances LC n-3 FA species, while reducing n-6 FA species in hepatic phospholipids (PL). Flaxseed-based diets changes the expression of genes involved in FA lipid metabolism without affecting growth or production performance in broilers. View Full-Text
Keywords: broiler chicken; flaxseed; n-3 fatty acid; phospholipid species; gene expression broiler chicken; flaxseed; n-3 fatty acid; phospholipid species; gene expression
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Head, B.; Bionaz, M.; Cherian, G. Flaxseed and Carbohydrase Enzyme Supplementation Alters Hepatic n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Molecular Species and Expression of Genes Associated with Lipid Metabolism in Broiler Chickens. Vet. Sci. 2019, 6, 25.

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