Special Issue "The Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex"

A special issue of Veterinary Sciences (ISSN 2306-7381).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Simon Graham

1. The Pirbright Institute, Woking GU24 0NF, UK
2. School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7AL, UK
Website 1 | Website 2 | E-Mail
Interests: porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses; pestiviruses; Nipah virus; vaccines; T and B cells; correlates of immunity; antigen discovery
Guest Editor
Dr. Elma Tchilian

The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Woking, GU24 0NF, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Swine influenza, heterosubtypic immunity, tissue-resident memory cells, microbiota

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Pig production is one of the fastest growing livestock sectors. The drive to satisfy the increasing demand for affordable animal proteins has resulted in significant changes to the traditional agricultural practices. Intensification of pig production, urbanisation, and increasing ease of travel and transport, have led to an increase in formerly uncommon diseases and to the emergence of new diseases. In addition, under these modern production systems, respiratory diseases frequently manifest as a disease complex, commonly referred to as the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). The PRDC is responsible for major economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. The PRDC is multifactorial, involving environmental, nutrition, and management determinants and, often, mixed infections with different pathogens. For example, infection with viruses, such as the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome and swine influenza viruses, alone or in combination, may lead to pneumonia caused by opportunistic bacterial pathogens, such as Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma hyopneumonia, and Streptococcus suis. However, there is still much to be learnt about the interactions between these pathogens and their role in the co-pathogenesis of PRDC. In this Special Issue, we will explore our understanding of the PDRC and the contribution of individual pathogens. We will highlight the ongoing efforts to improve the control of these pathogens and thus reduce the severe economic losses associated with the PDRC.

Dr. Simon Graham
Dr. Elma Tchilian
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Diagnostics
  • Control
  • Vaccines

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Mortality Patterns in a Commercial Wean-To Finish Swine Production System
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020049
Received: 26 April 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 27 May 2019 / Published: 29 May 2019
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Abstract
Modern commercial pig production is a complex process that requires successful producers to understand and resolve factors associated with perturbations in production. One important perturbation is inventory loss due to mortality. In this study, data on 60 lots of approximately 2000 weaned pigs [...] Read more.
Modern commercial pig production is a complex process that requires successful producers to understand and resolve factors associated with perturbations in production. One important perturbation is inventory loss due to mortality. In this study, data on 60 lots of approximately 2000 weaned pigs (n = 115,213) from one commercial production system were collected through the wean-to-finish (WTF) cycle with the objective of establishing patterns of mortality, estimating differences in profit/loss among patterns of mortality, and identifying production practices associated with mortality patterns. Information provided by the production system included the number of pigs in each lot at the time of placement (beginning inventory), weaning weight, barn dimensions, number of dead pigs (NDP) daily, capacity placed (proportion pigs actually placed versus what had been planned to be placed) and average weight sold. Analysis of NDP revealed three mortality patterns (clusters I, II, III) composed of 6, 40, and 14 lots, respectively, that differed in the temporal onset and/or level of mortality. Average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated by growth phase for each cluster. An economic model showed profit differences among clusters due to poor biological performance by clusters I and III in the late finishing phase. Cluster II (n = 40) had fewer dead pigs and the highest profit compared to clusters I (n = 6) and III (n = 14). Area per pig (stocking density) was the only factor associated with the differences in mortality patterns. Routine monitoring and the analysis of mortality patterns for associations with production and management factors can help swine producers improve biological performance and improve profit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Cellular Innate Immunity against PRRSV and Swine Influenza Viruses
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010026
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 21 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
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Abstract
Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is a polymicrobial syndrome that results from a combination of infectious agents, such as environmental stressors, population size, management strategies, age, and genetics. PRDC results in reduced performance as well as increased mortality rates and production costs in [...] Read more.
Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is a polymicrobial syndrome that results from a combination of infectious agents, such as environmental stressors, population size, management strategies, age, and genetics. PRDC results in reduced performance as well as increased mortality rates and production costs in the pig industry worldwide. This review focuses on the interactions of two enveloped RNA viruses—porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and swine influenza virus (SwIV)—as major etiological agents that contribute to PRDC within the porcine cellular innate immunity during infection. The innate immune system of the porcine lung includes alveolar and parenchymal/interstitial macrophages, neutrophils (PMN), conventional dendritic cells (DC) and plasmacytoid DC, natural killer cells, and γδ T cells, thus the in vitro and in vivo interactions between those cells and PRRSV and SwIV are reviewed. Likewise, the few studies regarding PRRSV-SwIV co-infection are illustrated together with the different modulation mechanisms that are induced by the two viruses. Alterations in responses by natural killer (NK), PMN, or γδ T cells have not received much attention within the scientific community as their counterpart antigen-presenting cells and there are numerous gaps in the knowledge regarding the role of those cells in both infections. This review will help in paving the way for future directions in PRRSV and SwIV research and enhancing the understanding of the innate mechanisms that are involved during infection with these viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex)
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Open AccessReview
Challenges for Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) Vaccine Design: Reviewing Virus Glycoprotein Interactions with CD163 and Targets of Virus Neutralization
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6010009
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
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Abstract
One of the main participants associated with the onset and maintenance of the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) syndrome is porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an RNA virus that has plagued the swine industry for 30 years. The development of effective [...] Read more.
One of the main participants associated with the onset and maintenance of the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) syndrome is porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an RNA virus that has plagued the swine industry for 30 years. The development of effective PRRS vaccines, which deviate from live virus designs, would be an important step towards the control of PRRS. Potential vaccine antigens are found in the five surface proteins of the virus, which form covalent and multiple noncovalent interactions and possess hypervariable epitopes. Consequences of this complex surface structure include antigenic variability and escape from immunity, thus presenting challenges in the development of new vaccines capable of generating broadly sterilizing immunity. One potential vaccine target is the induction of antibody that disrupts the interaction between the macrophage CD163 receptor and the GP2, GP3, and GP4 heterotrimer that protrudes from the surface of the virion. Studies to understand this interaction by mapping mutations that appear following the escape of virus from neutralizing antibody identify the ectodomain regions of GP5 and M as important immune sites. As a target for antibody, GP5 possesses a conserved epitope flanked by N-glycosylation sites and hypervariable regions, a pattern of conserved epitopes shared by other viruses. Resolving this apparent conundrum is needed to advance PRRS vaccine development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex)
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