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Vet. Sci., Volume 6, Issue 2 (June 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Cytokines are produced by both cancer cells and the tumour microenvironment, and play an important [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis ELISA Responses in Milk Samples from Vaccinated and Nonvaccinated Dairy Goat Herds in The Netherlands
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020058
Received: 27 April 2019 / Revised: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 22 June 2019
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Abstract
The aims of our study were to calculate the most appropriate cut-off value for milk samples in a serum-validated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) ELISA and to analyze MAP ELISA responses in milk samples from vaccinated and nonvaccinated dairy goats in the Netherlands. [...] Read more.
The aims of our study were to calculate the most appropriate cut-off value for milk samples in a serum-validated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) ELISA and to analyze MAP ELISA responses in milk samples from vaccinated and nonvaccinated dairy goats in the Netherlands. Analyzed herds were representative for location and herd size of dairy goat herds in the Netherlands. A significantly higher proportion of the analyzed 49 herds were organic as compared with the total Dutch dairy goat population. First, the MAP ELISA was optimized using 992 paired serum and milk samples. At a cut-off of 25 S/P%, the relative sensitivity (Se) was 58.4% (n = 992, 95% CI: 48.8%−67.6%) and relative specificity (Sp) was 98.5% (n = 992, 95% CI: 97.5%−99.2%), as compared to serum ELISA results. The percentage of positively tested herds was 78.2% (n = 49, 95% CI: 63.4%−88.1%). The percentage of positive milk samples per herd (n = 22) was on average 4.6% (median, min, and max of 4.7%, 0.0%, and 10.7%, respectively). Average age of ELISA-positive (3.2 years) and -negative goats (3.2 years) was not different. Significantly more vaccinated goats tested positive (6.7%) as compared with nonvaccinated goats (1.1%). This study shows that a high number of vaccinated and nonvaccinated commercial dairy goat herds in the Netherlands have MAP-ELISA-positive goats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycobacterial Diseases in Animals)
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Open AccessCommunication
Mycotoxin Detection in Maize, Commercial Feed, and Raw Dairy Milk Samples from Assiut City, Egypt
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020057
Received: 25 May 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
This survey was conducted to investigate the contamination by multiple mycotoxins, aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), and zearalenone (ZEA) in 61 samples of maize and 17 commercial animal feed samples, and [...] Read more.
This survey was conducted to investigate the contamination by multiple mycotoxins, aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), and zearalenone (ZEA) in 61 samples of maize and 17 commercial animal feed samples, and of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in raw dairy milk samples (n = 20) collected from Assiut City in Upper Egypt. Multi-mycotoxin immunoaffinity columns were used for samples cleanup and mycotoxin purification. An HPLC–FLD system with an on-line post-column photochemical derivatization was used for the detection of the target toxins. AFB1 was detected in both maize (n = 15) and feed (n = 8), with only one maize sample presenting a concentration above the maximum permissible level set by the Egyptian authorities. AFB2 was observed in six maize samples and in one feed sample, with a maximum value of 0.5 μg/kg. ZEA was detected only in feed samples (n = 4), with a maximum value of 3.5 μg/kg, while OTA, AFG1, and AFG2 were under the limits of detection. For milk, all the analyzed samples (100%) were contaminated with AFM1, and 14 samples (70%) presented concentrations above the maximum permissible level in the European Union (EU) (0.05 μg/kg). The concentrations ranged from 0.02 μg/kg to 0.19 μg/kg, except that of one sample, which was under the limit of quantification. The contamination rates in maize and animal feeds are not alarming. In contrast, the consumption of dairy milk samples in Assiut City may pose public health hazards, as AFM1 levels were found to exceed the international permissible limits. Further surveys are highly recommended in order to establish a database for mycotoxin occurrence in Egypt to minimize the possible health risks in animals and humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Immunology)
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Open AccessCase Report
Characterisation of the First Bovine Parainfluenza Virus 3 Isolate Detected in Cattle in Turkey
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020056
Received: 1 May 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
A respiratory disease outbreak on a cattle farm in northern Turkey produced respiratory tract symptoms and severe pneumonia symptoms in 20 calves. Eight calves died, and a lung specimen from one carcass was analysed for bacteria and for viruses of the Bovine respiratory [...] Read more.
A respiratory disease outbreak on a cattle farm in northern Turkey produced respiratory tract symptoms and severe pneumonia symptoms in 20 calves. Eight calves died, and a lung specimen from one carcass was analysed for bacteria and for viruses of the Bovine respiratory diseases complex. Bacteriological analysis was negative, but antigen detection ELISA and RT-PCR results indicated the presence of Bovine parainfluenza virus (BPIV). Virus isolation succeeded on Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney cells, and subsequent whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified BPIV-3c. This is the first report of BPIV-3c isolation from cattle in Turkey, indicating the need for more virological and epidemiological studies. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Complete Remission of Associative Immune-Mediated Hemolytic Anemia in a Dog Following Surgical Resection of Intestinal Leiomyosarcoma
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020055
Received: 11 April 2019 / Revised: 8 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
A twelve-year-old male castrated Chihuahua with a severe, microcytic, hypochromic, and nonregenerative direct antiglobulin test positive anemia characterized by marked spherocytosis was referred to the veterinary hospital. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a peritoneal mass of unclear origin. Transfusion, followed by mass resection, rapidly resolved [...] Read more.
A twelve-year-old male castrated Chihuahua with a severe, microcytic, hypochromic, and nonregenerative direct antiglobulin test positive anemia characterized by marked spherocytosis was referred to the veterinary hospital. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a peritoneal mass of unclear origin. Transfusion, followed by mass resection, rapidly resolved the anemia without further immunosuppressive treatment. Histopathology confirmed extraluminal jejunal leiomyosarcoma. Multiple mechanisms, including immune-mediated destruction, likely contributed to the anemia. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report that describes the resolution of immune-mediated hemolysis in a dog after the removal of an intestinal neoplasm. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nutrigenomic Effect of Saturated and Unsaturated Long Chain Fatty Acids on Lipid-Related Genes in Goat Mammary Epithelial Cells: What Is the Role of PPARγ?
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020054
Received: 17 April 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 11 June 2019
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Abstract
A prior study in bovine mammary (MACT) cells indicated that long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) C16:0 and C18:0, but not unsaturated LCFA, control transcription of milk fat-related genes partly via the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). However, in that study, the activation [...] Read more.
A prior study in bovine mammary (MACT) cells indicated that long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) C16:0 and C18:0, but not unsaturated LCFA, control transcription of milk fat-related genes partly via the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). However, in that study, the activation of PPARγ by LCFA was not demonstrated but only inferred. Prior data support a lower response of PPARγ to agonists in goat mammary cells compared to bovine mammary cells. The present study aimed to examine the hypothesis that LCFA alter the mRNA abundance of lipogenic genes in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC) at least in part via PPARγ. Triplicate cultures of GMEC were treated with a PPARγ agonist (rosiglitazone), a PPARγ inhibitor (GW9662), several LCFA (C16:0, C18:0, t10,c12-CLA, DHA, and EPA), or a combination of GW9662 with each LCFA. Transcription of 28 genes involved in milk fat synthesis was measured using RT-qPCR. The data indicated that a few measured genes were targets of PPARγ in GMEC (SCD1, FASN, and NR1H3) while more genes required a basal activation of PPARγ to be transcribed (e.g., LPIN1, FABP3, LPL, and PPARG). Among the tested LCFA, C16:0 had the strongest effect on upregulating transcription of measured genes followed by C18:0; however, for the latter most of the effect was via the activation of PPARγ. Unsaturated LCFA downregulated transcription of measured genes, with a lesser effect by t10,c12-CLA and a stronger effect by DHA and EPA; however, a basal activation of PPARγ was essential for the effect of t10,c12-CLA while the activation of PPARγ blocked the effect of DHA. The transcriptomic effect of EPA was independent from the activation of PPARγ. Data from the present study suggest that saturated LCFA, especially C18:0, can modulate milk fat synthesis partly via PPARγ in goats. The nutrigenomic effect of C16:0 is not via PPARγ but likely via unknown transcription factor(s) while PPARγ plays an indirect role on the nutrigenomic effect of polyunsaturated LCFA (PUFA) on milk fat related genes, particularly for CLA (permitting effect) and DHA (blocking effect). Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Epidemiology of Breed-Related Mast Cell Tumour Occurrence and Prognostic Significance of Clinical Features in a Defined Population of Dogs in West-Central Italy
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020053
Received: 17 April 2019 / Revised: 27 May 2019 / Accepted: 1 June 2019 / Published: 6 June 2019
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Abstract
Canine mast cell tumours (MCTs) present a wide variety of challenging clinical behaviours in terms of predicting the prognosis and choosing appropriate treatment. This study investigated the frequency, risk, and prognostic factors of MCTs in dogs admitted to a single veterinary teaching hospital [...] Read more.
Canine mast cell tumours (MCTs) present a wide variety of challenging clinical behaviours in terms of predicting the prognosis and choosing appropriate treatment. This study investigated the frequency, risk, and prognostic factors of MCTs in dogs admitted to a single veterinary teaching hospital (VTH). Breed, age, sex, and sexual status in ninety-eight dogs with MCTs (MCT-group) were compared with a control group of 13,077 dogs (VTH-group) obtained from the VTH clinical database from January 2010 to January 2016. Within the MCT-group, signalment, location, size, mass number, ulceration, histopathological grading, presence of lymph node, or distant metastases were compared with each other and with the outcome. Boxers (OR 7.2), American Pit Bull Terriers (OR 5.4), French Bulldogs (OR 4.4) and Labrador Retrievers (OR 2.6) were overrepresented. The MCT-group was significantly older than the VTH-group (p < 0.0001). In comparison with the VTH group, in the MCT-group neutered dogs (OR 2.1) and spayed females (OR 2.3) were predominant compared to intact dogs and intact females, respectively. Ulceration (OR 5.2) and lymph node metastasis (OR 7.1) occurred more frequently in larger MCTs. Both ulceration and MCTs > 3 cm were highly associated with lymph node metastasis (OR 24.8). Recurrence was associated with MCT-related death (OR 10.50, p = 0.0040), and the latter was associated with shorter survival times (p = 0.0115). Dogs with MCTs > 3 cm (p = 0.0040), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.0234), or elevated WHO stage (p = 0.0158) had shorter survival times. A significantly higher frequency of MCTs was found in specific breeds, and in older and neutered dogs. MCTs > 3 cm and lymph node or distant metastases were associated with shorter survival times. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
2,4-Thiazolidinedione in Well-Fed Lactating Dairy Goats: II. Response to Intra-Mammary Infection
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020052
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 1 June 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
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Abstract
In a prior experiment, treatment of goats with the putative PPARγ agonist 2,4-thiazolidinedione (2,4-TZD) ameliorated the response to intramammary infection without evidence of PPARγ activation. The lack of PPARγ activation was possibly due to deficiency of vitamin A and/or a poor body condition [...] Read more.
In a prior experiment, treatment of goats with the putative PPARγ agonist 2,4-thiazolidinedione (2,4-TZD) ameliorated the response to intramammary infection without evidence of PPARγ activation. The lack of PPARγ activation was possibly due to deficiency of vitamin A and/or a poor body condition of the animals. Therefore, the present study hypothesized that activation of PPARγ by 2,4-TZD in goats supplemented with adequate amounts of vitamin A can improve the response to sub-clinical mastitis. Lactating goats receiving a diet that met National Research Council requirements, including vitamin A, were injected with 8 mg/kg BW of 2,4-TZD (n = 6) or saline (n = 6; control (CTR)) daily. Two weeks into treatment, all goats received Streptococcus uberis (IMI) in the right mammary gland. Blood biomarkers of metabolism, inflammation, and oxidative status plus leukocytes phagocytosis were measured. Mammary epithelial cells (MEC) and macrophages were isolated from milk and liver tissue collected for gene expression analysis. Milk fat was maintained by treatment with 2,4-TZD, but decreased in CTR, after IMI. Haptoglobin was increased after IMI only in 2,4-TZD without any effect on negative acute phase proteins, indicating an improved liver function. 2,4-TZD vs. CTR had a greater amount of globulin. The expression of inflammation-related genes was increased by IMI in both macrophages and MEC. Except for decreasing expression of SCD1 in MEC, 2,4-TZD did not affect the expression of measured genes. Results confirmed the successful induction of sub-clinical mastitis but did not confirm the positive effect of 2,4-TZD on the response to IMI in well-fed goats. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report
Antibiotic Therapy Does Not Alter the Humoral Response to Vaccination for Porcine Circovirus 2 in Weaned Pigs
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020051
Received: 8 March 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 28 May 2019 / Published: 30 May 2019
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Abstract
Recent reports suggest that antibiotic therapy may either reduce or enhance the immune response to various porcine vaccines. Based upon these findings, we asked if antibiotic therapy alters immune cell populations, as measured by flow cytometry and/or vaccine-specific humoral immunity, as measured by [...] Read more.
Recent reports suggest that antibiotic therapy may either reduce or enhance the immune response to various porcine vaccines. Based upon these findings, we asked if antibiotic therapy alters immune cell populations, as measured by flow cytometry and/or vaccine-specific humoral immunity, as measured by sample to positive (S/P) antibody ratios. Here, we investigated the immuno-modulatory effects of enrofloxacin, ceftiofur, and tulathromycin on the immune response to a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) combination vaccine in weaned pigs. Maternal antibody likely interfered with the induction of immunity to M. hyopneumoniae. Antibiotic administration did not affect immune cell populations, as assessed by flow cytometry and did not affect the induction of humoral immunity to PCV-2. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Incomplete Urethral Duplication Associated with a Dermoid Cyst within a Vascular Hamartoma in a Female Dog
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020050
Received: 10 April 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 27 May 2019 / Published: 30 May 2019
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Abstract
A seven-year-old spayed female Labrador retriever presented for necropsy following an acute history of thrombocytopenia, anemia, leukocytosis and abdominal effusion. A 2 × 3 × 10 cm, cylindrical to tubular, mottled red-to-tan mass extended from the caudal pelvic cavity caudally and ventrally under [...] Read more.
A seven-year-old spayed female Labrador retriever presented for necropsy following an acute history of thrombocytopenia, anemia, leukocytosis and abdominal effusion. A 2 × 3 × 10 cm, cylindrical to tubular, mottled red-to-tan mass extended from the caudal pelvic cavity caudally and ventrally under the dermis along the caudal aspect of the left pelvic limb adjacent to the semimembranosus and semitendinosus musculature. Histologic examination of the mass revealed a singular central lumen lined by urothelium that multifocally transitioned into non-keratinizing, stratified squamous epithelium associated with few hair follicles and sweat glands. The lumen was surrounded by a dense collagenous stroma containing numerous, variably sized blood vessels. The combination of lesions was consistent with a diagnosis of incomplete urethral duplication associated with a dermoid cyst and vascular hamartoma. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of an incomplete urethral duplication associated with a dermoid cyst within a vascular hamartoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anatomy, Histology and Pathology)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Mortality Patterns in a Commercial Wean-To Finish Swine Production System
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020049
Received: 26 April 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 27 May 2019 / Published: 29 May 2019
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Abstract
Modern commercial pig production is a complex process that requires successful producers to understand and resolve factors associated with perturbations in production. One important perturbation is inventory loss due to mortality. In this study, data on 60 lots of approximately 2000 weaned pigs [...] Read more.
Modern commercial pig production is a complex process that requires successful producers to understand and resolve factors associated with perturbations in production. One important perturbation is inventory loss due to mortality. In this study, data on 60 lots of approximately 2000 weaned pigs (n = 115,213) from one commercial production system were collected through the wean-to-finish (WTF) cycle with the objective of establishing patterns of mortality, estimating differences in profit/loss among patterns of mortality, and identifying production practices associated with mortality patterns. Information provided by the production system included the number of pigs in each lot at the time of placement (beginning inventory), weaning weight, barn dimensions, number of dead pigs (NDP) daily, capacity placed (proportion pigs actually placed versus what had been planned to be placed) and average weight sold. Analysis of NDP revealed three mortality patterns (clusters I, II, III) composed of 6, 40, and 14 lots, respectively, that differed in the temporal onset and/or level of mortality. Average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated by growth phase for each cluster. An economic model showed profit differences among clusters due to poor biological performance by clusters I and III in the late finishing phase. Cluster II (n = 40) had fewer dead pigs and the highest profit compared to clusters I (n = 6) and III (n = 14). Area per pig (stocking density) was the only factor associated with the differences in mortality patterns. Routine monitoring and the analysis of mortality patterns for associations with production and management factors can help swine producers improve biological performance and improve profit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex)
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Open AccessReview
Risk Factors for Development of Canine and Human Osteosarcoma: A Comparative Review
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020048
Received: 14 April 2019 / Revised: 14 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 May 2019 / Published: 25 May 2019
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Abstract
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary tumor of bone. Osteosarcomas are rare in humans, but occur more commonly in dogs. A comparative approach to studying osteosarcoma has highlighted many clinical and biologic aspects of the disease that are similar between dogs and humans; [...] Read more.
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary tumor of bone. Osteosarcomas are rare in humans, but occur more commonly in dogs. A comparative approach to studying osteosarcoma has highlighted many clinical and biologic aspects of the disease that are similar between dogs and humans; however, important species-specific differences are becoming increasingly recognized. In this review, we describe risk factors for the development of osteosarcoma in dogs and humans, including height and body size, genetics, and conditions that increase turnover of bone-forming cells, underscoring the concept that stochastic mutational events associated with cellular replication are likely to be the major molecular drivers of this disease. We also discuss adaptive, cancer-protective traits that have evolved in large, long-lived mammals, and how increasing size and longevity in the absence of natural selection can account for the elevated bone cancer risk in modern domestic dogs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of a Change from an Indoor-Based Total Mixed Ration to a Rotational Pasture System Combined with a Moderate Concentrate Feed Supply on Immunological Cell and Blood Parameters of Dairy Cows
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020047
Received: 25 January 2019 / Revised: 14 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
In spring, transition from a total mixed ration (TMR) to a full grazing ration with moderate concentrate supply influences cow’s metabolism. It has been shown that feeding moderate amounts of concentrate during fulltime grazing did not prevent energy shortage and lipomobilization, alterations in [...] Read more.
In spring, transition from a total mixed ration (TMR) to a full grazing ration with moderate concentrate supply influences cow’s metabolism. It has been shown that feeding moderate amounts of concentrate during fulltime grazing did not prevent energy shortage and lipomobilization, alterations in energy metabolism, decreasing milk production and loss in body weight. As diet change and energy balance are closely related to immune reactivity, in this trial the effect of transition to pasture on specific immune parameters of cows was documented. Over a 12-week trial 43 dairy cows were observed during transition from confinement to pasture (PG; n = 22) and compared to cows fed TMR indoor (CG; n = 21). The CG stayed on a TMR based ration (35% corn silage, 35% grass silage, 30% concentrate; dry matter (DM) basis), whereas the PG slowly switched to a pasture -based ration (week 0 and 1 = TMR, week 2 = TMR and 3 h pasture·day−1, week 3 and 4 = TMR and 12 h pasture·day−1, and week 5 to 11 = pasture combined with 4.5 kg DM concentrate·cow−1·day−1). Inflammatory markers like blood haptoglobin or tryptophan to kynurenine ratio did not indicate acute phase reaction. Proportions of CD4+ (T-helper cells) and CD8+ cells (cytotoxic T-cells) remained uninfluenced as well. White blood cell concentration and its subpopulation of granulocytes increased over time in the PG. Stimulation ability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to mount an oxidative burst significantly increased during the trial, too. The endogenous antioxidant state as characterized by glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in blood of the PG did not change, whereas the vitamin E concentration reached the highest level at the end of the trial. The 25-CHO metabolites of vitamin D increased as soon as the PG had pasture access, whereas the other metabolite 25-ERG decreased. The results of this study indicate that transition to pasture affects immune related parameters. However, the consequences of the observed effects on health status of the pasture group need to be clarified in further studies with a defined concurrent immune challenge. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Novel Amphiphilic Cyclobutene and Cyclobutane cis-C18 Fatty Acid Derivatives Inhibit Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Growth
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020046
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) is the etiologic agent of Johne’s disease in ruminants and has been associated with Crohn’s disease in humans. An effective control of Map by either vaccines or chemoprophylaxis is a paramount need for veterinary and possibly human medicine. [...] Read more.
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) is the etiologic agent of Johne’s disease in ruminants and has been associated with Crohn’s disease in humans. An effective control of Map by either vaccines or chemoprophylaxis is a paramount need for veterinary and possibly human medicine. Given the importance of fatty acids in the biosynthesis of mycolic acids and the mycobacterial cell wall, we tested novel amphiphilic C10 and C18 cyclobutene and cyclobutane fatty acid derivatives for Map inhibition. Microdilution minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) with 5 or 7 week endpoints were measured in Middlebrook 7H9 base broth media. We compared the Map MIC results with those obtained previously with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Several of the C18 compounds showed moderate efficacy (MICs 392 to 824 µM) against Map, while a higher level of inhibition (MICs 6 to 82 µM) was observed for M. tuberculosis for select analogs from both the C10 and C18 groups. For most of these analogs tested in M. smegmatis, their efficacy decreased in the presence of bovine or human serum albumin. Compound 5 (OA-CB, 1-(octanoic acid-8-yl)-2-octylcyclobutene) was identified as the best chemical lead against Map, which suggests derivatives with better pharmacodynamics may be of interest for evaluation in animal models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycobacterial Diseases in Animals)
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Open AccessArticle
2,4-Thiazolidinedione in Well-Fed Lactating Dairy Goats: I. Effect on Adiposity and Milk Fat Synthesis
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020045
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 29 April 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
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Abstract
Background: In a prior experiment, treatment of goats with the putative PPARγ agonist 2,4-thiazolidinedione (2,4-TZD) did not affect milk fat or expression of milk-fat related genes. The lack of response was possibly due to deficiency of vitamin A and/or a poor body [...] Read more.
Background: In a prior experiment, treatment of goats with the putative PPARγ agonist 2,4-thiazolidinedione (2,4-TZD) did not affect milk fat or expression of milk-fat related genes. The lack of response was possibly due to deficiency of vitamin A and/or a poor body condition of the animals. In the present experiment, we tested the hypothesis that PPARγ activation affects milk fat synthesis in goats with a good body condition and receiving adequate levels of vitamin A. Methods: Lactating goats receiving a diet that met NRC requirements, including vitamin A, were injected with 8 mg/kg BW of 2,4-TZD (n = 6) or saline (n = 6; CTR) daily for 26 days. Blood metabolic profiling and milk yield and components were measured including fatty acid profile. Expression of genes related to glucose and lipid metabolism was measured in adipose tissue and in mammary epithelial cells (MEC). Size of adipocytes was assessed by histological analysis. Results: NEFA, BHBA, and fatty acids available in plasma decreased while glucose increased in 2,4-TZD vs. CTR. Size of cells and expression of insulin signaling and glucose metabolism-related genes were larger in 2,4-TZD vs. CTR in adipose tissue. In MEC, expression of SCD1 and desaturation of stearate was lower in 2,4-TZD vs. CTR. Conclusions: Overall data revealed a lack of PPARγ activation by 2,4-TZD and no effect on milk fat synthesis despite a strong anti-lipolysis effect on adipose tissue. Full article
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Open AccessDiscussion
Grateful Client Philanthropy and Veterinary Medicine: Experiences at North Carolina State University
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020044
Received: 12 April 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
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Abstract
The historical reliance of state and federal funds as a sole source of veterinary educational activities has created a funding gap at many academic institutions. Due to declining resources, philanthropy has become an important source of financial support for veterinary colleges in the [...] Read more.
The historical reliance of state and federal funds as a sole source of veterinary educational activities has created a funding gap at many academic institutions. Due to declining resources, philanthropy has become an important source of financial support for veterinary colleges in the United States. In particular, for academic institutions with veterinary hospitals, grateful client philanthropy has been an increasingly important area of resource growth. Philanthropic gifts support innovative research, scholarship and capital, and programmatic initiatives. Areas of giving are often geared towards major infrastructure gifts and naming opportunities, faculty endowment, student scholarships, and other gift opportunities. This review provides an overview of grateful client philanthropy at North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine and explores the various giving opportunities and challenges of donor giving in veterinary medicine. (129/200) Full article
Open AccessCase Report
The First Case of Botulism in a Donkey
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020043
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 2 May 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
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Abstract
Botulism, a severe neuroparalytic disease that can affect humans, all warm-blooded animals, and some fishes, is caused by exotoxins produced by ubiquitous, obligate anaerobic, spore-forming bacteria belonging to the genus Clostridium and named botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT)-producing clostridia. This report presents the case of [...] Read more.
Botulism, a severe neuroparalytic disease that can affect humans, all warm-blooded animals, and some fishes, is caused by exotoxins produced by ubiquitous, obligate anaerobic, spore-forming bacteria belonging to the genus Clostridium and named botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT)-producing clostridia. This report presents the case of a 3-year-old donkey mare referred for progressive and worsening dysphagia of four days’ duration. Her voluntary effort in eating and drinking was conserved, and she was able to slow chew without swallowing. A complete neurological examination was performed, and botulism was strongly suspected. The ability to swallow feed and water returned on the tenth day of hospitalization and improved progressively. The jenny was discharged from the hospital after fifteen days. During the hospitalization, the Italian National Reference Centre for Botulism confirmed the diagnosis: mare’s feces were positive for BoNT/B and Clostridium botulinum type B. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Single-Cell Transcript Assessment of Biomarkers Supports Cellular Heterogeneity in the Bovine IVD
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020042
Received: 6 April 2019 / Revised: 5 May 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 12 May 2019
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Abstract
Severe and chronic low back pain is often associated with intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. While imposing a considerable socio-economic burden worldwide, IVD degeneration is also severely impacting on the quality of life of affected individuals. Cell-based regenerative medicine approaches have moved into clinical [...] Read more.
Severe and chronic low back pain is often associated with intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. While imposing a considerable socio-economic burden worldwide, IVD degeneration is also severely impacting on the quality of life of affected individuals. Cell-based regenerative medicine approaches have moved into clinical trials, yet IVD cell identities in the mature disc remain to be fully elucidated and tissue heterogeneity exists, requiring a better characterization of IVD cells. The bovine coccygeal IVD is an accepted research model to study IVD mechano-biology and disc homeostasis. Recently, we identified novel IVD biomarkers in the outer annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP) of the mature bovine coccygeal IVD through RNA in situ hybridization (AP-RISH) and z-proportion test. Here we follow up on Lam1, Thy1, Gli1, Gli3, Noto, Ptprc, Scx, Sox2 and Zscan10 with fluorescent RNA in situ hybridization (FL-RISH) and confocal microscopy. This permits sub-cellular transcript localization and the addition of quantitative single-cell derived values of mRNA expression levels to our previous analysis. Lastly, we used a Gaussian mixture modeling approach for the exploratory analysis of IVD cells. This work complements our earlier cell population proportion-based study, confirms the previously proposed biomarkers and indicates even further heterogeneity of cells in the outer AF and NP of a mature IVD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Volatilome in Milk for Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano Cheeses: A First Survey
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020041
Received: 15 December 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
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Abstract
Milk characteristics in terms of volatile compounds can influence the subsequent product characteristics and can give indications about metabolism. These features can strongly depend on feeding and management. In this perspective, the screening of milk samples intended for Parmigiano-Reggiano and Grana Padano located [...] Read more.
Milk characteristics in terms of volatile compounds can influence the subsequent product characteristics and can give indications about metabolism. These features can strongly depend on feeding and management. In this perspective, the screening of milk samples intended for Parmigiano-Reggiano and Grana Padano located in Northern Italy was performed, focusing on a panel of volatile molecules. The work was carried out on a total number of 25 bovine milk samples for the production of Parmigiano-Reggiano and Grana Padano. Milk samples were collected from May to September and analyzed for volatile molecules using headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry. A range of several volatile molecule classes was considered (aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, carboxylic acids, esters, aromatic hydrocarbons, solforates). Results showed a significant influence of the month and destination of milk due to the time period and subsequent use in cheesemaking (Parmigiano-Reggiano and Grana Padano). Significant differences between months were observed for all volatiles. These preliminary results indicate differences between the two types of milk due to the period and destination. The study of volatile molecules in milk will give important information about the physiology of milk and the evolution of dairy products. These features must be extended and confirmed by the sensory analysis of milk and derived products, leading to a more complete characterization of milk biology and derived products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Italian Society of the Veterinary Sciences SISVet 2018)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Forecasting Zoonotic Infectious Disease Response to Climate Change: Mosquito Vectors and a Changing Environment
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020040
Received: 9 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 29 April 2019 / Published: 6 May 2019
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Abstract
Infectious diseases are changing due to the environment and altered interactions among hosts, reservoirs, vectors, and pathogens. This is particularly true for zoonotic diseases that infect humans, agricultural animals, and wildlife. Within the subset of zoonoses, vector-borne pathogens are changing more rapidly with [...] Read more.
Infectious diseases are changing due to the environment and altered interactions among hosts, reservoirs, vectors, and pathogens. This is particularly true for zoonotic diseases that infect humans, agricultural animals, and wildlife. Within the subset of zoonoses, vector-borne pathogens are changing more rapidly with climate change, and have a complex epidemiology, which may allow them to take advantage of a changing environment. Most mosquito-borne infectious diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes in three genera: Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex, and the expansion of these genera is well documented. There is an urgent need to study vector-borne diseases in response to climate change and to produce a generalizable approach capable of generating risk maps and forecasting outbreaks. Here, we provide a strategy for coupling climate and epidemiological models for zoonotic infectious diseases. We discuss the complexity and challenges of data and model fusion, baseline requirements for data, and animal and human population movement. Disease forecasting needs significant investment to build the infrastructure necessary to collect data about the environment, vectors, and hosts at all spatial and temporal resolutions. These investments can contribute to building a modeling community around the globe to support public health officials so as to reduce disease burden through forecasts with quantified uncertainty. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modification and Clinical Application of the Inner Perivitelline Membrane Test in Different Avian Species
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020039
Received: 26 February 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to adapt an inner perivitelline membrane (IPVM) test as an interspecies penetration assay for avian spermatozoa. The IPVM of different bird species was evaluated to test the penetrating ability of avian spermatozoa in an intra- and interspecies [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to adapt an inner perivitelline membrane (IPVM) test as an interspecies penetration assay for avian spermatozoa. The IPVM of different bird species was evaluated to test the penetrating ability of avian spermatozoa in an intra- and interspecies design. Isolation of the IPVM via acid hydrolysis was tested in pre-incubated chicken eggs and in six other avian species. The separation protocol was modified (time, acid concentration) to facilitate practicability. Separated membranes were evaluated with dark field microscopy for the presence of holes produced by penetrating spermatozoa. In chicken eggs, the influence of different membrane storage conditions was tested. In the penetration assay, the IPVM of chicken eggs was used as a model for fresh and frozen–thawed rooster sperm and for fresh spermatozoa of cockatiels and falcons. Results demonstrated that the time of egg-incubation had a significantly negative influence on the isolation ability of the IPVM (p < 0.0001). IPVM-separation was successful for a maximum of two days after preincubation. In the experiments with eggs from other avian species, results were heterogenous: there was no isolation in geese and cockatiels, 20% in the European kestrel, and 40% in pheasant, quail, and duck. In the penetration assay, holes were found in 100% of the IPVM of chicken eggs after incubation with native and frozen–thawed rooster semen and in 10% with fresh cockatiel semen. Falcon spermatozoa failed to produce visible holes. In conclusion, the IPVM of chicken eggs seems to be unsuitable to establish a functional sperm assay in other species tested but is suitable for quality evaluation of cryopreserved rooster sperm. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Increased Antimicrobial Resistance of MRSA Strains Isolated from Pigs in Spain between 2009 and 2018
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020038
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
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Abstract
The problem of emerging resistant microorganisms such as Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) associated to livestock is closely linked to improper use of antimicrobial agents. The aim of this study is to find out the prevalence and characteristics of these strains, as well as [...] Read more.
The problem of emerging resistant microorganisms such as Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) associated to livestock is closely linked to improper use of antimicrobial agents. The aim of this study is to find out the prevalence and characteristics of these strains, as well as their evolution in healthy pigs on the Island of Tenerife, Spain. Between October 2009 and December 2010, 300 pigs from 15 wean-to-finishing farms were screened. Between 1 September 2017 and 31 March 2018, a new sampling was performed collecting 125 nasal swabs from pigs belonging to the same farms and under the same conditions as the previous study. MRSA antibiotic resistant patterns were studied. Results: Prevalence of MRSA isolates was 89.6%. All isolates belonged to Sequence Type 398 (ST398), a livestock related strain. All strains studied were resistant to beta-lactamic non-carbapenemic antibiotics and sensitive to teicoplanin, linezolid, vancomycin, rifampicin, quinupristin-dalfospristin, and mupirocine. Between 2009/2010–2017/2018 a significant increase in resistance to gentamicin, tobramycin, trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazole, clindamycin, Fosfomycin, and tigecycline antibiotics was observed in isolated MRSA strains compared to the previous period. We consider a major control and surveillance program of antibiotic use in veterinary care is needed in order to reduce the presence of MRSA strains in livestock and control this significant multi-resistance increase. Full article
Open AccessReview
Cytokine Expression in Canine Lymphoma, Osteosarcoma, Mammary Gland Tumour and Melanoma: Comparative Aspects
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020037
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 29 March 2019 / Published: 2 April 2019
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Abstract
Cytokines released in the tumour microenvironment play a major role in cancer pathogenesis. In human cancers and corresponding animal models, cytokine expression contributes to tumour growth and progression, as well as regulation of the host anti-tumour response. The elucidation of the function and [...] Read more.
Cytokines released in the tumour microenvironment play a major role in cancer pathogenesis. In human cancers and corresponding animal models, cytokine expression contributes to tumour growth and progression, as well as regulation of the host anti-tumour response. The elucidation of the function and importance of cytokines in canine cancers is still in an early stage, although relevant data have been obtained in classical examples of comparative models of human cancers, such as osteosarcoma, melanoma, mammary tumour and lymphoma. A deeper understanding of the cytokine signature may advance diagnosis, prevention and treatment of canine cancers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Analysis of the Liver Transcriptome among Cattle Breeds Using RNA-seq
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020036
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 16 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 29 March 2019
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Abstract
Global gene expression in liver transcriptome varies among cattle breeds. The present investigation was aimed to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), metabolic gene networks and metabolic pathways in bovine liver transcriptome of young bulls. In this study, we comparatively analyzed the bovine [...] Read more.
Global gene expression in liver transcriptome varies among cattle breeds. The present investigation was aimed to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), metabolic gene networks and metabolic pathways in bovine liver transcriptome of young bulls. In this study, we comparatively analyzed the bovine liver transcriptome of dairy (Polish Holstein Friesian (HF); n = 6), beef (Hereford; n = 6), and dual purpose (Polish-Red; n = 6) cattle breeds. This study identified 895, 338, and 571 significant (p < 0.01) differentially expressed (DE) gene-transcripts represented as 745, 265, and 498 hepatic DE genes through the Polish-Red versus Hereford, Polish-HF versus Hereford, and Polish-HF versus Polish-Red breeds comparisons, respectively. By combining all breeds comparisons, 75 hepatic DE genes (p < 0.01) were identified as commonly shared among all the three breed comparisons; 70, 160, and 38 hepatic DE genes were commonly shared between the following comparisons: (i) Polish-Red versus Hereford and Polish-HF versus Hereford; (ii) Polish-Red versus Hereford and Polish-HF versus Polish-Red; and (iii) Polish-HF versus Hereford and Polish-HF versus Polish-Red, respectively. A total of 440, 82, and 225 hepatic DE genes were uniquely observed for the Polish-Red versus Hereford, Polish-HF versus Hereford, and Polish-Red versus Polish-HF comparisons, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) analysis identified top-ranked enriched GO terms (p < 0.01) including 17, 16, and 31 functional groups and 151, 61, and 140 gene functions that were DE in all three breed liver transcriptome comparisons. Gene network analysis identified several potential metabolic pathways involved in glutamine family amino-acid, triglyceride synthesis, gluconeogenesis, p38MAPK cascade regulation, cholesterol biosynthesis (Polish-Red versus Hereford); IGF-receptor signaling, catecholamine transport, lipoprotein lipase, tyrosine kinase binding receptor (Polish-HF versus Hereford), and PGF-receptor binding, (Polish-HF versus Polish-Red). Validation results showed that the relative expression values were consistent to those obtained by RNA-seq, and significantly correlated between the quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) and RNA-seq (Pearson’s r  > 0.90). Our results provide new insights on bovine liver gene expressions among dairy versus dual versus beef breeds by identifying the large numbers of DEGs markers submitted to NCBI gene expression omnibus (GEO) accession number GSE114233, which can serve as useful genetic tools to develop the gene assays for trait-associated studies as well as, to effectively implement in genomics selection (GS) cattle breeding programs in Poland. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Saponins Derived from Medicago spp. Plants against Donkey Gastrointestinal Nematodes
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020035
Received: 2 February 2019 / Revised: 23 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 29 March 2019
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Abstract
With the aim to find new effective natural compounds for the control of nematodes, the in vitro anthelminthic properties of purified 1% saponins showing different chemical compositions and derived from Medicago sativa (MS), Medicago arborea (MA), Medicago polymorpha cultivar ‘Santiago’ (MPS), M. polymorpha [...] Read more.
With the aim to find new effective natural compounds for the control of nematodes, the in vitro anthelminthic properties of purified 1% saponins showing different chemical compositions and derived from Medicago sativa (MS), Medicago arborea (MA), Medicago polymorpha cultivar ‘Santiago’ (MPS), M. polymorpha cultivar ‘Anglona’ (MPA), and 1% prosapogenins from M. sativa (MSp), were evaluated and compared. As a source of nematode eggs, pooled fresh fecal samples taken from dairy donkeys naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes were used. From fecal samples, eggs were recovered, suspended in deionized water, and used immediately in the bioassay (egg hatch test). The activity of the tested compounds was compared to positive (0.1% thiabendazole) and negative (deionized water and 1% DMSO) controls. All experiments were repeated in triplicate and the obtained data were statistically analyzed. All the tested plant compounds caused a significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of nematode egg hatching (>80%). Moreover, all saponins and prosapogenins showed in vitro anthelmintic properties statistically comparable to that of the reference drug (p < 0.05), except for MPS extract. Obtained results showed that the different Medicago saponins evaluated in this study possess high anthelmintic properties against gastrointestinal nematodes of dairy donkeys, although to a different extent depending on their composition. Full article
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