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Challenges for Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) Vaccine Design: Reviewing Virus Glycoprotein Interactions with CD163 and Targets of Virus Neutralization

Cellular Innate Immunity against PRRSV and Swine Influenza Viruses

Department of Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA
Comparative Medicine Institute, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA
Universitat de Lleida, 25198 Lleida, Spain
Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CIB-CSIC), 28040 Madrid, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(1), 26;
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 21 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex)
Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is a polymicrobial syndrome that results from a combination of infectious agents, such as environmental stressors, population size, management strategies, age, and genetics. PRDC results in reduced performance as well as increased mortality rates and production costs in the pig industry worldwide. This review focuses on the interactions of two enveloped RNA viruses—porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and swine influenza virus (SwIV)—as major etiological agents that contribute to PRDC within the porcine cellular innate immunity during infection. The innate immune system of the porcine lung includes alveolar and parenchymal/interstitial macrophages, neutrophils (PMN), conventional dendritic cells (DC) and plasmacytoid DC, natural killer cells, and γδ T cells, thus the in vitro and in vivo interactions between those cells and PRRSV and SwIV are reviewed. Likewise, the few studies regarding PRRSV-SwIV co-infection are illustrated together with the different modulation mechanisms that are induced by the two viruses. Alterations in responses by natural killer (NK), PMN, or γδ T cells have not received much attention within the scientific community as their counterpart antigen-presenting cells and there are numerous gaps in the knowledge regarding the role of those cells in both infections. This review will help in paving the way for future directions in PRRSV and SwIV research and enhancing the understanding of the innate mechanisms that are involved during infection with these viruses. View Full-Text
Keywords: pig; innate immunity; PRRSV; swine influenza virus pig; innate immunity; PRRSV; swine influenza virus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Crisci, E.; Fraile, L.; Montoya, M. Cellular Innate Immunity against PRRSV and Swine Influenza Viruses. Vet. Sci. 2019, 6, 26.

AMA Style

Crisci E, Fraile L, Montoya M. Cellular Innate Immunity against PRRSV and Swine Influenza Viruses. Veterinary Sciences. 2019; 6(1):26.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Crisci, Elisa; Fraile, Lorenzo; Montoya, Maria. 2019. "Cellular Innate Immunity against PRRSV and Swine Influenza Viruses" Vet. Sci. 6, no. 1: 26.

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