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Volume 11, January-1

Foods, Volume 11, Issue 2 (January-2 2022) – 112 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has attracted particular interest in the food industry. EPS can be considered as natural biothickeners as they are produced in situ by LAB and improve the rheological properties of fermented foods. Moreover, much research has been conducted on the beneficial effects of EPS produced by LAB on modulating the gut microbiome and promoting health. View this paper
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Review
Relevant Fusarium Mycotoxins in Malt and Beer
Foods 2022, 11(2), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020246 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 616
Abstract
Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites of high concern in the food and feed industry. Their presence in many cereal-based products has been numerously reported. Beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage worldwide, and Fusarium mycotoxins originating from the malted and unmalted cereals might [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites of high concern in the food and feed industry. Their presence in many cereal-based products has been numerously reported. Beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage worldwide, and Fusarium mycotoxins originating from the malted and unmalted cereals might reach the final product. This review aims to describe the possible Fusarium fungi that could infect the cereals used in beer production, the transfer of mycotoxins throughout malting and brewing as well as an insight into the incidence of mycotoxins in the craft beer segment of the industry. Studies show that germination is the malting step that can lead to a significant increase in the level of all Fusarium mycotoxins. The first step of mashing (45 °C) has been proved to possess the most significant impact in the transfer of hydrophilic toxins from the grist into the wort. However, during fermentation, a slight reduction of deoxynivalenol, and especially of zearalenone, is achieved. This review also highlights the limited research available on craft beer and the occurrence of mycotoxins in these products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Strategies to Improve Beer Quality)
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Article
Effects of Chitosan and Duck Fat-Based Emulsion Coatings on the Quality Characteristics of Chicken Meat during Storage
Foods 2022, 11(2), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020245 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 470
Abstract
Chicken meat is a popular food commodity that is widely consumed worldwide. However, the shelf-life or quality maintenance of chicken meat is a major concern for industries because of spoilage by microbial growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects [...] Read more.
Chicken meat is a popular food commodity that is widely consumed worldwide. However, the shelf-life or quality maintenance of chicken meat is a major concern for industries because of spoilage by microbial growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chitosan and duck fat-based emulsion coatings on the quality characteristics and microbial stability of chicken meat during refrigerated storage. The coated chicken meat samples were as follows: control (non-coated), DFC0 (coated with duck fat), DFC0.5 (coated with duck fat and 0.5% chitosan), DFC1 (coated with duck fat and 1% chitosan), DFC2 (coated with duck fat and 2% chitosan), and SOC2 (coated with soybean oil and 2% chitosan). The results showed that the apparent viscosity and coating rate were higher in DFC2 than in other groups. Physicochemical parameters (pH, color, and Warner–Bratzler shear force) were better in DFC2 than those in other groups during 15 days of storage. Moreover, DFC2 delayed lipid oxidation, protein deterioration, and growth of microorganisms during storage. These data suggest that chitosan-supplemented duck fat-based emulsion coating could be used to maintain the quality of raw chicken meat during refrigerated storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers on Sustainable Food Packaging)
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Article
Descriptive Sensory Profile and Consumer Study Impact of Different Nutritive and Non-Nutritive Sweeteners on the Descriptive, Temporal Profile, and Consumer Acceptance in a Peach Juice Matrix
Foods 2022, 11(2), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020244 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 475
Abstract
The study evaluated the effect of peach juice sweetened with sucrose, widely used non-nutritive sweeteners, the artificial sucralose, neotame blend, and the natural stevia extract with different rebaudioside A concentrations on the temporal and quantitative descriptive profile, and consumer acceptance of the beverage. [...] Read more.
The study evaluated the effect of peach juice sweetened with sucrose, widely used non-nutritive sweeteners, the artificial sucralose, neotame blend, and the natural stevia extract with different rebaudioside A concentrations on the temporal and quantitative descriptive profile, and consumer acceptance of the beverage. The sensory profiling was determined by quantitative descriptive and time–intensity analyses. The results showed that the sweeteners neotame and sucralose present higher sweetening power, and the different rebaudioside A concentrations did not affect the sweetening power of the stevia extract. The samples sweetened with stevia with 40% and 95% of rebaudioside A were characterized by the sensory attributes bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, astringency, and black tea flavor, with a negative influence on the consumers’ acceptance. The different concentrations of rebaudioside A in stevia interfered substantially in the descriptors bitter taste and bitter aftertaste, showing that the higher the percentage of rebaudioside A, the lower bitterness of peach juice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
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Article
Biodegradation of PLA-PHBV Blend Films as Affected by the Incorporation of Different Phenolic Acids
Foods 2022, 11(2), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020243 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 509
Abstract
Films based on a 75:25 polylactic acid (PLA) and Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) blend, containing 2% (w/w) of different phenolic acids (ferulic, p-coumaric or protocatechuic acid), and plasticised with 15 wt. % polyethylene glycol (PEG 1000), were obtained by melt [...] Read more.
Films based on a 75:25 polylactic acid (PLA) and Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) blend, containing 2% (w/w) of different phenolic acids (ferulic, p-coumaric or protocatechuic acid), and plasticised with 15 wt. % polyethylene glycol (PEG 1000), were obtained by melt blending and compression moulding. The disintegration and biodegradation of the film under thermophilic composting conditions was studied throughout 35 and 45 days, respectively, in order to analyse the effect of the incorporation of the antimicrobial phenolic acids into the films. Sample mass loss, thermo-degradation behaviour and visual appearance were analysed at different times of the composting period. No effect of phenolic acids was observed on the film disintegration pattern, and the films were completely disintegrated at the end of the composting period. The biodegradation analysis through the CO2 measurements revealed that PLA-PHBV blend films without phenolic acids, and with ferulic acid, completely biodegraded after 20 composting days, while p-coumaric and protocatechuic slightly retarded full biodegradation (21 and 26 days, respectively). Phenolic acids mainly extended the induction period, especially protocatechuic acid. PLA-PHBV blend films with potential antimicrobial activity could be used to preserve fresh foodstuff susceptible to microbial spoilage, with their biodegradation under composting conditions being ensured. Full article
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Article
Rheological and Physicochemical Properties of Oleogel with Esterified Rice Flour and Its Suitability as a Fat Replacer
Foods 2022, 11(2), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020242 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 469
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to produce oleogel using esterified rice flour with citric acid (ERCA), to evaluate physicochemical and rheological properties of oleogels, and to investigate their suitability as a fat replacer. Rice flour was esterified with citric acid (30%, w [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to produce oleogel using esterified rice flour with citric acid (ERCA), to evaluate physicochemical and rheological properties of oleogels, and to investigate their suitability as a fat replacer. Rice flour was esterified with citric acid (30%, w/w) to produce ERCA. Emulsions and oleogels were prepared with different concentrations (0, 5, 10, and 15%, w/w) of ERCA. In the steady shear rheological analysis, it was found that the values of apparent viscosity (ηa, 100) and consistency index (K) of emulsions were significantly increased by increasing the concentrations of ERCA. Oleogels were prepared with different concentrations (0, 5, 10, and 15%, w/w) of ERCA. All oleogels showed a hydrophobic carbonyl bond in the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. The peaks on new hydrogen bonds and amorphous regions, which did not appear in oleogel prepared with 0% ERCA, were observed at 3300–3400 cm−1 and 1018 cm−1, respectively, in oleogels prepared with ERCA. With the increase in ERCA concentrations in oleogels, oil loss values were significantly decreased. In a time-dependent test, it was found that all oleogels exhibited thixotropic properties. The frequency sweep test revealed that storage modulus (G′), loss modulus (G″), and complex viscosity (η*) values of oleogels were elevated with an increase in the concentration of ERCA. Oleogels prepared with 15% ERCA exhibited the lowest peroxide, p-Anisidine, and Total Oxidation(TOTOX) values. The addition of oleogels to cookies did not considerably affect appearance. However, it increased the content of unsaturated fatty acid. These results indicate that oleogels prepared with ERCA can be used as a fat replacer in food industry. Full article
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Review
Sustainable Applications for the Valorization of Cereal Processing By-Products
Foods 2022, 11(2), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020241 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 757
Abstract
This review article revises the sustainable practices and applications to valorize valuable components recovered from cereal processing by-products. After introducing cereal processing by-products, their healthy compounds, and corresponding functional properties, the article explores reutilization opportunities of by-products emphasizing specific sources (e.g., oat and [...] Read more.
This review article revises the sustainable practices and applications to valorize valuable components recovered from cereal processing by-products. After introducing cereal processing by-products, their healthy compounds, and corresponding functional properties, the article explores reutilization opportunities of by-products emphasizing specific sources (e.g., oat and wheat bran, distillers’ dried grains, etc.) and the biorefinery approach. Proteins and soluble dietary fibers such as arabinoxylans are of particular interest due to their content in the cereal processing by-products and their easy extraction based on conventional technologies such as enzyme-assisted extraction and membrane filtration. Non-thermal technologies have also been suggested to improve sustainability recovery approaches. Finally, the article discusses the different applications for the recovered high-added value compounds that span across biotechnology, foods, and bakery products. Full article
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Article
Protective Effect of Ganoderma atrum Polysaccharide on Acrolein-Induced Apoptosis and Autophagic Flux in IEC-6 Cells
Foods 2022, 11(2), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020240 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 448
Abstract
This study was designed to explore the beneficial effect and mechanism of Ganoderma atrum (G. atrum) polysaccharide (PSG-1) on acrolein-induced IEC-6 cells. Our results indicated that PSG-1 significantly reduced the impairment of acrolein on cell viability, decreased oxidative stress, and enabled normal expression [...] Read more.
This study was designed to explore the beneficial effect and mechanism of Ganoderma atrum (G. atrum) polysaccharide (PSG-1) on acrolein-induced IEC-6 cells. Our results indicated that PSG-1 significantly reduced the impairment of acrolein on cell viability, decreased oxidative stress, and enabled normal expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins that were inhibited by acrolein in IEC-6 cells. Furthermore, PSG-1 attenuated the elevation of microtubule-associated proteins light chain 3 (LC3) and Beclin 1-like protein 1 (Beclin 1) and increased the protein levels of phospho-mTOR (p-mTOR) and phospho-akt (p-akt), indicating that PSG-1 activated the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway and alleviated acrolein-induced autophagy in IEC-6 cells. Moreover, PSG-1 markedly attenuated the acrolein-induced apoptosis, as evidenced by the increase in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression, and the decrease in cysteine aspartate lyase (caspase)-3 and caspase-9. In addition, autophagy the inhibitor inhibited acrolein-induced TJ and apoptosis of IEC-6 cells, while the apoptosis inhibitor also inhibited acrolein-induced TJ and autophagy, suggesting that autophagy and apoptosis were mutually regulated. Taken together, the present study proved that PSG-1 could protect IEC-6 cells from acrolein-induced oxidative stress and could repair TJ by inhibiting apoptosis and autophagic flux, where autophagy and apoptosis were mutually regulated. Full article
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Article
Nutrition-Related Content on Instagram in the United States of America: Analytical Cross-Sectional Study
Foods 2022, 11(2), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020239 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 687
Abstract
Background: The Internet is today the largest platform for food distribution, and there are concerns about the impact that digital marketing has in the field of nutrition by promoting non-evidence-based recommendations. The purpose of this study was to describe the user profile that [...] Read more.
Background: The Internet is today the largest platform for food distribution, and there are concerns about the impact that digital marketing has in the field of nutrition by promoting non-evidence-based recommendations. The purpose of this study was to describe the user profile that draws on Instagram to follow nutrition-related content versus not, and to analyze the frequency and type of content of the information provided by nutritional influencers. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving randomly selected United States residents having an Instagram account was performed. Participants completed an anonymous online survey link. Results: From 898 respondents, 78.7% were women, and 75.6% were Millennials. Scientific evidence present in the posts was 14.3%. Influencers promoted a product or a brand in more than 90% of posts. Women followed more nutrition-related content than men (p < 0.001). Millennials, followed by Generation-Z, followed more nutrition-related content (p < 0.001). There were no significant relationships between the following status of nutrition-related content with BMI, type of job, household income, education degree, or smoking habits. Conclusions: Women and Millennials followed more nutrition-related content. Scientific evidence was scarce and commercial interest in the network was evident. The vast majority of the posts were not based on scientific evidence and instead promoted a product/supplement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Eating Behaviors, Gut Microbiota, and Human Health)
Article
Effects of Superheated Steam Treatment on the Allergenicity and Structure of Chicken Egg Ovomucoid
Foods 2022, 11(2), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020238 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 411
Abstract
The aim of this study was to explore the effects of an emerging and efficient heating technology, superheated steam (SS), on the allergenicity and molecular structure of ovomucoid (OVM). OVM was treated with 120–200 °C of SS for 2 to 10 min. The [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to explore the effects of an emerging and efficient heating technology, superheated steam (SS), on the allergenicity and molecular structure of ovomucoid (OVM). OVM was treated with 120–200 °C of SS for 2 to 10 min. The allergenicity (IgG/IgE binding abilities and cell degranulation assay) and molecular structure (main functional groups and amino acids modification) changes were investigated. The IgG-binding ability of OVM decreased and the releases of β-hex and TNF-γ were inhibited after SS treatment, indicating that the protein allergenicity was reduced. Significant increases in oxidation degree, free SH content and surface hydrophobicity were observed in SS-treated OVM. The protein dimer and trimer appeared after SS treatment. Meanwhile, obvious changes occurred in the primary structure. Specifically, serine can be readily modified by obtaining functional groups from other modification sites during SS treatment. Moreover, the natural OVM structure which showed resistance to trypsin digestion was disrupted, leading to increased protein digestibility. In conclusion, SS-induced OVM aggregation, functional groups and amino acids modifications as well as protein structure alteration led to reduced allergenicity and increased digestibility. Full article
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Article
Propyl Gallate Treatment Improves the Postharvest Quality of Winter Jujube (Zizyphus jujuba Mill. cv. Dongzao) by Regulating Antioxidant Metabolism and Maintaining the Structure of Peel
Foods 2022, 11(2), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020237 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 433
Abstract
The quality and color of winter jujube fruits are easy to change after harvest. We studied the regulation mechanism of propyl gallate (PG) on post-harvest physiological quality of winter jujube, from the perspective of antioxidant metabolism and peel structure. In our research, winter [...] Read more.
The quality and color of winter jujube fruits are easy to change after harvest. We studied the regulation mechanism of propyl gallate (PG) on post-harvest physiological quality of winter jujube, from the perspective of antioxidant metabolism and peel structure. In our research, winter jujube fruits were treated with 0.001 mol L−1 PG solution for 20 min. Our results showed that PG delayed the development of peel color, and improved the firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), and titratable acid (TA) of winter jujube. Meanwhile, the PG treatment had higher content of total phenols, total flavonoids, ascorbic acid (AsA), and reduced glutathione (GSH), and kept the enzyme activity including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and peroxidase (POD) at a higher level. PG treatment reduced membrane oxidative damage and maintained the integrity of pericarp structure by reducing electrolyte leakage (EL), lipoxygenase activity (LOX), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the peel. Accordingly, PG improved the postharvest quality of jujube fruits by regulating antioxidant metabolism and maintaining the structure of peel. The appropriate concentration of PG has good application potential in the storage and preservation of fresh fruits such as winter jujube. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improvement of Post Harvest Quality of Fruits and Vegetables)
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Article
Antioxidant Activity and Sensory Quality of Bacon
Foods 2022, 11(2), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020236 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 383
Abstract
Effects of liquid smoke prepared from different woods on physicochemical parameters, sensory quality, and protein and lipid oxidation were determined in bacons during process and storage. The relationship between the antioxidant activity of smoked liquid and the quality of bacon was further explored [...] Read more.
Effects of liquid smoke prepared from different woods on physicochemical parameters, sensory quality, and protein and lipid oxidation were determined in bacons during process and storage. The relationship between the antioxidant activity of smoked liquid and the quality of bacon was further explored through chemometric analysis. Results showed that liquid smoke prepared from different woods differed in phenolic and carboxyl compounds and antioxidant capacity. Bacon processed with different liquid smoke had different antioxidant capacity, lipid and protein oxidation during storage, and sensory quality. The concentration of phenols was positively highly correlated with the antioxidant capacity of both liquid smoke and fresh bacon, but negatively correlated with lipid and protein oxidation in bacon. Among the five woods, liquid smoke made from Punica granatum L. showed higher antioxidant capacity, but bacon smoked with Armeniaca vulgaris Lam had better overall eating quality. This study reveals that selection of woods to prepare antioxidant fumigant is a feasible approach to retard oxidative spoilage of meat products. Future study is need for the development of composite smoke flavorings to improve both oxidative stability and sensory quality of foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preservation and Green Processing of Meat Products)
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Review
Isolation of Laurus nobilis Leaf Polyphenols: A Review on Current Techniques and Future Perspectives
Foods 2022, 11(2), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020235 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 538
Abstract
In recent years, the market demand for products enhanced with ingredients derived from natural products, such as polyphenols, is rapidly increasing. Laurus nobilis L., known as bay, sweet bay, bay laurel, Roman laurel or daphne is an evergreen Mediterranean shrub whose leaves have [...] Read more.
In recent years, the market demand for products enhanced with ingredients derived from natural products, such as polyphenols, is rapidly increasing. Laurus nobilis L., known as bay, sweet bay, bay laurel, Roman laurel or daphne is an evergreen Mediterranean shrub whose leaves have traditionally been used in cuisines and folk medicine due to their beneficial health effects, which can nowadays be scientifically explained by various biological activities of the leaf extracts. Many of these activities can be attributed to phenolic compounds present in L. nobilis leaves which include flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins (proanthocyanidins) and lignans. In order to enable efficient industrial utilization of these valuable compounds, it is crucial to establish optimal extraction procedures resulting in the highest yields and quality of the extracts. This paper offers the first systematic review of current literature on the influence of conventional and advanced extraction techniques, including microwave-assisted, ultrasound-assisted, enzyme-assisted, supercritical-CO2 and mechanochemical-assisted extraction on the phenolic content of L. nobilis leaf extracts, allowing more efficient planning of further research and simplifying the steps towards industrial utilization of this plant. Full article
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Article
Probiotic Potential of a Folate-Producing Strain Latilactobacillus sakei LZ217 and Its Modulation Effects on Human Gut Microbiota
Foods 2022, 11(2), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020234 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 599
Abstract
Folate is a B-vitamin required for DNA synthesis, methylation, and cellular division, whose deficiencies are associated with various disorders and diseases. Currently, most folic acid used for fortification is synthesized chemically, causing undesirable side effects. However, using folate-producing probiotics is a viable option, [...] Read more.
Folate is a B-vitamin required for DNA synthesis, methylation, and cellular division, whose deficiencies are associated with various disorders and diseases. Currently, most folic acid used for fortification is synthesized chemically, causing undesirable side effects. However, using folate-producing probiotics is a viable option, which fortify folate in situ and regulate intestinal microbiota. In this study, the folate production potential of newly isolated strains from raw milk was analyzed by microbiological assay. Latilactobacillus sakei LZ217 showed the highest folate production in Folic Acid Assay Broth, 239.70 ± 0.03 ng/μL. The folate produced by LZ217 was identified as 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. LZ217 was tolerant to environmental stresses (temperature, pH, NaCl, and ethanol), and was resistant to gastrointestinal juices. Additionally, the in vitro effects of LZ217 on human gut microbiota were investigated by fecal slurry cultures. 16S rDNA gene sequencing indicated that fermented samples containing LZ217 significantly increased the abundance of phylum Firmicutes and genus Lactobacillus, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus 2, Butyricicoccus compared to not containing. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) analysis revealed that LZ217 also increased the production of butyric acid by fermentation. Together, L. sakei LZ217 could be considered as a probiotic candidate to fortify folate and regulate intestinal microecology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
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Article
Isolation and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Natural Whey Cultures of Buffalo and Cow Milk
Foods 2022, 11(2), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020233 - 16 Jan 2022
Viewed by 629
Abstract
In southern Italy, some artisanal farms produce mozzarella and caciocavallo cheeses by using natural whey starter (NWS), whose microbial diversity is responsible for the characteristic flavor and texture of the final product. We studied the microbial community of NWS cultures of cow’s milk [...] Read more.
In southern Italy, some artisanal farms produce mozzarella and caciocavallo cheeses by using natural whey starter (NWS), whose microbial diversity is responsible for the characteristic flavor and texture of the final product. We studied the microbial community of NWS cultures of cow’s milk (NWSc) for the production of caciocavallo and buffalo’s milk (NWSb) for the production of mozzarella, both from artisanal farms. Bacterial identification at species and strain level was based on an integrative strategy, combining culture-dependent (sequencing of the 16S rDNA, species/subspecies-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and clustering by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) and culture-independent (next-generation sequencing analysis, NGS) approaches. Results obtained with both approaches showed the occurrence of five species of lactic acid bacteria in NWSb (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Lactobacillus helveticus) and five species in NWSc (Lc. lactis subsp. lactis, Enterococcus faecium, and S. thermophilus, Lb. helveticus, and Lb. delbrueckii), with the last two found only by the NGS analysis. Moreover, RAPD profiles, performed on Lc. lactis subsp. lactis different isolates from both NWSs, showed nine strains in NWSb and seven strains in NWSc, showing a microbial diversity also at strain level. Characterization of the microbiota of natural whey starters aims to collect new starter bacteria to use for tracing microbial community during the production of artisanal cheeses, in order to preserve their quality and authenticity, and to select new Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) strains for the production of functional foods. Full article
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Article
Nondestructive Prediction of Isoflavones and Oligosaccharides in Intact Soybean Seed Using Fourier Transform Near-Infrared (FT-NIR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopic Techniques
Foods 2022, 11(2), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020232 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 491
Abstract
The demand for rapid and nondestructive methods to determine chemical components in food and agricultural products is proliferating due to being beneficial for screening food quality. This research investigates the feasibility of Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to [...] Read more.
The demand for rapid and nondestructive methods to determine chemical components in food and agricultural products is proliferating due to being beneficial for screening food quality. This research investigates the feasibility of Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to predict total as well as an individual type of isoflavones and oligosaccharides using intact soybean samples. A partial least square regression method was performed to develop models based on the spectral data of 310 soybean samples, which were synchronized to the reference values evaluated using a conventional assay. Furthermore, the obtained models were tested using soybean varieties not initially involved in the model construction. As a result, the best prediction models of FT-NIR were allowed to predict total isoflavones and oligosaccharides using intact seeds with acceptable performance (R2p: 0.80 and 0.72), which were slightly better than the model obtained based on FT-IR data (R2p: 0.73 and 0.70). The results also demonstrate the possibility of using FT-NIR to predict individual types of evaluated components, denoted by acceptable performance values of prediction model (R2p) of over 0.70. In addition, the result of the testing model proved the model’s performance by obtaining a similar R2 and error to the calibration model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nondestructive Optical Sensing for Food Quality and Safety Inspection)
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Article
Limosilactobacillus fermentum MG4295 Improves Hyperglycemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Mice
Foods 2022, 11(2), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020231 - 15 Jan 2022
Viewed by 482
Abstract
Hyperglycemia due to uncontrolled glucose regulation is widely known as cause of diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and other complications. NAFLD refers to a condition in which fat is excessively accumulated, whether inflamed or not, and has caused serious medical problems in [...] Read more.
Hyperglycemia due to uncontrolled glucose regulation is widely known as cause of diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and other complications. NAFLD refers to a condition in which fat is excessively accumulated, whether inflamed or not, and has caused serious medical problems in recent years. The aim of this study was to explore the antihyperglycemia effects of Limosilactobacillus fermentum MG4295 (L. fermentum MG4295) in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced in vivo. We demonstrated the suitability of L. fermentum MG4295 as a probiotic by observing its stability, survivability, and proliferation under simulated gastrointestinal conditions, and safety, antibiotic susceptibility, hemolysis, and enzyme activity. The potential antihyperglycemic activity of L. fermentum MG4295 was investigated in an HFD and sugar-water-induced mouse model. Administration of this strain for 12 weeks showed an improved trend in glucose tolerance, insulin, alanine amino transferase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucagon-like peptide-1. Histopathological analysis revealed that L. fermentum MG4295 significantly reduced the histopathological scores of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and hepatocellular hypertrophy in liver tissues and lipid content in adipose tissues. Administration of L. fermentum MG4295 upregulated IRS-1, AKT, and GLUT4 and downregulated G6Pc and PEPCK expression in liver and/or muscle tissues. Our results suggest that L. fermentum MG4295 can improve hyperglycemia. Furthermore, it can be used as a dietary functional supplement to manage blood glucose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Research of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fermented Foods)
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Article
Quality of Protein Isolates and Hydrolysates from Baltic Herring (Clupea harengus membras) and Roach (Rutilus rutilus) Produced by pH-Shift Processes and Enzymatic Hydrolysis
Foods 2022, 11(2), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020230 - 15 Jan 2022
Viewed by 491
Abstract
Fractionation is a potential way to valorize under-utilized fishes, but the quality of the resulting fractions is crucial in terms of their applicability. The aim of this work was to study the quality of protein isolates and hydrolysates extracted from roach (Rutilus [...] Read more.
Fractionation is a potential way to valorize under-utilized fishes, but the quality of the resulting fractions is crucial in terms of their applicability. The aim of this work was to study the quality of protein isolates and hydrolysates extracted from roach (Rutilus rutilus) and Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) using either pH shift or enzymatic hydrolysis. The amino acid composition of protein isolates and hydrolysates mostly complied with the nutritional requirements for adults, but protein isolates produced using pH shift showed higher essential to non-essential amino acid ratios compared with enzymatically produced hydrolysates, 0.84–0.85 vs. 0.65–0.70, respectively. Enzymatically produced protein hydrolysates had a lower total lipid content, lower proportion of phospholipids, and exhibited lower degrees of protein and lipid oxidation compared with pH-shift-produced isolates. These findings suggest enzymatic hydrolysis to be more promising from a lipid oxidation perspective while the pH-shift method ranked higher from a nutrient perspective. However, due to the different applications of protein isolates and hydrolysates produced using pH shift or enzymatic hydrolysis, respectively, the further optimization of both studied methods is recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food By-Products as a Source of Proteins and Peptides)
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Article
Formation of Natural Egg Yolk Granule Stabilized Pickering High Internal Phase Emulsions by Means of NaCl Ionic Strength and pH Change
Foods 2022, 11(2), 229; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020229 - 15 Jan 2022
Viewed by 451
Abstract
Pickering high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) are gel-like concentrated emulsions that have the potential to be an alternative to partially hydrogenated oil (PHO). In this study, egg yolk granules (EYGs), natural complexes of protein and lipid isolated from egg yolk, were used as [...] Read more.
Pickering high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) are gel-like concentrated emulsions that have the potential to be an alternative to partially hydrogenated oil (PHO). In this study, egg yolk granules (EYGs), natural complexes of protein and lipid isolated from egg yolk, were used as an emulsifier to prepare Pickering HIPEs. Gel-like HIPEs with an oil phase volume fraction of 85% and with an emulsifier concentration of only 0.5% could be prepared by using EYGs as an emulsifier. The EYGs were able to form stable HIPEs at NaCl ionic strengths over 0.2 M and at pH over 5.0 with NaCl ionic strength of 0.3 M. The EYGs, which could stabilize HIPEs, were easily to adsorb and cover the oil-water interface to form emulsion droplets with small particle size. In addition, interacting EYGs in the aqueous phase formed a continuous network structure, and the oil droplets packed closely, exhibiting high elasticity and shear thinning behavior. Furthermore, the formed HIPEs had suitable storage stability with no significant changes in appearance and microstructure after storage for 60 days. This work can transform traditional oils from liquid-like to solid-like by using EYGs to enrich food processing diversity and improve the storage stability of oils while reducing the intake of PHO and providing a healthier diet for consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Egg Protein: Structure and Function)
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Article
Impact of Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Microfluidization on the Techno-Functionality of Oat Bran in Suspension and Acid Milk Gel Models
Foods 2022, 11(2), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020228 - 15 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 429
Abstract
Oat bran is a nutritionally rich ingredient, but it is underutilized in semi-moist and liquid foods due to technological issues such as high viscosity and sliminess. The aim of this work was to improve the technological properties of oat bran concentrate (OBC) in [...] Read more.
Oat bran is a nutritionally rich ingredient, but it is underutilized in semi-moist and liquid foods due to technological issues such as high viscosity and sliminess. The aim of this work was to improve the technological properties of oat bran concentrate (OBC) in high-moisture food applications by enzymatic and mechanical treatments. OBC was hydrolyzed with β-glucanase (OBC-Hyd) and the water-soluble fraction (OBC-Sol) was separated. OBC, OBC-Hyd and OBC-Sol were further microfluidized at 5% dry matter content. Enzymatic treatment and microfluidization of OBC reduced the molecular weight (Mw) of β-glucan from 2748 kDa to 893 and 350 kDa, respectively, as well as the average particle size of OBC (3.4 and 35 times, respectively). Both treatments increased the extractability of the soluble compounds from the OBC samples (up to 80%) and affected their water retention capacity. OBC in suspension had very high viscosity (969 mPa·s) when heated, which decreased after both enzyme and microfluidization treatments. The colloidal stability of the OBC in suspension was improved, especially after microfluidization. The addition of OBC samples to acid milk gels decreased syneresis, improved the water holding capacity and softened the texture. The changes in the suspension and gel characteristics were linked with reduced β-glucan Mw and OBC particle size. Full article
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Article
Influencing Factors for Sustainable Dietary Transformation—A Case Study of German Food Consumption
Foods 2022, 11(2), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020227 - 15 Jan 2022
Viewed by 843
Abstract
In a case study of Germany, we examine current food consumption along the three pillars of sustainability to evaluate external factors that influence consumers’ dietary decisions. We investigate to what extent diets meet nutritional requirements (social factor), the diets’ environmental impact (ecological factor), [...] Read more.
In a case study of Germany, we examine current food consumption along the three pillars of sustainability to evaluate external factors that influence consumers’ dietary decisions. We investigate to what extent diets meet nutritional requirements (social factor), the diets’ environmental impact (ecological factor), and the food prices’ influence on purchasing behavior (economic factor). For this, we compare two dietary recommendations (plant-based, omnivorous) with the status quo, and we examine different consumption styles (conventional, organic produce). Additionally, we evaluate 1446 prices of food items from three store types (organic store, supermarket, and discounter). With this, we are able to evaluate and compare 30 different food baskets along their health, environmental, and economic impact. Results show that purchasing decisions are only slightly influenced by health-related factors. Furthermore, few consumers align their diet with low environmental impact. In contrast, a large share of consumers opt for cheap foods, regardless of health and environmental consequences. We find that price is, arguably, the main factor in food choices from a sustainability standpoint. Action should be taken by policy makers to financially incentivize consumers in favor of healthy and environmentally friendly diets. Otherwise, the status quo further drives especially underprivileged consumers towards unhealthy and environmentally damaging consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Influencing Factors of Food Choice and Food Consumption)
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Article
Effects of Dual-Frequency Ultrasound-Assisted Thawing Technology on Thawing Rate, Quality Properties, and Microstructure of Large Yellow Croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea)
Foods 2022, 11(2), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020226 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 406
Abstract
This research evaluated the effects of dual-frequency ultrasound-assisted thawing (UAT) on the thawing time, physicochemical quality, water-holding capacity (WHC), microstructure, and moisture migration and distribution of large yellow croaker. Water thawing (WT), refrigerated thawing (RT), and UAT (single-frequency: 28 kHz (SUAT-28), single-frequency: 40 [...] Read more.
This research evaluated the effects of dual-frequency ultrasound-assisted thawing (UAT) on the thawing time, physicochemical quality, water-holding capacity (WHC), microstructure, and moisture migration and distribution of large yellow croaker. Water thawing (WT), refrigerated thawing (RT), and UAT (single-frequency: 28 kHz (SUAT-28), single-frequency: 40 kHz (SUAT-40), dual-frequency: 28 kHz and 40 kHz (DUAT-28/40)) were used in the current research. Among them, the DUAT-28/40 treatment had the shortest thawing time, and ultrasound significantly improved the thawing rate. It also retained a better performance from the samples, such as color, texture, water-holding capacity and water distribution, and inhibited disruption of the microstructure. In addition, a quality property analysis showed that the pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), and K value were the most desirable under the DUAT-28/40 treatment, as well as this being best for the flavor of the samples. Therefore, DUAT-28/40 treatment could be a possible thawing method because it improves the thawing rate and maintains the quality properties of large yellow croaker. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Non-Thermal Food Processing Technologies)
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Article
What Is Safe and How Much Does It Matter? Food Vendors’ and Consumers’ Views on Food Safety in Urban Nigeria
Foods 2022, 11(2), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020225 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 953
Abstract
This study examines the food safety beliefs of vendors and consumers in a mid-sized Nigerian city using data from in-depth interviews and cognitive mapping techniques drawn from ethnography. We examine vendors’ and consumers’ perspectives on which foods are safe, which are not, and [...] Read more.
This study examines the food safety beliefs of vendors and consumers in a mid-sized Nigerian city using data from in-depth interviews and cognitive mapping techniques drawn from ethnography. We examine vendors’ and consumers’ perspectives on which foods are safe, which are not, and why; the place of foodborne illness among other health concerns and motivators of food choice; and how salient food safety is as a concern for vendors. The main perceived causes of unsafe food were found to be chemicals and insects; while bacterial illnesses were widely mentioned as a cause of gastrointestinal symptoms, these were not necessarily linked to food in consumers’ minds. Respondents agreed strongly that certain foods (e.g., cowpea, beef, green leafy vegetables, and local rice) were less safe than others. The importance of food safety as a choice motivator among consumers varies depending on framing: when asked directly, it was prominent and closely related to visible cleanliness, but concerns about food safety competed in consumers’ minds against other salient motivators of food and vendor choice, such as price. Most vendors did not see food safety, cleanliness, or hygiene as a key trait of a successful vendor, and just over half of vendors had any concern about the safety of their food. In conclusion, we note the implications for intervention designs, particularly the need to build upon consumers’ and vendors’ current beliefs and practices related to food safety in order to make foodborne disease prevention a more salient concern in food choice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety and Behavior Change)
Article
Promoting Sustainable Lifestyle Habits: “Real Food” and Social Media in Spain
Foods 2022, 11(2), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020224 - 14 Jan 2022
Viewed by 662
Abstract
Obesity and state of being overweight are beginning to be treated as global epidemics. In this context, health professionals are increasingly acting as expert opinion leaders that use social media to connect with the public, in order to promote healthy lifestyles and provide [...] Read more.
Obesity and state of being overweight are beginning to be treated as global epidemics. In this context, health professionals are increasingly acting as expert opinion leaders that use social media to connect with the public, in order to promote healthy lifestyles and provide specific recommendations for different product categories, including fresh, processed, and ultra-processed meat products. This study investigates how exposure to content created by health professionals, and posted on social media, influences consumers’ attitudes. For this purpose, the collaboration of one relevant nutritionist influencer in Spain has been obtained. The online survey created has provided 4.584 responses, received from followers (from May to June 2019). After applying a partial least squares path modeling approach, the results suggest that trust in the content shared, the perceived credibility of the professional sharing the information and the informative value, determine the strength with which consumers acquire more knowledge about endorsed products, develop a favorable predisposition towards them, prefer them over their options, and modify their behaviour by purchasing them, instead of their usual foods. The link is stronger, in the case of trust and influencer’s credibility, than for informative value. However, the latter has an indirect effect on the attitude phases through the former. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Open Innovation in Meat and Meat Products)
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Review
High Pressure Processing Applications in Plant Foods
Foods 2022, 11(2), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020223 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 632
Abstract
High pressure processing (HPP) is a cold pasteurization technology by which products, prepacked in their final package, are introduced to a vessel and subjected to a high level of isostatic pressure (300–600 MPa). High-pressure treatment of fruit, vegetable and fresh herb homogenate products [...] Read more.
High pressure processing (HPP) is a cold pasteurization technology by which products, prepacked in their final package, are introduced to a vessel and subjected to a high level of isostatic pressure (300–600 MPa). High-pressure treatment of fruit, vegetable and fresh herb homogenate products offers us nearly fresh products in regard to sensorial and nutritional quality of original raw materials, representing relatively stable and safe source of nutrients, vitamins, minerals and health effective components. Such components can play an important role as a preventive tool against the start of illnesses, namely in the elderly. An overview of several food HPP products, namely of fruit and vegetable origin, marketed successfully around the world is presented. Effects of HPP and HPP plus heat on key spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, including the resistant spore form and fruit/vegetable endogenous enzymes are reviewed, including the effect on the product quality. Part of the paper is devoted to the industrial equipment available for factories manufacturing HPP treated products. Full article
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Article
Effects of Thickness Fraction Process on Physicochemical Properties, Cooking Qualities, and Sensory Characteristics of Long-Grain Rice Samples
Foods 2022, 11(2), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020222 - 14 Jan 2022
Viewed by 439
Abstract
A process of removing thinner kernels of rough rice, i.e., thickness fraction process, has been suggested as a method for increasing milling yields in the rice industry. This study aimed at determining whether physicochemical properties, cooking qualities, and sensory characteristics of rice samples [...] Read more.
A process of removing thinner kernels of rough rice, i.e., thickness fraction process, has been suggested as a method for increasing milling yields in the rice industry. This study aimed at determining whether physicochemical properties, cooking qualities, and sensory characteristics of rice samples could be changed by the addition of a thickness fraction into the rice process stream. Each of four long-grain rice cultivar lots was assigned into two groups: unfractionated and thickness-fractionated. For the thickness-fractionated group, thin rice kernels (<1.9 mm) of rough rice were discarded from unfractionated rice samples. Unfractionated and thickness-fractionated rice samples were compared with respect to physicochemical properties, cooking qualities, and sensory characteristics. The results showed that the removal of such thin kernels decreased the breakage and chalkiness rates and increased head rice yields. Fractionated rice samples exhibited lower amylose contents and crude protein contents but higher gelatinization temperatures than unfractionated rice samples. While the optimum cooking duration and width–expansion ratios of thickness-fractionated rice samples were higher than those of unfractionated ones, there was a negligible impact of the thickness fraction process on sensory characteristics of long-grain rice samples. In conclusion, the thickness fraction process affects physicochemical properties and cooking qualities more than the sensory characteristics of rice samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
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Article
The Effect of Microwave Irradiation on the Representation and Growth of Moulds in Nuts and Almonds
Foods 2022, 11(2), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020221 - 14 Jan 2022
Viewed by 338
Abstract
Microwave (MW) irradiation is a non-destructive method that can be applied as an alternative method to inhibit the growth of microorganisms. The present study evaluated the effect of MW irradiation on the occurrence of moulds in nuts and almonds. Samples of unshelled natural [...] Read more.
Microwave (MW) irradiation is a non-destructive method that can be applied as an alternative method to inhibit the growth of microorganisms. The present study evaluated the effect of MW irradiation on the occurrence of moulds in nuts and almonds. Samples of unshelled natural almonds, pistachios, and in-shell peanuts were treated with different doses of MW irradiation (2400–4000 W). The effect of MW irradiation on mould counts was evaluated by cultivating immediately after irradiation and after 3 and 6 months of storage. The most represented genera in all analysed samples were Aspergillus (68%), Penicillium (21%), and a small amount of Cladosporium (3%). Mould numbers significantly decreased after MW treatment. The treatments with MW irradiations at 3000 and 4000 W significantly reduced the mould colony counts, and their effect persisted during storage; irradiation at 2400 W was partially effective. The strongest effect of MW irradiation was observed in in-shell peanuts. MW irradiation seems to be a promising method for maintaining the microbiological quality of nuts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Article
Lipid Profiles in Preliminary Germinated Brown Rice Beverages Compared to Non-Germinated Brown and White Rice Beverages
Foods 2022, 11(2), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020220 - 14 Jan 2022
Viewed by 400
Abstract
Brown rice is nutritionally superior to white rice, yet oil rancidity can be problematic during processing and storage regarding sensory attributes. Germinating brown rice is known to generally increase some health-promoting compounds. In response to increasing the consumption of plant-based beverages, we sprouted [...] Read more.
Brown rice is nutritionally superior to white rice, yet oil rancidity can be problematic during processing and storage regarding sensory attributes. Germinating brown rice is known to generally increase some health-promoting compounds. In response to increasing the consumption of plant-based beverages, we sprouted unstabilized brown rice, using green technologies and saccharification enzymes for value-added beverages. ‘Rondo’ paddy rice was dehulled, sorted and germinated, and beverages were produced and compared against non-germinated brown and white brewers rice beverages. The preliminary germinated brown rice beverage contained significantly higher concentrations of total lipids, diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols, free sterols, phytosterol esters and oryzanols than both non-germinated brown and white rice beverages. White rice beverages had significantly higher free fatty acids. Significant lipid losses occurred during sieving, yet novel germinated brown rice beverages contained appreciable levels of valuable health-beneficial lipids, which appeared to form natural emulsions. Further pilot plant investigations should be scaled-up for pasteurization and adjusted through emulsification to ameliorate sieving losses. Full article
Article
Influence of Endogenous Factors of Food Matrices on Avidin—Biotin Immunoassays for the Detection of Bacitracin and Colistin in Food
Foods 2022, 11(2), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020219 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 395
Abstract
(Strept)avidin–biotin technology is frequently used in immunoassay systems to improve their analytical properties. It is known from clinical practice that many (strept)avidin–biotin-based tests provide false results when analyzing patient samples with a high content of endogenous biotin. No specific investigation has been carried [...] Read more.
(Strept)avidin–biotin technology is frequently used in immunoassay systems to improve their analytical properties. It is known from clinical practice that many (strept)avidin–biotin-based tests provide false results when analyzing patient samples with a high content of endogenous biotin. No specific investigation has been carried out regarding possible interferences from avidin (AVI) and biotin (B7) contained in food matrices in (strept)avidin–biotin-based immunoanalytical systems for food safety. Two kinds of competitive ELISAs for bacitracin (BT) and colistin (COL) determination in food matrices were developed based on conventional hapten–protein coating conjugates and biotinylated BT and COL bound to immobilized streptavidin (SAV). Coating SAV–B7–BT and SAV–B7–COL complexes-based ELISAs provided 2- and 15-times better sensitivity in BT and COL determination, corresponding to 0.6 and 0.3 ng/mL, respectively. Simultaneously with the determination of the main analytes, these kinds of tests were used as competitive assays for the assessment of AVI or B7 content up to 10 and 1 ng/mL, respectively, in food matrices (egg, infant milk formulas enriched with B7, chicken and beef liver). Matrix-free experiments with AVI/B7-enriched solutions showed distortion of the standard curves, indicating that these ingredients interfere with the adequate quantification of analytes. Summarizing the experience of the present study, it is recommended to avoid immunoassays based on avidin–biotin interactions when analyzing biosamples containing these endogenous factors or enriched with B7. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Antibody and Immunoassay for Food Safety)
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Article
Survival Analysis to Predict How Color Influences the Shelf Life of Strawberry Leather
Foods 2022, 11(2), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020218 - 13 Jan 2022
Viewed by 502
Abstract
Color change of fruit-based products during storage is an important quality parameter to determine their shelf life. In this study, a combination of relative humidity (RH) and illumination was evaluated on the stability of strawberry leathers. Samples were conditioned at 25 °C, in [...] Read more.
Color change of fruit-based products during storage is an important quality parameter to determine their shelf life. In this study, a combination of relative humidity (RH) and illumination was evaluated on the stability of strawberry leathers. Samples were conditioned at 25 °C, in chambers with RH of 22.5% and 52.3% and under two levels of illumination (no illumination and with a light-emitting diode (LED) illumination at 1010 lx). Samples were analyzed during storage by instrumental color measurements, total anthocyanin content, and consumers’ acceptance/rejection of the product color. Current-status survival analysis was performed to estimate the sensory-based shelf-life of the strawberry leather. The chromatic parameters (a* and ΔE* values) and anthocyanin content changed with increasing storage time and RH, fitting a first-order fractional conversion model. Samples conditioned at the higher RH showed a higher reduction of a* values and anthocyanins losses when stored under LED illumination than those without illumination. The increase of RH resulted in a faster increase of the consumer rejection probability and a shorter shelf life of the strawberry leather. For 50% of consumers’ rejection, the sensory shelf life of the strawberry leather equilibrated at 22.5% RH was estimated as at least 54 days, while it was reduced to approximately 2 days at 52.3% RH. The red chromatic parameter (a* value) strongly correlated to the percentage of consumer rejection in all storage conditions, suggesting that this analytical parameter can be useful as a predictor of strawberry leather’s shelf life. Therefore, the results of this study show the applicability of an approach that integrates instrumental and sensory data to acquire faster information on color changes during the storage of strawberry leather and product shelf-life prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges and Opportunities in Edible Film Technology)
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Article
The Quality Changes and Proteomic Analysis of Cattle Muscle Postmortem during Rigor Mortis
Foods 2022, 11(2), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020217 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 556
Abstract
Rigor mortis occurs in a relatively early postmortem period and is a complex biochemical process in the conversion of muscle to meat. Understanding the quality changes and biomarkers during rigor mortis can provide a theoretical basis for maintaining and improving meat quality. Herein, [...] Read more.
Rigor mortis occurs in a relatively early postmortem period and is a complex biochemical process in the conversion of muscle to meat. Understanding the quality changes and biomarkers during rigor mortis can provide a theoretical basis for maintaining and improving meat quality. Herein, a tandem mass tag proteomic method is used to investigate the effects of differentially expressed proteins on the meat quality of cattle Longissimus lumborum muscle postmortem (0, 6, and 24 h). The pH, total sulfhydryl content and sarcomere length decrease significantly during storage. In contrast, meat color values (L*, a*, and b*) and the myofibril fragmentation index increase significantly. Altogether, 147 differentially expressed proteins are identified, most being categorized as metabolic enzymes, mitochondrial proteins, necroptosis and ferroptosis proteins and structural proteins. The results also reveal additional proteins that are potentially involved in rigor mortis, such as cardiac phospholamban, acetyl-coenzyme A acyltransferase, and ankyrin repeat domain 2. The current results provide proteomic insights into the changes in meat quality during rigor mortis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postmortem Factors Affecting Meat Quality)
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