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Foods, Volume 10, Issue 3 (March 2021) – 207 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Brewers’ spent grain (BSG), the major by-product of the brewing industry, can be used as a functional ingredient to increase the nutritional value of cereal-based products. In this work, micronized BSG from the einkorn and tritordeum brewing processes were characterized and used to produce four macaroni pasta formulations enriched with BSG at ratios of 5 g and 10 g/100 g of semolina. Einkorn BSG showed the highest values for all the parameters analyzed—proteins, total dietary fiber (TDF) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC)—except for β-glucan. TDF increased up to 42 and 68% in pasta samples enriched with 10% of BSG from tritordeum and einkorn, respectively. View this paper
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28 pages, 1715 KiB  
Review
Morus alba L. Plant: Bioactive Compounds and Potential as a Functional Food Ingredient
by Centhyea Chen, Umi Hartina Mohamad Razali, Fiffy Hanisdah Saikim, Azniza Mahyudin and Nor Qhairul Izzreen Mohd Noor
Foods 2021, 10(3), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030689 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 72 | Viewed by 7470
Abstract
Morus alba L. (M. alba) is a highly adaptable plant that is extensively incorporated in many traditional and Ayurveda medications. Various parts of the plant, such as leaves, fruits, and seeds, possess nutritional and medicinal value. M. alba has abundant phytochemicals, [...] Read more.
Morus alba L. (M. alba) is a highly adaptable plant that is extensively incorporated in many traditional and Ayurveda medications. Various parts of the plant, such as leaves, fruits, and seeds, possess nutritional and medicinal value. M. alba has abundant phytochemicals, including phenolic acids, flavonoids, flavonols, anthocyanins, macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, and volatile aromatic compounds, indicating its excellent pharmacological abilities. M. alba also contains high nutraceutical values for protein, carbohydrates, fiber, organic acids, vitamins, and minerals, as well as a low lipid value. However, despite its excellent biological properties and nutritional value, M. alba has not been fully considered as a potential functional food ingredient. Therefore, this review reports on the nutrients and bioactive compounds available in M. alba leaves, fruit, and seeds; its nutraceutical properties, functional properties as an ingredient in foodstuffs, and a microencapsulation technique to enhance polyphenol stability. Finally, as scaling up to a bigger production plant is needed to accommodate industrial demand, the study and limitation on an M. alba upscaling process is reviewed. Full article
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18 pages, 3717 KiB  
Review
A Theoretical Framework on the Determinants of Food Purchasing Behavior of the Elderly: A Bibliometric Review with Scientific Mapping in Web of Science
by Khaled Alhammadi, Luna Santos-Roldán and Luis Javier Cabeza-Ramírez
Foods 2021, 10(3), 688; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030688 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 7241
Abstract
The past few years have seen significant demographic changes in most regions, including an increased elderly population. Subsequently, elderly citizens comprise an important market segment of consumers, with the food industry one of the most affected areas in this context. However, food market [...] Read more.
The past few years have seen significant demographic changes in most regions, including an increased elderly population. Subsequently, elderly citizens comprise an important market segment of consumers, with the food industry one of the most affected areas in this context. However, food market managers previously believed that elderly consumers’ needs were stereotyped in nature. The lack of focus on this sector, therefore, left elderly consumers as an untapped market, without realizing the financial independence of this segment regarding their nutrition. This research will attempt to provide the key determinant factors on elderly consumers’ behavior related to food. For that purpose, a complete literature review of more than 123 papers regarding these concepts has been carried out. Once analyzed, we highlight the common insights to give clear guidance for supermarket managers and food manufacturers to have a better knowledge of the reasons behind elderly people’s food acquisitions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimised Food Products for Elderly Populations)
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22 pages, 5697 KiB  
Article
Postharvest Dehydration Temperature Modulates the Transcriptomic Programme and Flavonoid Profile of Grape Berries
by Keqin Chen, Jiahua Sun, Zhihao Li, Junxia Zhang, Ziyu Li, Li Chen, Wanping Li, Yulin Fang and Kekun Zhang
Foods 2021, 10(3), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030687 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2596
Abstract
Raisins are a popular and nutritious snack that is produced through the dehydration of postharvest grape berries under high temperature (HT). However, the response of the endogenous metabolism of white grape varieties to postharvest dehydration under different temperature have not been fully elucidated [...] Read more.
Raisins are a popular and nutritious snack that is produced through the dehydration of postharvest grape berries under high temperature (HT). However, the response of the endogenous metabolism of white grape varieties to postharvest dehydration under different temperature have not been fully elucidated to date. In this study, the white grape cultivar ‘Xiangfei’ was chosen to investigate the effect of dehydration at 50 °C, 40 °C, and 30 °C on the transcriptomic programme and metabolite profiles of grape berries. Postharvest dehydration promoted the accumulation of soluble sugar components and organic acids in berries. The content of gallic acid and its derivatives increased during the dehydration process and the temperature of 40 °C was the optimal for flavonoids and proanthocyanidins accumulation. High-temperature dehydration stress might promote the accumulation of gallic acid by increasing the expression levels of their biosynthesis related genes and regulating the production of NADP+ and NADPH. Compared with that at 30 °C, dehydration at 40 °C accelerated the transcription programme of 7654 genes and induced the continuous upregulation of genes related to the heat stress response and redox homeostasis in each stage. The results of this study indicate that an appropriate dehydration temperature should be selected and applied when producing polyphenols-rich raisins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Foodomics)
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15 pages, 2425 KiB  
Article
Effects of Molecular Weight and Degree of Esterification of Soluble Soybean Polysaccharide on the Stability of Casein under Acidic Conditions
by Hao Tian, Qizhu Zhao, Zhiyong He, Zhaojun Wang, Fang Qin, Maomao Zeng and Jie Chen
Foods 2021, 10(3), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030686 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2682
Abstract
The effects of molecular weight (MW) and degree of esterification (DE) of soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) on the stability of casein under acidic conditions were investigated. The ability of SSPS to stabilize casein was characterized by the content of SSPS–casein complex, the LUMiSizer [...] Read more.
The effects of molecular weight (MW) and degree of esterification (DE) of soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) on the stability of casein under acidic conditions were investigated. The ability of SSPS to stabilize casein was characterized by the content of SSPS–casein complex, the LUMiSizer instability index, average particle size, zeta potential, and storage experiments. The long-term storage stability of the mixtures was related to their ability to combine casein and the stability of the complexes. At the same DE, SSPSs with medium MW formed more complexes with casein than SSPSs with high or low MW; and at the same MW, SSPSs with medium or low DE formed more complexes than SPSSs with high DE. In addition, SSPSs with higher MW had a better stabilizing behavior due to the large steric repulsion between complexes. SSPSs with high MW and low DE showed the best ability to stabilize casein under acid conditions. Full article
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14 pages, 2315 KiB  
Article
Shelf-Life Evolution of the Fatty Acid Fingerprint in High-Quality Hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) Harvested in Different Geographical Regions
by Marta Cialiè Rosso, Federico Stilo, Steven Mascrez, Carlo Bicchi, Giorgia Purcaro and Chiara Cordero
Foods 2021, 10(3), 685; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030685 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2578
Abstract
Hazelnuts are characterized by a relatively high abundance of oleic acid and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, which give this fruit a high nutritional value. As a counterbalance, such a lipid profile is more susceptible to autoxidation and/or degradation reactions under enzymatic catalysis. Lipid oxidation [...] Read more.
Hazelnuts are characterized by a relatively high abundance of oleic acid and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, which give this fruit a high nutritional value. As a counterbalance, such a lipid profile is more susceptible to autoxidation and/or degradation reactions under enzymatic catalysis. Lipid oxidation occurs on fatty acids (FAs), both esterified on triacylglycerols and in free form (after lipolysis), but with favorable kinetics on the latter. In this study, the quali-quantitative changes in FA profiles (both free and esterified) were monitored during the shelf life (time 0, 6, and 12 months) as a function of different drying and storage conditions and different cultivars and geographical areas. A derivatization/extraction procedure was performed to quantify the profile of free and esterified fatty acids accurately. The overall profile of the free and esterified fatty acids concurred to create a biological signature characteristic of the cultivar and of the harvest region. The free and esterified forms’ characterization enabled the efficient monitoring of the effects of both the hydrolytic activity (increment in overall free fatty acids) and the oxidative process (decrease in unsaturated free fatty acids versus esterified fatty acids) over the 12 months of storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization and Detection of Lipid Substances in Food)
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17 pages, 1762 KiB  
Article
Consumer-Led Adaptation of the EsSense Profile® for Herbal Infusions
by Célia Rocha, Ana Pinto Moura, Diana Pereira, Rui Costa Lima and Luís Miguel Cunha
Foods 2021, 10(3), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030684 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2836
Abstract
This work aimed to adapt the EsSense Profile® emotions list to the discrimination of herbal infusions, aiming to evaluate the effect of harvesting conditions on the emotional profile. A panel of 100 consumers evaluated eight organic infusions: lemon verbena, peppermint, lemon thyme, [...] Read more.
This work aimed to adapt the EsSense Profile® emotions list to the discrimination of herbal infusions, aiming to evaluate the effect of harvesting conditions on the emotional profile. A panel of 100 consumers evaluated eight organic infusions: lemon verbena, peppermint, lemon thyme, lemongrass, chamomile, lemon balm, globe amaranth and tutsan, using a check-all-that-apply (CATA) ballot with the original EsSense Profile®. A set of criteria was applied to get a discriminant list. First, the terms with low discriminant power and with a frequency mention below 35% were removed. Two focus groups were also performed to evaluate the applicability of the questionnaire. The content analysis of focus groups suggests the removal of the terms good and pleasant, recognized as sensory attributes. Six additional terms were removed, considered to be too similar to other existing emotion terms. Changes in the questionnaire, resulting in a list of 24 emotion terms for the evaluation of selected herbal infusions, were able to discriminate beyond overall liking. When comparing finer differences between plants harvested under different conditions, differences were identified for lemon verbena infusions, yielding the mechanical cut of plant tips as the one leading to a more appealing evoked emotions profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Individual Determinants of Food Choice in a New Decade)
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17 pages, 2546 KiB  
Review
Coffee By-Products and Their Suitability for Developing Active Food Packaging Materials
by Gonçalo Oliveira, Cláudia P. Passos, Paula Ferreira, Manuel A. Coimbra and Idalina Gonçalves
Foods 2021, 10(3), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030683 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 15412
Abstract
The coffee industry generates a wide variety of by-products derived from green coffee processing (pulp, mucilage, parchment, and husk) and roasting (silverskin and spent coffee grounds). All these fractions are simply discarded, despite their high potential value. Given their polysaccharide-rich composition, along with [...] Read more.
The coffee industry generates a wide variety of by-products derived from green coffee processing (pulp, mucilage, parchment, and husk) and roasting (silverskin and spent coffee grounds). All these fractions are simply discarded, despite their high potential value. Given their polysaccharide-rich composition, along with a significant number of other active biomolecules, coffee by-products are being considered for use in the production of plastics, in line with the notion of the circular economy. This review highlights the chemical composition of coffee by-products and their fractionation, evaluating their potential for use either as polymeric matrices or additives for developing plastic materials. Coffee by-product-derived molecules can confer antioxidant and antimicrobial activities upon plastic materials, as well as surface hydrophobicity, gas impermeability, and increased mechanical resistance, suitable for the development of active food packaging. Overall, this review aims to identify sustainable and eco-friendly strategies for valorizing coffee by-products while offering suitable raw materials for biodegradable plastic formulations, emphasizing their application in the food packaging sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reviews on Food Physics and Food (Bio)Chemistry)
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19 pages, 815 KiB  
Article
Does the ‘Mountain Pasture Product’ Claim Affect Local Cheese Acceptability?
by Isabella Endrizzi, Danny Cliceri, Leonardo Menghi, Eugenio Aprea and Flavia Gasperi
Foods 2021, 10(3), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030682 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3565
Abstract
This paper aims to explore the impact of “mountain pasture product” information on the acceptability of local protected designation of origin (PDO) cheese produced from the raw milk of cows grazing in mountain pastures (P) or reared in valley floor stalls (S). A [...] Read more.
This paper aims to explore the impact of “mountain pasture product” information on the acceptability of local protected designation of origin (PDO) cheese produced from the raw milk of cows grazing in mountain pastures (P) or reared in valley floor stalls (S). A total of 156 consumers (55% males, mean age 41 years) were asked to evaluate their overall liking on a 9-point hedonic scale of four samples: Cheeses P and S were presented twice with different information about the origin of the milk (cows grazing on mountain pasture or reared in a valley floor stall). Demographics, consumer habits, and opinions on mountain pasture practice (MPP), attitudes towards sustainability, and food-related behaviours (i.e., diet, food waste production, organic food, and zero food miles products purchase) were recorded and used to segment consumers. The cheeses were all considered more than acceptable, even though they were found to be significantly different in colour and texture by instrumental analyses. In the whole consumer panel, the cheese P was preferred, while in consumer segments less attentive to product characteristics, this effect was not significant. External information had a strong effect: Overall liking was significantly higher in cheeses presented as “mountain pasture product”, both in the whole panel and in consumer segments with different attitudes (except for those with a low opinion of MPP). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory and Consumer Research for a Sustainable Food System)
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13 pages, 258 KiB  
Article
Understanding Food Waste, Food Insecurity, and the Gap between the Two: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study in Saudi Arabia
by Nora A. Althumiri, Mada H. Basyouni, Ali F. Duhaim, Norah AlMousa, Mohammed F. AlJuwaysim and Nasser F. BinDhim
Foods 2021, 10(3), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030681 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 19178
Abstract
Background: Food waste and food insecurity may co-exist in various balances in developing and developed countries. This study aimed to explore the levels of food waste and food insecurity, the factors associated with them, and their relationships at the household and individual levels [...] Read more.
Background: Food waste and food insecurity may co-exist in various balances in developing and developed countries. This study aimed to explore the levels of food waste and food insecurity, the factors associated with them, and their relationships at the household and individual levels in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This study was a nationwide cross-sectional survey conducted via computer-assisted phone interviews in January 2021. Quota sampling was utilized to generate balanced distributions of participants by gender across all the administrative regions of Saudi Arabia. Data collection included household demographics, food waste and disposal, the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES), and the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). Results: Out of the 2807 potential participants contacted, 2454 (87.4%) completed the interview. The mean age was 31.4 (SD = 11.7; range = 18–99) and 50.1% were female. The weighted prevalence of uncooked food waste in the last four weeks was 63.6% and the cooked food waste was 74.4%. However, the food insecurity weighted prevalence at the individual level (FIES) was 6.8%. In terms of food insecurity at the household level (HFIAS), 13.3% were in the “severely food insecure” category. Moreover, this study found that “moderately food insecure” households were associated with an increased likelihood to waste uncooked food (relative risk (RR) = 1.25), and the “mildly food insecure” (RR = 1.21) and “moderately food insecure” (RR = 1.17) households were associated with an increased likelihood to waste cooked food. However, “food secure” households were associated with a decreased likelihood to waste cooked food (RR = 0.56). Finally, this study identified four household factors associated with food waste and three household factors that were associated with “severe food insecurity.” Conclusions: This first national coverage study to explore food waste and food insecurity at the individual level and household level, identified household factors associated with food waste and food insecurity and identified new associations between food waste and food insecurity in Saudi Arabia. The associations found between food waste and food insecurity are potential areas of intervention to reduce both food waste and food insecurity at the same time, toward achieving the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets related to food waste and food security. Full article
23 pages, 3240 KiB  
Review
Automatic and Intelligent Technologies of Solid-State Fermentation Process of Baijiu Production: Applications, Challenges, and Prospects
by Hong Ye, Juan Wang, Jie Shi, Jingyi Du, Yuanhao Zhou, Mingquan Huang and Baoguo Sun
Foods 2021, 10(3), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030680 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 5694
Abstract
Baijiu is the national liquor of China and the world’s most consumed spirit, which is produced using a unique and traditional solid-state fermentation (SSF) process. The development of an automatic and intelligent technology for SSF is more difficult than that for liquid-state fermentation. [...] Read more.
Baijiu is the national liquor of China and the world’s most consumed spirit, which is produced using a unique and traditional solid-state fermentation (SSF) process. The development of an automatic and intelligent technology for SSF is more difficult than that for liquid-state fermentation. However, the technological upgrading of the SSF process is crucial for reducing the labor intensity, saving manpower, avoiding the waste of materials and energy, and providing a favorable operation environment for workers; moreover, it provides a great reference value to similar industries. This article reviews the latest application progresses in automatic and intelligent technologies for Baijiu production. The important technical processes are introduced successively, including the production of Jiuqu, SSF, solid-state distillation, storage, and blending. The bottlenecks and challenges are pointed out for automatic and intelligent upgrading of these technical processes. Furthermore, the typical technology application cases in an integrated automatic production line of Baijiu are also summarized. Next, the industrial development status of Baijiu production is compared with those of other liquors in the world. Finally, future development directions are proposed. This review will provide an overall introduction and objective analysis of recent developments and current challenges in Baijiu manufacturing so as to promote the intelligent brewing of Baijiu. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Strategies to Improve Quality of Alcoholic Beverages)
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17 pages, 3349 KiB  
Article
Pepsin Hydrolysis of Orange By-Products for the Production of Bioactive Peptides with Gastrointestinal Resistant Properties
by Seyadeh Narges Mazloomi, Alireza Sadeghi Mahoonak, Leticia Mora, Mohammad Ghorbani, Gholamreza Houshmand and Fidel Toldrá
Foods 2021, 10(3), 679; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030679 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3489
Abstract
Recently, the use of bioactive compounds in improving human health has received more attention. The aim of the present study was to hydrolyze orange seed proteins using pepsin enzyme to obtain bioactive peptides as well as to study the stability of such activity [...] Read more.
Recently, the use of bioactive compounds in improving human health has received more attention. The aim of the present study was to hydrolyze orange seed proteins using pepsin enzyme to obtain bioactive peptides as well as to study the stability of such activity after simulated gastrointestinal digestion conditions. The method was optimized using different enzyme concentrations from 1% to 3%, hydrolysis times between 2 and 5 h, and an optimal temperature of 33 °C. Biological activities including α-glucosidase inhibition, α-amylase inhibition, Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACEI) inhibition, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity were evaluated. According to the results, a significant higher value of the biological activity (p < 0.05) was observed using an enzyme ratio of 0.03 E/S and hydrolysis time of 3.5 h. After size-exclusion chromatography separation, fractions 45–49 and 50–54 showed the highest biological roles such as antioxidant, ACEI inhibitory, and hypoglycemic. Fractions with the highest biological activity were purified using RP-HPLC and analyzed using nano-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The results obtained after simulated gastrointestinal digestion indicated that peptide fractions obtained after chromatographic separation significantly maintain their activity. Full article
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13 pages, 285 KiB  
Article
Probiotic Sheep Milk Ice Cream with Inulin and Apple Fiber
by Magdalena Kowalczyk, Agata Znamirowska and Magdalena Buniowska
Foods 2021, 10(3), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030678 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3695
Abstract
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of the addition of inulin and the replacement of part of the inulin with apple fiber on the physicochemical and organoleptic properties of ice cream. Moreover, the survival of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. Lactis [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of the addition of inulin and the replacement of part of the inulin with apple fiber on the physicochemical and organoleptic properties of ice cream. Moreover, the survival of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. Lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus was studied in sheep milk ice cream. There was no effect of the apple fiber and the type of bacteria on the number of bacteria in the probiotics after fermentation. As a result of freezing, in the mixture containing Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. Lactis Bb-12, there was a significant reduction in the bacteria from 0.39 log cfu g−1 to 0.46 log cfu g−1. In all of the ice cream on the 21st day of storage, it exceeded 10 log cfu g−1, which means that the ice cream retained the status of a probiotic product. The Lactobacillus rhamnosus ice cream showed a lower yellow color compared to the Bifidobacterium Bb-12 ice cream. The overrun of the sheep’s milk ice cream was within the range of 78.50% to 80.41%. The appearance of the sheep’s milk ice cream is influenced significantly by the addition of fiber and the type of bacteria and the interaction between the type of bacteria and the addition of fiber, and storage time and fiber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
14 pages, 1805 KiB  
Article
Paving the Way to Food Grade Analytical Chemistry: Use of a Natural Deep Eutectic Solvent to Determine Total Hydroxytyrosol and Tyrosol in Extra Virgin Olive Oils
by Vito Michele Paradiso, Francesco Longobardi, Stefania Fortunato, Pasqua Rotondi, Maria Bellumori, Lorenzo Cecchi, Pinalysa Cosma, Nadia Mulinacci and Francesco Caponio
Foods 2021, 10(3), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030677 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2737
Abstract
Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is well known for containing relevant amounts of healthy phenolic compounds. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) allowed a health claim for labelling olive oils containing a minimum amount of hydroxytyrosol (OHTyr) and its derivatives, including tyrosol (Tyr). [...] Read more.
Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is well known for containing relevant amounts of healthy phenolic compounds. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) allowed a health claim for labelling olive oils containing a minimum amount of hydroxytyrosol (OHTyr) and its derivatives, including tyrosol (Tyr). Therefore, harmonized and standardized analytical protocols are required in support of an effective application of the health claim. Acid hydrolysis performed after extraction and before chromatographic analysis has been shown to be a feasible approach. Nevertheless, other fast, green, and easy methods could be useful for on-site screening and monitoring applications. In the present research, a natural deep eutectic solvent (NADES) composed of lactic acid and glucose was used to perform a liquid/liquid extraction on EVOO samples, followed by UV-spectrophotometric analysis. The spectral features of the extracts were related with the content of total OHTyr and Tyr, determined by the acid hydrolysis method. The second derivative of spectra allowed focusing on three single wavelengths (i.e., 299 nm, 290 nm, and 282 nm) significantly related with total OHTyr, total Tyr, and their sum, respectively. In particular, the sum of OHTyr and Tyr could be determined with a root mean square error of prediction of 29.5 mg kg−1, while the limits of quantitation and detection were respectively 11.8 and 4.9 mg kg−1. The proposed method, therefore, represents an easy screening tool, with the use of a green, food-derived solvent, and could be considered as an attempt to pave the way for food grade analytical chemistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Olive Oil System)
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19 pages, 1373 KiB  
Article
Promising Preserving Agents from Sage and Basil: A Case Study with Yogurts
by Jonata M. Ueda, Mariana C. Pedrosa, Filipa A. Fernandes, Paula Rodrigues, Bruno Melgar, Maria Inês Dias, José Pinela, Ricardo C. Calhelha, Marija Ivanov, Marina Soković, Sandrina A. Heleno, Márcio Carocho, Rafael P. Ineu, Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira and Lillian Barros
Foods 2021, 10(3), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030676 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3378
Abstract
In the present work, sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) were exploited for their preservative purposes, as viable alternatives to artificial ones. The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of bioactive compounds was pre-optimized using factorial screening analysis, prior to applying [...] Read more.
In the present work, sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) were exploited for their preservative purposes, as viable alternatives to artificial ones. The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of bioactive compounds was pre-optimized using factorial screening analysis, prior to applying response surface methodology (RSM). The obtained extracts were characterized in terms of phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector and mass spectrometer HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS and bioactivities, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential. In addition, the most promising extracts were incorporated into yogurts, that were further screened for nutritional and physico-chemical properties and microbial load, over a shelf life of 14 days. According to the obtained results, the solvent percentage is the most relevant factor for obtaining rosmarinic acid-rich extract, followed by the extraction time and ultrasonic power. For the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, sage showed the best result for both analysis and none of the two plant extracts were hepatotoxic. Finally, both extracts did not show changes in the physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of the yogurts and did not interfere with the growth of lactic acid bacteria, an important microorganism during yogurt fermentation. These results highlight the high potential of sage and basil as natural preservatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive/Nutraceutical Compounds in Plant Foods)
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17 pages, 3962 KiB  
Article
Multifunctional Tyrosinase Inhibitor Peptides with Copper Chelating, UV-Absorption and Antioxidant Activities: Kinetic and Docking Studies
by Pei-Gee Yap and Chee-Yuen Gan
Foods 2021, 10(3), 675; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030675 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4080
Abstract
Nature-derived tyrosinase inhibitors are of great industrial interest. Three monophenolase inhibitor peptides (MIPs) and three diphenolase inhibitor peptides (DIPs) from a previous study were investigated for their in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects, mode of inhibition, copper-chelating activity, sun protection factor (SPF) and antioxidant [...] Read more.
Nature-derived tyrosinase inhibitors are of great industrial interest. Three monophenolase inhibitor peptides (MIPs) and three diphenolase inhibitor peptides (DIPs) from a previous study were investigated for their in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects, mode of inhibition, copper-chelating activity, sun protection factor (SPF) and antioxidant activities. DIP1 was found to be the most potent tyrosinase inhibitor (IC50 = 3.04 ± 0.39 mM), which could be due to the binding interactions between its aromatic amino acid residues (Y2 and D7) with tyrosinase hotspots (H85, V248, H258, H263, F264, R268, V283 and E322) and its ability to chelate copper ion within the substrate-binding pocket. The conjugated planar rings of tyrosine and tryptophan may interact with histidine within the active site to provide stability upon enzyme-peptide binding. This postulation was later confirmed as the Lineweaver–Burk analysis had identified DIP1 as a competitive inhibitor and DIP1 also showed 36.27 ± 1.17% of copper chelating activity. In addition, DIP1 provided the highest SPF value (11.9 ± 0.04) as well as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (5.09 ± 0.13 mM FeSO4), 2,2′–azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) (11.34 ± 0.90%) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (29.14 ± 1.36%) free radical scavenging activities compared to other peptides. These results demonstrated that DIP1 could be a multifunctional anti-tyrosinase agent with pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical applications. Full article
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10 pages, 1002 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Bile Salt Hydrolase (BSH) Activity Screening of Different Probiotic Microorganisms
by Jimmy G. Hernández-Gómez, Argelia López-Bonilla, Gabriela Trejo-Tapia, Sandra V. Ávila-Reyes, Antonio R. Jiménez-Aparicio and Humberto Hernández-Sánchez
Foods 2021, 10(3), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030674 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 59 | Viewed by 8422
Abstract
Bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity in probiotic strains is usually correlated with the ability to lower serum cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic patients. The objective of this study was the evaluation of BSH in five probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and a [...] Read more.
Bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity in probiotic strains is usually correlated with the ability to lower serum cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic patients. The objective of this study was the evaluation of BSH in five probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and a probiotic yeast. The activity was assessed using a qualitative direct plate test and a quantitative high-performance thin- layer chromatography assay. The six strains differed in their BSH substrate preference and activity. Lactobacillus plantarum DGIA1, a potentially probiotic strain isolated from a double cream cheese from Chiapas, Mexico, showed excellent deconjugation activities in the four tested bile acids (69, 100, 81, and 92% for sodium glycocholate, glycodeoxycholate, taurocholate, and taurodeoxycholate, respectively). In the case of the commercial probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii, the deconjugation activities were good against sodium glycodeoxycholate, taurocholate, and taurodeoxycholate (100, 57, and 63%, respectively). These last two results are part of the novelty of the work. A weak deconjugative activity (5%) was observed in the case of sodium glycocholate. This is the first time that the BSH activity has been detected in this yeast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, and Novel Foods)
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20 pages, 1828 KiB  
Article
Chemical Profile and Bioactivities of Extracts from Edible Plants Readily Available in Portugal
by Beatriz Nunes Silva, Vasco Cadavez, Pedro Ferreira-Santos, Maria José Alves, Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira, Lillian Barros, José António Teixeira and Ursula Gonzales-Barron
Foods 2021, 10(3), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030673 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4109 | Correction
Abstract
Plant extracts have been proposed as alternative biocides and antioxidants to be included in a variety of food products. In this work, to assess the potential of French lavender, lemon balm, basil, tarragon, sage, and spearmint to be used as food additives, the [...] Read more.
Plant extracts have been proposed as alternative biocides and antioxidants to be included in a variety of food products. In this work, to assess the potential of French lavender, lemon balm, basil, tarragon, sage, and spearmint to be used as food additives, the chemical profiles and bioactivities of such plant extracts were studied. Furthermore, to evaluate the influence of extraction methods and solvents on the chemical characteristics and bioactivities of the plant extracts, two extraction methods (solid-liquid and Soxhlet extraction) and two solvents (water and ethanol 70% (v/v)) were tested for each plant. Groupwise summary statistics were calculated by plant, extraction method, and solvent, and linear models were built to assess the main effects of those terms and their interactions on the chemical characteristics and bioactivities of the extracts. The results revealed that all factors—type of plant, extraction method and solvent—have influence on the chemical profile and antioxidant activity of the resultant extracts. Interactions between factors were also observed. Hydroethanolic Soxhlet extracts presented the least potential as biopreservatives due to their low phenolic content and reduced antioxidant capacity. Oppositely, aqueous Soxhlet extracts and hydroethanolic solid-liquid extracts showed high contents in phenolic compounds and high antioxidant activities. In particular, the hydroethanolic solid-liquid extracts of lemon balm, spearmint, and sage presented the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents, accompanied by a high antioxidant activity, and they revealed antimicrobial activity against four pathogens (S. enterica ser. Typhimurium, E. coli, L. monocytogenes and S. aureus). These results demonstrate the potential of these natural resources to be incorporated as bioactive preservatives in foods or their packaging. Full article
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3 pages, 172 KiB  
Editorial
Grapes and Their Derivatives in Functional Foods
by Panagiotis Kandylis
Foods 2021, 10(3), 672; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030672 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3064
Abstract
Consumer interest in the consumption of health promoting foods is growing worldwide due to the realization of the link between diet and human health [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grapes and their Derivatives in Functional Foods)
11 pages, 855 KiB  
Article
Primary Processing and Storage Affect the Dominant Microbiota of Fresh and Chill-Stored Sea Bass Products
by Faidra Syropoulou, Foteini F. Parlapani, Stefanos Kakasis, George-John E. Nychas and Ioannis S. Boziaris
Foods 2021, 10(3), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030671 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2468
Abstract
The cultivable microbiota isolated from three sea bass products (whole, gutted, and filleted fish from the same batch) during chilled storage and the effect of primary processing on microbial communities in gutted and filleted fish were studied. Microbiological and sensory changes were also [...] Read more.
The cultivable microbiota isolated from three sea bass products (whole, gutted, and filleted fish from the same batch) during chilled storage and the effect of primary processing on microbial communities in gutted and filleted fish were studied. Microbiological and sensory changes were also monitored. A total of 200 colonies were collected from TSA plates at the beginning and the end of fish shelf-life, differentiated by High Resolution Sequencing (HRM) and identified by sequencing analysis of the V3–V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Pseudomonas spp. followed by potential pathogenic bacteria were initially found, while Pseudomonasgessardii followed by other Pseudomonas or Shewanella species dominated at the end of fish shelf-life. P. gessardii was the most dominant phylotype in the whole sea bass, P. gessardii and S. baltica in gutted fish, while P. gessardii and P. fluorescens were the most dominant bacteria in sea bass fillets. To conclude, primary processing and storage affect microbial communities of gutted and filleted fish compared to the whole fish. HRM analysis can easily differentiate bacteria isolated from fish products and reveal the contamination due to handling and/or processing, and so help stakeholders to immediately tackle problems related with microbial quality or safety of fish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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15 pages, 2877 KiB  
Article
Total Saponins Isolated from Corni Fructus via Ultrasonic Microwave-Assisted Extraction Attenuate Diabetes in Mice
by Shujing An, Dou Niu, Ting Wang, Binkai Han, Changfen He, Xiaolin Yang, Haoqiang Sun, Ke Zhao, Jiefang Kang and Xiaochang Xue
Foods 2021, 10(3), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030670 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3702
Abstract
Saponins have been extensively used in the food and pharmaceutical industries because of their potent bioactive and pharmacological functions including hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, antiulcer and androgenic properties. A lot of saponins-containing foods are recommended as nutritional supplements for diabetic patients. As a medicine [...] Read more.
Saponins have been extensively used in the food and pharmaceutical industries because of their potent bioactive and pharmacological functions including hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, antiulcer and androgenic properties. A lot of saponins-containing foods are recommended as nutritional supplements for diabetic patients. As a medicine and food homologous material, Corni Fructus (CF) contains various active ingredients and has the effect of treating diabetes. However, whether and how CF saponins attenuate diabetes is still largely unknown. Here, we isolated total saponins from CF (TSCF) using ultrasonic microwave-assisted extraction combined with response surface methodology. The extract was further purified by a nonpolar copolymer styrene type macroporous resin (HPD-300), with the yield of TSCF elevated to 13.96 mg/g compared to 10.87 mg/g obtained via unassisted extraction. When used to treat high-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, TSCF significantly improved the glucose and lipid metabolisms of T2DM mice. Additionally, TSCF clearly ameliorated inflammation and oxidative stress as well as pancreas and liver damages in the diabetic mice. Mechanistically, TSCF potently regulated insulin receptor (INSR)-, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4)-, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-, and protein kinase B (PKB/AKT)-associated signaling pathways. Thus, our data collectively demonstrated that TSCF could be a promising functional food ingredient for diabetes improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Scientific Advances in STEM: From Professor to Students)
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21 pages, 1118 KiB  
Article
Effect of NaCl Partial Replacement by Chloride Salts on Physicochemical Characteristics, Volatile Compounds and Sensorial Properties of Dry-Cured Deer Cecina
by Marcio Vargas-Ramella, José M. Lorenzo, Rubén Domínguez, Mirian Pateiro, Paulo E. S. Munekata, Paulo C. B. Campagnol and Daniel Franco
Foods 2021, 10(3), 669; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030669 - 21 Mar 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2921
Abstract
The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of NaCl replacement in the physicochemical quality and volatile and sensorial profile of dry-cured deer cecina. Two salt mixtures were used as NaCl substitute: mixture I (30% NaCl-70% KCl) and mixture II (30% NaCl-50% KCl-15% [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of NaCl replacement in the physicochemical quality and volatile and sensorial profile of dry-cured deer cecina. Two salt mixtures were used as NaCl substitute: mixture I (30% NaCl-70% KCl) and mixture II (30% NaCl-50% KCl-15% CaCl2-5% MgCl2). Regarding the physicochemical parameters, only ash content, pH and L* values were affected by NaCl replacement. However, lipid oxidation was affected by NaCl replacement. The greatest thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were observed in the control batch (3.28 mg MDA/kg). The partial replacement of NaCl by salt mixtures affected (p < 0.001) Ca, K, Mg, and Na content. The total amounts of free fatty acids and free amino acids were not affected (p > 0.05) by NaCl replacement. Concerning the volatile compounds, control samples presented the highest concentrations of furans (p < 0.01), while samples produced with mixture II had the lowest (p < 0.001) amounts of esters and acids. Our results indicated that all sensory attributes of the attribute map were affected (generalized procrustes analysis (GPA) explained 100% of the total variability among treatments). Considering the results obtained from the sensorial analysis, only mixture II reduced the overall acceptance and preference of consumers. Control attained significantly (p < 0.05) greater scores of acceptance and preference than mixture II despite the higher TBARS content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Research Advances in Meat Products)
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13 pages, 2314 KiB  
Article
Utilizing Pork Exudate Metabolomics to Reveal the Impact of Aging on Meat Quality
by Qianqian Yu, Bruce Cooper, Tiago Sobreira and Yuan H. Brad Kim
Foods 2021, 10(3), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030668 - 20 Mar 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3724
Abstract
This study was performed to assess the changes in meat quality and metabolome profiles of meat exudate during postmortem aging. At 24 h postmortem, longissimus lumborum muscles were collected from 10 pork carcasses, cut into three sections, and randomly assigned to three aging [...] Read more.
This study was performed to assess the changes in meat quality and metabolome profiles of meat exudate during postmortem aging. At 24 h postmortem, longissimus lumborum muscles were collected from 10 pork carcasses, cut into three sections, and randomly assigned to three aging period groups (2, 9, and 16 d). Meat quality and chemical analyses, along with the metabolomics of meat exudates using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) platform, were conducted. Results indicated a declined (p < 0.05) display color stability, and increased (p < 0.05) purge loss, meat tenderness, and lipid oxidation as aging extended. The principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis exhibited distinct clusters of the exudate metabolome of each aging treatment. A total of 39 significantly changed features were tentatively identified via matching them to METLIN database according to their MS/MS information. Some of those features are associated with adenosine triphosphate metabolism (creatine and hypoxanthine), antioxidation (oxidized glutathione and carnosine), and proteolysis (dipeptides and tripeptides). The findings provide valuable information that reflects the meat quality’s attributes and could be used as a source of potential biomarkers for predicting aging times and meat quality changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omics Technologies in Food Science)
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15 pages, 2425 KiB  
Article
Optimization of High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatments on Soybean Protein Isolate to Improve Its Functionality and Evaluation of Its Application in Yogurt
by Chenxiao Wang, Hao Yin, Yanyun Zhao, Yan Zheng, Xuebing Xu and Jin Yue
Foods 2021, 10(3), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030667 - 20 Mar 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3161
Abstract
This work aimed to improve the functional properties of soybean protein isolate (SPI) by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and develop SPI incorporated yogurt. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the HHP treatment parameters, including pressure, holding time, and the ratio of [...] Read more.
This work aimed to improve the functional properties of soybean protein isolate (SPI) by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and develop SPI incorporated yogurt. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the HHP treatment parameters, including pressure, holding time, and the ratio of SPI/water. Water holding capacity, emulsifying activity index, solubility, and hardness of SPI gels were evaluated as response variables. The optimized HPP treatment conditions were 281 MPa of pressure, 18.92 min of holding time, and 1:8.33 of SPI/water ratio. Water and oil holding capacity, emulsifying activity, and stability of SPI at different pH were improved. Additionally, relative lipoxygenase (LOX) activity of HHP treated SPI (HHP-SPI) was decreased 67.55 ± 5.73%, but sulphydryl group content of HHP-SPI was increased 12.77%, respectively. When incorporating 8% of SPI and HHP-SPI into yogurt, the water holding capacity and rheological properties of yogurt were improved in comparison with yogurt made of milk powders. Moreover, HHP-SPI incorporated yogurt appeared better color and flavor. Full article
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17 pages, 2081 KiB  
Article
Effects of Different Controlled Temperatures on Spanish-Style Fermentation Processes of Olives
by Daniel Martín-Vertedor, Thaís Schaide, Emanuele Boselli, Manuel Martínez, Rocío Arias-Calderón and Francisco Pérez-Nevado
Foods 2021, 10(3), 666; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030666 - 20 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2656
Abstract
This work aimed to determine the effect of applying different temperatures during the fermentation process of Spanish-style table olives. ‘Manzanilla de Sevilla’ (southwest of Spain, Badajoz) and ‘Manzanilla Cacereña’ (northwest of Spain, Caceres) olives were processed at an industrial scale in table olive [...] Read more.
This work aimed to determine the effect of applying different temperatures during the fermentation process of Spanish-style table olives. ‘Manzanilla de Sevilla’ (southwest of Spain, Badajoz) and ‘Manzanilla Cacereña’ (northwest of Spain, Caceres) olives were processed at an industrial scale in table olive fermenters whose brine was subjected to different thermal treatments. One of the three conducted experiments found that maintaining brine at 20–24 °C over a 3-month period led to optimum firmness, better color indices, and greater free acidity and lactic acid bacteria populations in comparison to an unheated control. Furthermore, raising the temperature of the fermenter to 20–24 °C accelerated the fermentation process, provoking better lactic bacteria and yeast growth without affecting olive firmness. The higher fermentation rate (shorter time to completion) associated with temperature-controlled olives also reduced the marketing time of the final product. Controlling brine temperature led to a better aspect and color, higher acidity, lower bitterness, and better overall assessment of processed olives. In addition, ‘Manzanilla de Sevilla’ olives presented a higher phenolic content than ‘Manzanilla Cacereña’ olives. Preliminary evidence is presented suggesting that ‘Manzanilla Cacereña’ olives appear highly amenable to Sevillian-style processing. The present innovative work demonstrates the importance of applying different thermal treatments to brine to control the temperature during the industrial fermentation of table olives during the cold season. Full article
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26 pages, 1087 KiB  
Review
Emulsions Incorporated in Polysaccharide-Based Active Coatings for Fresh and Minimally Processed Vegetables
by Marina Ramos, Cristina Mellinas, Ignacio Solaberrieta, María Carmen Garrigós and Alfonso Jiménez
Foods 2021, 10(3), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030665 - 20 Mar 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4327
Abstract
The consumption of minimally processed fresh vegetables has increased by the consumer’s demand of natural products without synthetic preservatives and colorants. These new consumption behaviors have prompted research on the combination of emulsion techniques and coatings that have traditionally been used by the [...] Read more.
The consumption of minimally processed fresh vegetables has increased by the consumer’s demand of natural products without synthetic preservatives and colorants. These new consumption behaviors have prompted research on the combination of emulsion techniques and coatings that have traditionally been used by the food industries. This combination brings great potential for improving the quality of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables by allowing the incorporation of natural and multifunctional additives directly into food formulations. These antioxidant, antibacterial, and/or antifungal additives are usually encapsulated at the nano- or micro-scale for their stabilization and protection to make them available by food through the coating. These nano- or micro-emulsions are responsible for the release of the active agents to bring them into direct contact with food to protect it from possible organoleptic degradation. Keeping in mind the widespread applications of micro and nanoemulsions for preserving the quality and safety of fresh vegetables, this review reports the latest works based on emulsion techniques and polysaccharide-based coatings as carriers of active compounds. The technical challenges of micro and nanoemulsion techniques, the potential benefits and drawbacks of their use, the development of polysaccharide-based coatings with natural active additives are considered, since these systems can be used as alternatives to conventional coatings in food formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Food Preservation Methods and Their Applications)
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16 pages, 13206 KiB  
Article
A Rational Approach for the Production of Highly Soluble and Functional Sunflower Protein Hydrolysates
by Sophie Beaubier, Sara Albe-Slabi, Arnaud Aymes, Marine Bianeis, Olivier Galet and Romain Kapel
Foods 2021, 10(3), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030664 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3434
Abstract
Exploitation of plant proteins as an alternative to animal proteins currently presents an important challenge for food industries. In this contribution, total sunflower protein isolate from cold press meal was used as a starting material for the generation of highly soluble and functional [...] Read more.
Exploitation of plant proteins as an alternative to animal proteins currently presents an important challenge for food industries. In this contribution, total sunflower protein isolate from cold press meal was used as a starting material for the generation of highly soluble and functional hydrolysates that could be used in various food formulations. To do this, a rational and complete approach of controlled hydrolysis was implemented using the individual Alcalase and Prolyve enzymes. The method of stopping the hydrolysis reaction was also evaluated. The influence of operating conditions on hydrolysis kinetics and enzymatic mechanism was studied to identify the appropriate hydrolysis conditions. The gain of the solubility was then analyzed and compared to that of the initial proteins. Finally, the emulsifying and foaming properties (capacities and stabilities) of the resulting hydrolysates were also assessed. As a result, controlled enzymatic proteolysis significantly improved the sunflower protein solubility at neutral pH (twofold increase) and generated highly soluble hydrolysates. The limited proteolysis also maintained the good foam capacities and allowed an improvement in the initial foam stabilities and emulsifying capacities and stabilities of sunflower proteins. This contribution can greatly increase the value of sunflower meal and help in the development of sunflower protein products in the future. Full article
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11 pages, 11667 KiB  
Article
Rheological and Nutritional Assessment of Dysphagia—Oriented New Food Preparations
by Francesca Cuomo, Martina Angelicola, Elisa De Arcangelis, Francesco Lopez, Maria Cristina Messia and Emanuele Marconi
Foods 2021, 10(3), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030663 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3393
Abstract
Dysphagia that involves difficulty swallowing food and liquids is a symptom of different diseases. In some cases, patients who experience this symptom should be fed with modified consistency foods. Dysphagia is often accompanied by malnutrition and dehydration and an interesting approach to dealing [...] Read more.
Dysphagia that involves difficulty swallowing food and liquids is a symptom of different diseases. In some cases, patients who experience this symptom should be fed with modified consistency foods. Dysphagia is often accompanied by malnutrition and dehydration and an interesting approach to dealing with these conditions is to provide patients with nutrient-rich foods. In this study, two new food formulations for dysphagia patients are proposed: a cereal-based protein meal and a vegetable cream. The nutritional and rheological characteristics of the two innovative preparations were assessed and compared with those of commercial products. The proposed protein meal formulations meet the criteria for the “high protein” claim and the vegetable cream meets those of the “source of fiber” claim. The rheological investigation revealed that the flow properties of the innovative formulations were comparable to those of the commercial ones. Based on these preliminary outcomes, this investigation represents an interesting perspective potentially valuable to enlarge the offer of possibilities for people suffering from swallowing disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Components, Health and Disease)
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17 pages, 3587 KiB  
Review
Urban Food Systems: A Bibliometric Review from 1991 to 2020
by Qiumeng Zhong, Lan Wang and Shenghui Cui
Foods 2021, 10(3), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030662 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 5194
Abstract
The increase of urbanization is affecting the urban food system (UFS) in many areas, primarily production, processing, and consumption. The upgrading of the urban food consumption structure not only puts forward higher food production requirements, but also poses a challenge to resource consumption [...] Read more.
The increase of urbanization is affecting the urban food system (UFS) in many areas, primarily production, processing, and consumption. The upgrading of the urban food consumption structure not only puts forward higher food production requirements, but also poses a challenge to resource consumption and technological innovation. Considerable case or review studies have been conducted on UFS, but there is no bibliometric review attempting to provide an objective and comprehensive analysis of the existing articles. In this study, we selected 5360 research publications from the core Web of Science collection from 1991 to 2020, analyzing contributions of countries, institutions, and journals. In addition, based on keyword co-occurrence and clustering analyses, we evaluated the research hotspots of UFS. The results show that global research interest in UFS has increased significantly during these three decades. The USA, China, and the UK are the countries with the highest output and closest collaborations. UFS research involves multiple subject categories, with environmental disciplines becoming mainstream. Food security, food consumption, and food waste are the three main research areas. We suggest that food sustainability and resilience, food innovation, and comparative studies between cities should be given more attention in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Security and Sustainability)
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13 pages, 2628 KiB  
Article
Marinated Sea Bream Fillets Enriched with Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis: Brine Optimization and Product Design
by Barbara Speranza, Antonio Bevilacqua, Angela Racioppo, Daniela Campaniello, Milena Sinigaglia and Maria Rosaria Corbo
Foods 2021, 10(3), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030661 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2281
Abstract
This study aimed to design marinated sea bream fillets, inoculated with either Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (strains 11, 68, 69) or Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis DSM 10140. In the first step, the optimization of brine composition was performed through a centroid; the factors of the [...] Read more.
This study aimed to design marinated sea bream fillets, inoculated with either Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (strains 11, 68, 69) or Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis DSM 10140. In the first step, the optimization of brine composition was performed through a centroid; the factors of the design were citric acid, vinegar, and salt. As a result of optimization, the optimal composition of brine was set to 0.75% citric acid, 55% vinegar, and 3% NaCl. In the second step, sea bream fillets were inoculated with L. plantarum strain 69 and B. animalis subsp. lactis, marinated and then packed in a conditioning solution (oil or diluted brine); the samples were stored at 4 °C for 21 days. The viability of the strains and sensory scores were assessed. The bacteria retained a high viability throughout storage (21 days); however, the sensory scores were at their highest level for 4 days. In particular, sensory assessment suggested a preference for a conditioning solution with oil, rather than with a diluted brine. In addition, a slightly higher preference was found for B. animalis subsp. lactis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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20 pages, 4369 KiB  
Article
Resuscitation of Pulsed Electric Field-Treated Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas putida in a Rich Nutrient Medium
by Efrat Emanuel, Irina Dubrovin, Roman Pogreb, Gad A. Pinhasi and Rivka Cahan
Foods 2021, 10(3), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030660 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2372
Abstract
Pulsed electric fields (PEFs) technology was reported to be useful as a disinfection method in the liquid food industry. This technology may lead to membrane permeabilization and bacterial death. However, resuscitation of viable but non-culturable cells and sublethally injured microorganisms in food was [...] Read more.
Pulsed electric fields (PEFs) technology was reported to be useful as a disinfection method in the liquid food industry. This technology may lead to membrane permeabilization and bacterial death. However, resuscitation of viable but non-culturable cells and sublethally injured microorganisms in food was reported to be associated with foodborne outbreaks. The main aim of this study was to investigate the possible recovery of injured PEF-treated bacteria. The PEF treatment of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas putida led to a reduction of 3.2 log10 and 4.8 log10, respectively. After 5 h, no colony forming units (CFUs) were observed when the bacteria were suspended in phosphate buffer saline (PBS); and for 24 h, no recovery was observed. The PEF-treated S. aureus in brain-heart infusion (BHI) medium were maintained at 1.84 × 104 CFU mL−1 for about 1.5 h. While P. putida decreased to zero CFU mL−1 by the 4th hour. However, after that, both bacteria recovered and began to multiply. Flow cytometry analysis showed that PEF treatment led to significant membrane permeabilization. Mass spectrometry analysis of PEF-treated P. putida which were suspended in BHI revealed over-expression of 22 proteins, where 55% were related to stress conditions. Understanding the recovery conditions of PEF-treated bacteria is particularly important in food industry pasteurization. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study describing the recovery of injured PEF-treated S. aureus and P. putida bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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