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Water, Volume 16, Issue 2 (January-2 2024) – 176 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Mismanaged plastic waste (MMPW) threatens the sustainable development goals of the United Nations in social, economic, and ecological dimensions. Rivers are critical transport paths for MMPW, connecting land areas with oceans. The complex fluid–plastic particle interaction leads to a strong distribution of transported particles over the entire river width and flow depth. Therefore, a holistic plastic removal approach must consider lateral and vertical river dimensions. This study investigates the conceptual design of a novel river-cleaning system that enables the removal of both floating and suspended litter particles from rivers. In prototype-scale experiments using ten representative plastic particle types (both 3D items and fragments) of five different polymer types, we prove the self-cleaning concept of the infrastructure and define its parameters for the best cleaning performance. View this paper
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22 pages, 7905 KiB  
Article
Improvement of the Two-Dimensional Routing Procedure for Observing Dispersion Coefficients in Open-Channel Flow
by Donghae Baek, Il Won Seo, Jun Song Kim, Sung Hyun Jung and Yuyoung Choi
Water 2024, 16(2), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020365 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 939
Abstract
The dispersion coefficients are crucial in understanding the spreading of pollutant clouds in river flows, particularly in the context of the depth-averaged two-dimensional (2D) advection–dispersion equation (ADE). Traditionally, the 2D stream-tube routing procedure (2D STRP) has been the predominant method for determining both [...] Read more.
The dispersion coefficients are crucial in understanding the spreading of pollutant clouds in river flows, particularly in the context of the depth-averaged two-dimensional (2D) advection–dispersion equation (ADE). Traditionally, the 2D stream-tube routing procedure (2D STRP) has been the predominant method for determining both the longitudinal and transverse dispersion coefficients of the 2D ADE under transient concentration conditions. This study aims to quantitatively analyze and address the limitations of the 2D STRP using hypothetically generated data. The findings of these evaluations revealed that the existing 2D STRP failed to accurately reproduce reliable results when the tracer clouds reached wall boundaries. This limitation prompted the development of the 2D STRP-i, which effectively resolves this drawback. The newly developed routing-based observation method, 2D STRP-i, enables the reliable estimation of dispersion coefficients, considering the effect of the wall boundary. The results indicated that the existing 2D STRP yielded 2D dispersion coefficients with relative errors ranging from 40% to 200%, while 2D STRP-i consistently yielded relative errors of 3% to 5% on average. When applied to tracer test data obtained through remote sensing, the 2D STRP-i demonstrated its ability to accurately observe temporal concentration distributions, even when wall boundaries have a significant impact on contaminant transport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contaminant Transport Modeling in Aquatic Environments)
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16 pages, 551 KiB  
Review
Review of Machine Learning Methods for River Flood Routing
by Li Li and Kyung Soo Jun
Water 2024, 16(2), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020364 - 22 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1197
Abstract
River flood routing computes changes in the shape of a flood wave over time as it travels downstream along a river. Conventional flood routing models, especially hydrodynamic models, require a high quality and quantity of input data, such as measured hydrologic time series, [...] Read more.
River flood routing computes changes in the shape of a flood wave over time as it travels downstream along a river. Conventional flood routing models, especially hydrodynamic models, require a high quality and quantity of input data, such as measured hydrologic time series, geometric data, hydraulic structures, and hydrological parameters. Unlike physically based models, machine learning algorithms, which are data-driven models, do not require much knowledge about underlying physical processes and can identify complex nonlinearity between inputs and outputs. Due to their higher performance, lower complexity, and low computation cost, researchers introduced novel machine learning methods as a single application or hybrid application to achieve more accurate and efficient flood routing. This paper reviews the recent application of machine learning methods in river flood routing. Full article
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21 pages, 4421 KiB  
Article
The Role of Stream Restoration in Mitigating Sediment and Phosphorous Loads in Urbanizing Watersheds
by Kevin MacKenzie, Steve Auger, Sara Beitollahpour and Bahram Gharabaghi
Water 2024, 16(2), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020363 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 874
Abstract
Stream corridor erosion can majorly contribute to the overall sediment and phosphorus load in urbanizing watersheds. However, the relative contribution of stream bed and bank erosion, compared with upland watershed sources and the potential for stream restoration to mitigate total contaminant loads, is [...] Read more.
Stream corridor erosion can majorly contribute to the overall sediment and phosphorus load in urbanizing watersheds. However, the relative contribution of stream bed and bank erosion, compared with upland watershed sources and the potential for stream restoration to mitigate total contaminant loads, is poorly understood. In this study, a new method was developed, using the percent impervious cover (PIC) indicator of urbanization to evaluate the relative contribution of the stream corridor versus upland watershed contributions to observed total sediment and phosphorus loads in the receiving watercourse. This method was used to develop a cost-optimized mitigation plan, including implementing low-impact development (LID) stormwater infrastructure for urban areas and agricultural best management practices (BMPs) for rural areas in the watershed and stream restoration for the degraded stream reaches. A new cost–benefit analysis methodology is developed and used to assess the relative benefits of the mitigation measures for the case study of the Tannery Creek sub-watershed of the East Holland River in Ontario, Canada. The novel contributions of this study include the development of three relationships to estimate sediment and associated phosphorus loading based on contributing catchment area and land use, as well as a method to optimize the costs and benefits of planned mitigation measures. The results support stream restoration as an essential and cost-effective part of a comprehensive water quality watershed management plan to help maintain healthy streams in urbanized watersheds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Research on River Engineering)
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18 pages, 3774 KiB  
Article
The Spatial-Temporal Matching Characteristics of Water Resources and Socio-Economic Development Factors: A Case Study of Guangdong Province
by Song Song, Lehui Fang, Jinxin Yang, Rui Zhou, Gale Bai and Yuqi Qiu
Water 2024, 16(2), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020362 - 22 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 891
Abstract
The spatial-temporal mismatch of water resources and socio-economic development in rapidly urbanized regions has been the focus of water resource management, and is one of the main limitations to sustainable development goals (SDGs). Guangdong Province is represented by a highly developed economy and [...] Read more.
The spatial-temporal mismatch of water resources and socio-economic development in rapidly urbanized regions has been the focus of water resource management, and is one of the main limitations to sustainable development goals (SDGs). Guangdong Province is represented by a highly developed economy and society, and has been undergoing disproportionately rapid population growth during the past two decades. The uneven distribution and spatial mismatch of water resources have aggravated the contradictions between water supply demand. In this paper, we evaluate the matching degree of water resources and social economic elements, detect the spatial-temporal changing pattern of the matching degree, and reveal the changing mechanism using the combined methods of the Thiel index, the space–time Gini coefficient, and the Lorenz curve. The results show that (1) the temporal matching is relatively balanced and reasonable, while the spatial mismatch is prominent and deteriorating constantly, especially the connection between the amount of water and GDP; (2) the water volume pressure is mainly concentrated in the Peral River Delta and eastern and western Guangdong, while water consumption stress is relatively lower in northeastern Guangdong; and (3) the water volume inequality is dominated by an intercity difference and is primarily caused by regional differences. Based on the results, policy implications, such as the implementation of integrated water resource management plans, investment in the development of alternative water sources, as well as enhanced public education and the establishment of a water saving society, have been provided to alleviate the mismatch issue between water elements and socio-economic parameters, and to push the realization of water-related SDGs. Full article
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17 pages, 3269 KiB  
Article
Performance of a Double-Filter-Medium Tandem Membrane Bioreactor with Low Operating Costs in Domestic Wastewater Treatment
by Qiang Liu, Chen Li, Minglei Zhao, Ying Li, Yangyang Yang, Yuxuan Li and Siyuan Ma
Water 2024, 16(2), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020361 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 979
Abstract
To reduce the operating costs of conventional membrane bioreactors (MBRs) and improve the stability and quality of the dynamic membrane bioreactor (DMBR) effluent, a homemade inexpensive filter cloth assembly was connected to an up-flow ultra-lightweight-medium filter (UUF) in lieu of expensive membrane modules [...] Read more.
To reduce the operating costs of conventional membrane bioreactors (MBRs) and improve the stability and quality of the dynamic membrane bioreactor (DMBR) effluent, a homemade inexpensive filter cloth assembly was connected to an up-flow ultra-lightweight-medium filter (UUF) in lieu of expensive membrane modules to form a double-filter-medium tandem (DT)-MBR. DT-MBR was used to treat domestic wastewater, and its removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were similar to those of aerobic MBR, with average removal rates of 91.1%, 98.4%, 15.1%, and 50.7%, respectively. The average suspended solid (SS) of the final effluent was 5.6 mg∙L−1, and the filter cloth assembly played a leading role in SS removal, with an average removal rate of 86.0% and a relatively stable removal effect with little impact via backwashing. The activated sludge zeta potential, flocculation and sedimentation properties, particle size distribution, microbial compositions, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and filtration resistance of the cake layer were analyzed; it was found that the cake layer, which can also be called the dynamic membrane (DM), had an excellent filtration performance. However, the DM theory could not reasonably explain why the effluent quality of the filter cloth assembly maintained good stability even after backwashing. The real reason must be related to the sieving of cloth pores. Therefore, the concept of an in situ autogenous static membrane (ISASM) was proposed. With low operating costs and good and stable effluent quality, DT-MBR is a desirable alternative to the traditional MBR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Membrane Processes in Low-Carbon Wastewater Treatment)
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20 pages, 20634 KiB  
Article
3D Numerical Model Validation Using Experimental Test Data for Patrind Hydropower Project
by Khaqan Baluch, Heon-Joon Park, Kyuchan Ji and Sher Q. Baluch
Water 2024, 16(2), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020360 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1033
Abstract
Whilst numerical modelling is commonly used for simulation to check the design of water conveyance, sluicing and spillway structure design, the numerical modelling has rarely been compared with the physical model tests. The objective of this research presented in this paper was to [...] Read more.
Whilst numerical modelling is commonly used for simulation to check the design of water conveyance, sluicing and spillway structure design, the numerical modelling has rarely been compared with the physical model tests. The objective of this research presented in this paper was to examine the validity and suitability of the numerical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling method within an ANSYS Fluent/CFD R 18.2 software and compare its results with a fully instrumented and well-run physical model test at the 1:45 scale, carried out for Patrind Hydropower Project located in Pakistan. The physical model test was conducted for confirmation and optimization of a natural de-sanding basin, and diversion of suspended sediment-rich flood waters using a bypass tunnel. The numerical simulation was able to reproduce physical model test results and data gathered over a 7-year project operation to an acceptable level of accuracy. A detailed explanation of the approach used in numerical modelling together with analysis of simulation diagrams of ANSYS Fluent/CFD is also presented. The research shows that a 3D numerical model with accurate boundary conditions and mesh size can replace the need for physical model tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics)
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16 pages, 2502 KiB  
Article
Study on the Optimization of Wujiang’s Water Resources by Combining the Quota Method and NSGA-II Algorithm
by Yongyu Qu, Bo Song, Shubing Cai, Pinzeng Rao and Xichen Lin
Water 2024, 16(2), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020359 - 22 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 879
Abstract
Recently, the Chinese government has implemented stringent water requirements based on the concept of ‘Basing four aspects on water resources’. However, existing research has inadequately addressed the constraints of water resources on population, city boundaries, land, and production, failing to adequately analyze the [...] Read more.
Recently, the Chinese government has implemented stringent water requirements based on the concept of ‘Basing four aspects on water resources’. However, existing research has inadequately addressed the constraints of water resources on population, city boundaries, land, and production, failing to adequately analyze the interplay between water resource limitations and urban development. Recognizing the interconnectedness between urban water use and economic development, a multi-objective model becomes crucial for optimizing urban water resources. This study establishes a nonlinear multi-objective water resources joint optimization model, aligning with the “Basing four aspects on water resources” requirement to maximize urban GDP and minimize total water use. A genetic algorithm (NSGA-II Algorithm) is applied to solve this complex nonlinear multi-objective model and obtain the Pareto solution set, addressing information loss inherent in the traditional water quota method. The model was tested in Wujiang District, an area located in China’s Jiangsu Province that has been rapidly urbanizing over the past few decades, and yielded 50 non-inferior water resource optimization schemes. The results reveal that the Pareto solution set visually illustrates the competition among objectives and comprehensively displays the interplay between water and urban development. The model takes a holistic approach to consider the relationships between water resources and urban population, land use, and industries, clearly presenting their intricate interdependencies. This study serves as a valuable reference for the rational optimization of water resources in urban development. Full article
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17 pages, 8287 KiB  
Article
Occurrence and Formation Mechanisms of High-Fluoride Groundwater in Xiong’an New Area, Northern China
by Yihan Dong, Ziqian Wang, Dong Wang, Kai Zhao and Bin Hu
Water 2024, 16(2), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020358 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 842
Abstract
While extant research has predominantly focused on elucidating the mechanisms of fluorine (F) enrichment in groundwater within the North China Plain, the occurrence and formation mechanisms of high-F groundwater in Xiong’an New Area remain unexplored. Consequently, 365 groundwater samples (172 [...] Read more.
While extant research has predominantly focused on elucidating the mechanisms of fluorine (F) enrichment in groundwater within the North China Plain, the occurrence and formation mechanisms of high-F groundwater in Xiong’an New Area remain unexplored. Consequently, 365 groundwater samples (172 from shallow groundwater, 193 from deep groundwater) were collected from Xiong’an New Area. Hydrochemical analysis, geochemical modeling, and statistical analysis were used to explore the occurrence and formation mechanisms of high-F groundwater. The results reveal that the highest F concentrations in shallow and deep groundwater were up to 3.22 mg/L and 1.79 mg/L, respectively. High-F groundwater was primarily located at the eastern part of the study area. The distribution area of high-F shallow groundwater was much greater than that of deep groundwater. F-bearing minerals dissolution and ion exchange were the principal formation mechanisms of high-F groundwater in both shallow and deep aquifers. Moreover, competitive adsorption, evaporation, and the impacts of Ca2+ and Mg2+ dissolution equilibrium on F-bearing dissolution were crucial to the formation of high-F groundwater in shallow aquifers. Desorption in an alkaline environment, evaporites dissolution and salt effects were vital to the formation of high-F groundwater in deep aquifers. These findings can contribute to the support of local groundwater security and management. Full article
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30 pages, 11534 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Large-Scale Water Diversion Projects on the Water Supply Network: A Case Study in Southwest China
by Kaiwen Song, Xiujuan Jiang, Tianye Wang, Dengming Yan, Hongshi Xu and Zening Wu
Water 2024, 16(2), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020357 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1520
Abstract
The uneven spatial and temporal distribution of water resources has consistently been one of the most significant limiting factors for social development in many regions. Furthermore, with the intensification of climate change, this inequality is progressively widening, posing a critical challenge to the [...] Read more.
The uneven spatial and temporal distribution of water resources has consistently been one of the most significant limiting factors for social development in many regions. Furthermore, with the intensification of climate change, this inequality is progressively widening, posing a critical challenge to the sustainable development of human societies. The construction of large-scale water projects has become one of the crucial means to address the contradictions between water supply and demand. Thus, evaluating the functional aspects of water source network structures and systematically planning the layout of engineering measures in a scientifically reasonable manner are pressing issues that require urgent attention in current research efforts. Addressing this, our study takes the Erhai Lake basin and the surrounding areas in southwest China as the study area and combines landscape ecology and network analysis theory methods to propose a water supply network analysis method that takes into account both structure and node characteristics. Based on this methodology, we analyze the connectivity characteristics of water supply networks in the Erhai region under current (2020) and future (2035) planning scenarios. The results show that there were 215 nodes and 216 links in the water supply network of the Erhai Lake basin in 2020; with the implementation of a series of water conservancy projects, the planned 2035 water supply network will increase by 122 nodes and 163 links, and the connectivity of the regional water network will be significantly improved. Also, we identify some key nodes in the network, and the results show that the water supply network in 2035 will have obvious decentralization characteristics compared with that in 2020. And, based on the network degradation analysis, we find that with the implementation of engineering measures, the resilience of the water supply network will be significantly strengthened by 2035, with stronger risk tolerance. This study extends the quantitative representation of water source network characteristics, which can provide a useful reference for water network structure planning and optimization. Full article
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20 pages, 20921 KiB  
Article
Integrated Hydrological Modeling for Watershed Analysis, Flood Prediction, and Mitigation Using Meteorological and Morphometric Data, SCS-CN, HEC-HMS/RAS, and QGIS
by Heba El-Bagoury and Ahmed Gad
Water 2024, 16(2), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020356 - 21 Jan 2024
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2347
Abstract
Flooding is a natural disaster with extensive impacts. Desert regions face altered flooding patterns owing to climate change, water scarcity, regulations, and rising water demands. This study assessed and predicted flash flood hazards by calculating discharge volume, peak flow, flood depth, and velocity [...] Read more.
Flooding is a natural disaster with extensive impacts. Desert regions face altered flooding patterns owing to climate change, water scarcity, regulations, and rising water demands. This study assessed and predicted flash flood hazards by calculating discharge volume, peak flow, flood depth, and velocity using the Hydrologic Engineering Centre-River Analysis System and Hydrologic Modelling System (HEC-HMS and HEC-RAS) software. We employed meteorological and morphological data analyses, incorporating the soil conservation service (SCS) curve number method for precipitation losses and the SCS-Hydrograph for runoff transformation. The model was applied to two drainage basins (An-Nawayah and Al-Rashrash) in southeastern Cairo, Egypt, which recently encountered several destructive floods. The applied model revealed that 25-, 50-, and 100-year storms produced runoff volumes of 2461.8 × 103, 4299.6 × 103, and 5204.5 × 103 m3 for An-Nawayah and 6212 × 103, 8129.4 × 103, and 10,330.6 × 103 m3 for Al-Rashrash, respectively. Flood risk levels, categorised as high (35.6%), extreme (21.9%), and medium (21.12%) were assessed in low- and very-low-hazard areas. The study highlighted that the areas closer to the Nile River mouth faced greater flood impacts from torrential rain. Our findings demonstrate the effectiveness of these methods in assessing and predicting flood risk. As a mitigation measure, this study recommends the construction of five 10 m high dams to create storage lakes. This integrated approach can be applied to flood risk assessment and mitigation in comparable regions. Full article
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17 pages, 3593 KiB  
Article
Proposal of a Reflector-Enhanced Solar Still Concept and Its Comparison with Conventional Solar Stills
by Mehdi Soltanian, Siamak Hoseinzadeh and Davide Astiaso Garcia
Water 2024, 16(2), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020355 - 21 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1063
Abstract
Water scarcity is a global concern and poses significant problems to countries with arid and semi-arid climates, like Iran. Considering financial difficulties, a lack of knowledge about high-tech alternatives, low incomes, a lack of access to high-tech tools, and low maintenance capabilities in [...] Read more.
Water scarcity is a global concern and poses significant problems to countries with arid and semi-arid climates, like Iran. Considering financial difficulties, a lack of knowledge about high-tech alternatives, low incomes, a lack of access to high-tech tools, and low maintenance capabilities in developing countries, solar still desalination is a decent technology for providing proper water, especially for rural areas. However, the low water-production rate using this method dictates a very vast area requirement for solar still farms in order to provide significant amounts of water. In this research, we proposed a mirror-enhanced solar still and mathematically compared its water-production rate to that of conventional ones. In comparison to conventional solar stills, our proposed reflector-enhanced solar still benefits from several improvements, including lower glass temperatures, increased water basing temperatures, and receiving much more solar irradiation. Hence, the proposed system can increase water production from 7.5 L/day to 24 L/day. The results showed that the proposed method is highly effective and could be used in field-scale projects in arid and semi-arid climates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy System Flexibility for Water Desalination: Volume II)
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21 pages, 5441 KiB  
Review
Groundwater Depletion and Degradation in the North China Plain: Challenges and Mitigation Options
by Jun Du, Yaseen Laghari, Yi-Chang Wei, Linyi Wu, Ai-Ling He, Gao-Yuan Liu, Huan-Huan Yang, Zhong-Yi Guo and Shah Jahan Leghari
Water 2024, 16(2), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020354 - 21 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1883
Abstract
Groundwater is an important natural resource in the North China Plain (NCP) with high economic benefits and social significance. It fulfills 60% of drinking and 70% of irrigation water requirements. In this review, the information is retrieved from high-quality articles published in MEDLINE [...] Read more.
Groundwater is an important natural resource in the North China Plain (NCP) with high economic benefits and social significance. It fulfills 60% of drinking and 70% of irrigation water requirements. In this review, the information is retrieved from high-quality articles published in MEDLINE and other sources. We saw that groundwater is declining faster (>1 m yr−1) and polluting with NO3 (>30 mg L−1) due to excessive water pumping and application of a nitrogen (N) fertilizer, respectively. The water pumping (>600 mm ha−1 yr−1) for agricultural purposes in the region is higher than the recharge amount (<200 mm yr−1). The low recharge is the result of low rainfall (<600 mm yr−1), and high evapotranspiration (>800 mm yr−1) under the impact of dominant vegetative characteristics of winter wheat–summer maize (WW-SM) rotations, covering >80% of the land. Furthermore, N application exceeds the crop assimilation capacity (>250 kg ha−1 yr−1) and leach deep down (>50 kg ha−1) as well as loss in the atmosphere. Presently, Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei are ecologically the most affected areas. We suggest that excessive water and N fertilizer use for intensive cropping systems should be controlled by paying high attention to groundwater-friendly farming practices. In addition, artificial groundwater recharge options and their safe utilization would be explored across the region to replenish aquifers. This literature review contributes valuable insights to the knowledge bank and offers a foundation for further research and policy development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Management in a Changing World: Challenges and Endeavors)
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13 pages, 2221 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Decreased Atmospheric Pressure on Forced Aeration of Discharged Flow
by Yijiao Guo, Luchen Zhang, Lei Yu, Shaoze Luo, Chuang Liu and Yuan Liu
Water 2024, 16(2), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020353 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 831
Abstract
To account for changes in the performance of spillway aerator structures of high-altitude dams, depressurization generalized model experiments and theoretical analyses were conducted in this study. Measurements were taken for ventilation hole air velocity, cavity subpressure, cavity length, and air concentration in crucial [...] Read more.
To account for changes in the performance of spillway aerator structures of high-altitude dams, depressurization generalized model experiments and theoretical analyses were conducted in this study. Measurements were taken for ventilation hole air velocity, cavity subpressure, cavity length, and air concentration in crucial regions. The study proposed correction formulas for the aeration coefficient and water air concentration in aerator devices operating under low atmospheric pressure. The pressure range of the experiments was between 26.3 kPa and 101.3 kPa. The results indicated that with decreasing atmospheric pressure, ventilation hole air velocity, ventilation volume, cavity subpressure, and water air concentration all showed a decreasing trend. For every 15 kPa decrease in pressure, ventilation hole air velocity decreased by approximately 24%. When the atmospheric pressure dropped from 101.3 kPa to 26.3 kPa, the cavity subpressure decreased and eventually approached zero. The maximum reduction in air concentration was 14.9% in the cavity backwater area, 38.5% at the cavity end, and 38.3% in the downstream bubble escape segment. The proposed correction formulas could be used for a rapid estimation of ventilation volume and air concentration in low-pressure environments. This research provides a scientific basis for the design of aeration devices in water projects located in high-altitude regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Hydraulic Engineering and Hydrological Modelling)
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25 pages, 3630 KiB  
Article
Index-Based Groundwater Quality Assessment of Nestos River Deltaic Aquifer System, Northeastern Greece
by George Kampas, Andreas Panagopoulos, Ioannis Gkiougkis, Christos Pouliaris, Fotios-Konstantinos Pliakas, Vasiliki Kinigopoulou and Ioannis Diamantis
Water 2024, 16(2), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020352 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 924
Abstract
The Nestos River delta is one of the most important and sensitive basins in Greece and Europe due to its ecosystem functions, combining intensive agricultural production with low-enthalpy geothermal energy and important ecotopes. High water quality is of paramount importance to the sustainability [...] Read more.
The Nestos River delta is one of the most important and sensitive basins in Greece and Europe due to its ecosystem functions, combining intensive agricultural production with low-enthalpy geothermal energy and important ecotopes. High water quality is of paramount importance to the sustainability of the system. Systematic and continuous assessment of water quality needs to be carried out in a way that is easy and quick for decision makers and non-expert societal partners to comprehend. In this way, decisions may be made more rapidly, and involved water users may be sensitized to rational water use. To this end, this paper presents the assessment of groundwater quality in the Nestos River’s western delta with the use of Poseidon (PoS), a versatile, index-based method. Groundwater samples collected from 24 and 22 wells tapping the unconfined and the confined aquifers, respectively, in four time periods (May and October 2019 and 2020) were analyzed. Using the PoS index, groundwater samples were classified according to their quality status, highlighting the parameters driving quality degradation issues, thus assisting water managers in obtaining an overview of quality status and evolution through datasets that were often large. PoS index is applied in the study area for the first time and provides a groundwater quality assessment through a unique score representative of the overall water quality status regardless of processes (anthropogenic or natural) or any kind of pressures. Full article
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18 pages, 4554 KiB  
Article
Appraisal of Daily Temperature and Rainfall Events in the Context of Global Warming in South Australia
by Federico Ferrelli, Melisa Pontrelli Albisetti, Andrea Soledad Brendel, Andrés Iván Casoni and Patrick Alan Hesp
Water 2024, 16(2), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020351 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1752
Abstract
In recent decades, there have been significant problems worldwide related to global warming and the intensification of extreme temperature and rainfall events. This research evaluated daily temperature and rainfall indices trends to identify whether warming signals have occurred in South Australia over the [...] Read more.
In recent decades, there have been significant problems worldwide related to global warming and the intensification of extreme temperature and rainfall events. This research evaluated daily temperature and rainfall indices trends to identify whether warming signals have occurred in South Australia over the past fifty years. Extreme cold, hot, and rainfall events were calculated using climatic data from 37 weather stations. A Mann–Kendall test was used for trend analysis with Sen’s estimator. As a result, we determined that for the 1970–2021 period, the maximum and minimum temperatures increased by 1.1 and 0.7 °C, respectively, while precipitation had a negative trend (−52.2 mm per period). Since statistical significance was found in analysing extreme cold and hot events, we find that warming signals have several impacts on South Australia. In the case of rainfall events, we identified a heterogeneous pattern characterised by a reduction in the annual amount and an increase in extreme rainfall events. The findings enable us to conclude that the area shows signs of global warming that could affect the intensity and magnitude of droughts. This information is essential for continuing with current management strategies to adapt and mitigate the effects of global warming in South Australia. Full article
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23 pages, 3632 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Vegetation Types on Soil Hydrological and Mechanical Properties in the Hilly Regions of Southern China: A Comparative Analysis
by Bofu Zheng, Dan Wang, Yuxin Chen, Yihui Jiang, Fangqing Hu, Liliang Xu, Jihong Zhang and Jinqi Zhu
Water 2024, 16(2), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020350 - 20 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1221
Abstract
Background: Vegetation roots are considered to play an effective role in controlling soil erosion by benefiting soil hydrology and mechanical properties. However, the correlation between soil hydrology and the mechanical features associated with the variation root system under different vegetation types remains poorly [...] Read more.
Background: Vegetation roots are considered to play an effective role in controlling soil erosion by benefiting soil hydrology and mechanical properties. However, the correlation between soil hydrology and the mechanical features associated with the variation root system under different vegetation types remains poorly understood. Methods: We conducted dye-tracer infiltration to classify water flow behavior and indoor experiments (including tests on soil bulk density, soil organic carbon, mean weight diameter, soil cohesion, root density, etc.) to interpret variation patterns in three forest systems (coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, CBF; coniferous forest, CF; Phyllostachys edulis, PF) and fallow land (FL). Results: Based on the soil dye-tracer infiltration results, the largest dyeing area was observed in CF (36.96%), but CF also had the lowest infiltration rate (60.3 mm·min−1). The soil under CBF had the highest shear strength, approximately 25% higher than other vegetation types. CF exhibited the highest aggregate stability, surpassing CBF by 98.55%, PF by 34.31%, and FL by 407.41%, respectively. Additionally, PF forests showed the greatest root biomass and length. The results of correlation analysis and PCA reveal complex relationships among hydrological and mechanical soil traits. Specifically, soil cohesion does not exhibit significant correlations with hydrological traits such as the dyeing area, while traits like MWD and PAD show either positive or negative associations with hydrological traits. Root traits generally exhibit positive relationships with soil mechanical traits, with limited significant correlations observed with hydrological traits. Conversely, we found that root biomass contributes significantly to the dyeing area (accounting for 51.48%). Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the reforestation system is a successful approach for conserving water and reducing erosion by increasing soil-aggregated stability and shear strength, causing water redistribution to be more homogenized across the whole soil profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing-Based Study on Surface Water Environment)
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24 pages, 9863 KiB  
Article
Larval Dispersal Modelling of the Blue Swimming Crab Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758) from the Crab Banks along the Coast of Trang Province, Southern Thailand
by Nikom Onsri, Itchika Sivaipram, Phurich Boonsanit, Kattinat Sagulsawasdipan and Suriyan Saramul
Water 2024, 16(2), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020349 - 20 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1791
Abstract
In Thailand, the populations of a commercially important crab Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758) have been decreasing due to overfishing, raising concerns about the conservation efforts of this crab species. The Crab Bank Project has recently been established to restore crab populations by releasing [...] Read more.
In Thailand, the populations of a commercially important crab Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758) have been decreasing due to overfishing, raising concerns about the conservation efforts of this crab species. The Crab Bank Project has recently been established to restore crab populations by releasing crab larvae from each crab bank station. However, the fate of crab larvae after the release is poorly understood. Here, we assessed the dispersal and settlement patterns of the larvae P. pelagicus released from crab banks along the coast of Trang Province, Southern Thailand. The Lagrangian particle tracking model was employed to simulate the larval dispersal and settlement patterns after release from the crab banks during the inter-monsoon, southwest monsoon, and northeast monsoon. Our simulation revealed that virtual larvae were predominantly retained within inshore areas after the release for 14 days, regulated by tidal-driven currents, wind-induced currents, and local coastal topography. Monsoon periods affected the larval dispersal, with some larvae being transported into estuaries due to the SW monsoonal effects. After the 14-day release period, our modelled simulations suggested that the crab larvae arrived at numerous seagrass meadows along the coast, indicating potential settlement and growth. This result highlights the connectivity of sources and sinks for crab larvae after release from crab banks. Moreover, significant implications for conservation efforts and the fishery management of P. pelagicus were also discussed based on our modelled simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Management and Nearshore Hydrodynamics)
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19 pages, 1091 KiB  
Article
Impact of Microplastic on Freshwater Sediment Biogeochemistry and Microbial Communities Is Polymer Specific
by Kristina M. Chomiak, Wendy A. Owens-Rios, Carmella M. Bangkong, Steven W. Day, Nathan C. Eddingsaas, Matthew J. Hoffman, André O. Hudson and Anna Christina Tyler
Water 2024, 16(2), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020348 - 20 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1751
Abstract
Plastic debris is a growing threat in freshwater ecosystems and transport models predict that many plastics will sink to the benthos. Among the most common plastics found in the Laurentian Great Lakes sediments are polyethylene terephthalate (especially fibers; PET), polyvinylchloride (particles; PVC), and [...] Read more.
Plastic debris is a growing threat in freshwater ecosystems and transport models predict that many plastics will sink to the benthos. Among the most common plastics found in the Laurentian Great Lakes sediments are polyethylene terephthalate (especially fibers; PET), polyvinylchloride (particles; PVC), and styrene-butadiene rubber resulting from tire wear (“crumb rubber”; SBR). These materials vary substantially in physical and chemical properties, and their impacts on benthic biogeochemistry and microbial community structure and function are largely unknown. We used a microcosm approach to evaluate the impact of these three plastics on benthic-pelagic coupling, sediment properties, and sediment microbial community structure and function using sediments from Irondequoit Bay, a major embayment of Lake Ontario in Rochester, New York, USA. Benthic metabolism and nitrogen and phosphorous cycling were all uniquely impacted by the different polymers. PET fibers and PVC particles demonstrated the most unique effects, with decreased ecosystem metabolism in sediments containing PET and greater nutrient uptake in sediments with PVC. Microbial diversity was reduced in all treatments containing plastic, but SBR had the most substantial impact on microbial community function, increasing the relative importance of metabolic pathways such as hydrocarbon degradation and sulfur metabolism. Our results suggest that individual polymers have unique impacts on the benthos, with divergent implications for ecosystem function. This provides deeper insight into the myriad ways plastic pollution may impact aquatic ecosystems and will help to inform risk assessment and policy interventions by highlighting which materials pose the greatest risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biodiversity and Functionality of Aquatic Ecosystems)
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29 pages, 5090 KiB  
Article
Large Eddy Simulations of Flow Past Circular Cylinders to Determine Head Loss Coefficients of Circular Bar Trash Racks with Perpendicular Inflow Conditions
by Hannes Zöschg
Water 2024, 16(2), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020347 - 20 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1077
Abstract
Trash racks installed at hydropower plants cause head losses that reduce energy output. Previous research has thoroughly investigated head losses through both experimental and field studies. However, only a limited number of numerical studies have been performed, which have shown significant simplifications in [...] Read more.
Trash racks installed at hydropower plants cause head losses that reduce energy output. Previous research has thoroughly investigated head losses through both experimental and field studies. However, only a limited number of numerical studies have been performed, which have shown significant simplifications in terms of model complexity. In this study, the head loss coefficients ξ of circular bar trash racks (CBTRs) were analyzed using 3D Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Specifically, a single submerged bar oriented perpendicular to the flow direction was studied under homogeneous inflow conditions while (i) the blocking ratio P was varied between 0.043 and 0.444, and (ii) the flow velocity U was varied between 0.3 and 1.0 m/s. The model parameters were selected primarily based on the extensive literature on flow past circular cylinders, particularly at a Reynolds bar number Reb of 3900. To ensure the validity of the parameters, systematic independence tests were performed, including simulations with three and five bars in the computational domain. The results confirmed the suitability of 3D LES as an appropriate tool to determine ξ of CBTRs. In general, ξ decreased continuously with decreasing P and increased with increasing U when Reb ≥ 3981, which is consistent with comparable flow parameters observed in previous studies of flow past circular cylinders. Notably, the study found that the empirical formulas used for comparison tended to underestimate ξ when P was relatively low. Finally, the potential of the presented approach for future applications was discussed in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Hydraulics)
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23 pages, 26754 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Modeling of Coastal Compound Flooding Hazards Due to Tides, Extratropical Storms, Waves, and Sea-Level Rise: A Case Study in the Salish Sea, Washington (USA)
by Kees Nederhoff, Sean C. Crosby, Nate R. Van Arendonk, Eric E. Grossman, Babak Tehranirad, Tim Leijnse, Wouter Klessens and Patrick L. Barnard
Water 2024, 16(2), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020346 - 20 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1624
Abstract
The Puget Sound Coastal Storm Modeling System (PS-CoSMoS) is a tool designed to dynamically downscale future climate scenarios (i.e., projected changes in wind and pressure fields and temperature) to compute regional water levels, waves, and compound flooding over large geographic areas (100 s [...] Read more.
The Puget Sound Coastal Storm Modeling System (PS-CoSMoS) is a tool designed to dynamically downscale future climate scenarios (i.e., projected changes in wind and pressure fields and temperature) to compute regional water levels, waves, and compound flooding over large geographic areas (100 s of kilometers) at high spatial resolutions (1 m) pertinent to coastal hazard assessments and planning. This research focuses on advancing robust and computationally efficient approaches to resolving the coastal compound flooding components for complex, estuary environments and their application to the Puget Sound region of Washington State (USA) and the greater Salish Sea. The modeling system provides coastal planners with projections of storm hazards and flood exposure for recurring flood events, spanning the annual to 1-percent annual chance of flooding, necessary to manage public safety and the prioritization and cost-efficient protection of critical infrastructure and valued ecosystems. The tool is applied and validated for Whatcom County, Washington, and includes a cross-shore profile model (XBeach) and overland flooding model (SFINCS) and is nested in a regional tide–surge model and wave model. Despite uncertainties in boundary conditions, hindcast simulations performed with the coupled model system accurately identified areas that were flooded during a recent storm in 2018. Flood hazards and risks are expected to increase exponentially as the sea level rises in the study area of 210 km of shoreline. With 1 m of sea-level rise, annual flood extents are projected to increase from 13 to 33 km2 (5 and 13% of low-lying Whatcom County) and flood risk (defined in USD) is projected to increase fifteenfold (from 14 to USD 206 million). PS-CoSMoS, like its prior iteration in California (CoSMoS), provides valuable coastal hazard projections to help communities plan for the impacts of sea-level rise and storms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oceans and Coastal Zones)
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14 pages, 3106 KiB  
Article
A Pragmatic Approach for Chlorine Decay Modeling in Multiple-Source Water Distribution Networks Based on Trace Analysis
by Alice Zaghini, Francesca Gagliardi, Valentina Marsili, Filippo Mazzoni, Lorenzo Tirello, Stefano Alvisi and Marco Franchini
Water 2024, 16(2), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020345 - 20 Jan 2024
Viewed by 938
Abstract
Providing water with adequate quality to users is one of the main concerns for water utilities. In most countries, this is ensured through the introduction of disinfectants, such as chlorine, which are subjected to decay over time, with consequent loss of disinfection action [...] Read more.
Providing water with adequate quality to users is one of the main concerns for water utilities. In most countries, this is ensured through the introduction of disinfectants, such as chlorine, which are subjected to decay over time, with consequent loss of disinfection action and the possible formation of harmful by-products. In this context, water quality models can be a useful tool to support management and, thus, ensure sufficient standards in all network points, but most of these models require the input of reaction parameters which could be difficult to obtain based on the information available to water utilities, especially in the case of complex water distribution networks (WDNs) supplied by more than one source. This study proposes a pragmatic, interval-number-based method to model chlorine decay in complex WDNs by relying on the use of the network hydraulic model and the results of trace analysis, which are exploited to obtain overall reaction rates. The method is applied to the case of a real WDN supplied by water sources with different qualitative features. The results obtained highlight that the method can help water utilities in the identification of overall water quality parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
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16 pages, 17426 KiB  
Article
A Methodology for Water Resource Management and the Planning of the Coastal Reservoir in Indonesia
by Indratmo Soekarno, Mohammad Bagus Adityawan, Calvin Sandi, Salma Izzatu Amatullah, Mohammad Farid, Yadi Suryadi, Bagus Pramono Yakti, Asrini Chrysanti, Arno Adi Kuntoro, Widyaningtias and Muhammad Rizki Purnama
Water 2024, 16(2), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020344 - 20 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1460
Abstract
Metropolitan areas in Indonesia, specifically Jabodetabek, are projected to continue experiencing population growth. This will result in increased water demand, which, if left unchecked, could lead to a water crisis. Additionally, the region faces persistent flooding issues. To mitigate these challenges, the Indonesian [...] Read more.
Metropolitan areas in Indonesia, specifically Jabodetabek, are projected to continue experiencing population growth. This will result in increased water demand, which, if left unchecked, could lead to a water crisis. Additionally, the region faces persistent flooding issues. To mitigate these challenges, the Indonesian government proposes the creation of a coastal reservoir. However, a methodology for the pre-feasibility study of such reservoirs in Indonesia is currently lacking. This study addresses this gap by presenting a methodological framework encompassing hydrology and water allocation analyses as well as numerical modeling related to hydraulic and sedimentation aspects of coastal reservoirs. The methodology was designed to be adaptable based on data availability. Finally, this methodology was applied to a case study located at the Cisadane River estuary. The water allocation simulation showed that the reservoir can release an annual optimum discharge of 80.618 m3/s in wet years and 22.731 m3/s in dry years. Flood modeling demonstrated a modest impact on reducing early-hour floods, with a water level decrease of around 20–50 cm within 5 km of the reservoir. Furthermore, sediment modeling revealed varying sedimentation and erosion depths along the rivers, with approximately 62,300 m3/year settling in the reservoir. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Hydraulic Engineering and Hydrological Modelling)
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16 pages, 8240 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Oxidation Treatment of Organic Matter in Wastewater from Wet Fermentation of Yunnan Arabica Coffee
by Fanfan Liang, Yan Wang, Yungen Liu, Silin Yang, Fajin Yin and Liping Peng
Water 2024, 16(2), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020343 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1022
Abstract
Electrochemical oxidation combined with reagents of O3, H2O2 and FeCl2 was conducted in this study to treat the wastewater from wet fermentation of Yunnan arabica coffee. In addition, the effect of oxidants on the efficiency of wastewater [...] Read more.
Electrochemical oxidation combined with reagents of O3, H2O2 and FeCl2 was conducted in this study to treat the wastewater from wet fermentation of Yunnan arabica coffee. In addition, the effect of oxidants on the efficiency of wastewater treatment, the binding capacities of the oxidants to proteins, the degradation of organic pollutants in the wastewater, and the formation of oxidized organic components were systematically investigated. The results reveal better performance of O3-combined electrochemical oxidation (63.60% COD removal efficiency) for treatment of organic species in coffee wastewater than that of the electrochemical processes with H2O2 (47.70% COD removal efficiency) and FeCl2 (34.48% COD removal efficiency). The synergy of the electrooxidation/O3 process (0.0133 A/cm2, 20 mg/L–2 L/min) could not only raise the pH value (3.70~4.20, 5.14~5.44) of the wastewater and reduce the NaOH dosage of 2.80~3.7 g/L, but also effectively degrade the proteins, lipids, unsaturated hydrocarbons, and carbohydrates, with a total chemical oxygen demand (COD) value above 20,000 mg/L. After the oxidation treatment, some organic components remained in the wastewater, including 31.94% of S-containing organics, lignin, condensed aromatic compounds, and aromatic structural compounds, which are difficult to be utilized by microorganisms. In addition, it was found that OH could bind to proteins and affect the required amount of NaOH addition, whereas the protein binding energy of O3 is higher than that of H2O2, indicating a stronger ability of O3 to oxidize proteins. Therefore, the combination of O3 and electrochemical oxidation can be considered as an effective method to treat organic pollutants in the wastewater from wet fermentation of Yunnan arabica coffee. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
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18 pages, 9784 KiB  
Article
A Numerical Investigation of the Nonlinear Flow and Heat Transfer Mechanism in Rough Fractured Rock Accounting for Fluid Phase Transition Effects
by Xianshan Liu, Xiaolei Luo, Shaowei Liu, Pugang Zhang, Man Li and Yuhua Pan
Water 2024, 16(2), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020342 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 920
Abstract
The study of the seepage and heat transfer law of three-dimensional rough fractures is of great significance in improving the heat extraction efficiency of underground thermal reservoirs. However, the phase transition effects of fluids during the thermal exploitation process profoundly influence the intrinsic [...] Read more.
The study of the seepage and heat transfer law of three-dimensional rough fractures is of great significance in improving the heat extraction efficiency of underground thermal reservoirs. However, the phase transition effects of fluids during the thermal exploitation process profoundly influence the intrinsic mechanisms of fracture seepage and heat transfer. Based on the FLUENT 2020 software, single-phase and multiphase heat–flow coupling models were established, and the alterations stemming from the phase transition in seepage and heat transfer mechanisms were dissected. The results indicate that, without considering phase transition, the geometric morphology of the fractures controlled the distribution of local heat transfer coefficients, the magnitude of which was influenced by different boundary conditions. Moreover, based on the Forchheimer formula, it was found that the heat transfer process affects nonlinear seepage behavior significantly. After considering the phase transition, the fluid exhibited characteristics similar to shear-diluted fluids and, under the same pressure gradient, the increment of flow rate was higher than the increment in the linearly increasing scenario. In the heat transfer process, the gas volume percentage played a dominant role, causing the local heat transfer coefficient to decrease with the increase in gas content. Therefore, considering fluid phase transition can more accurately reveal seepage characteristics and the evolution law. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Coupling in Fractured Porous Media)
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17 pages, 3125 KiB  
Article
Algal Decomposition Accelerates Denitrification as Evidenced by the High-Resolution Distribution of Nitrogen Fractions in the Sediment–Water Interface of Eutrophic Lakes
by Yu Yao, Ying Chen, Ruiming Han, Desheng Chen, Huanxin Ma, Xiaoxiang Han, Yuqi Feng and Chenfei Shi
Water 2024, 16(2), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020341 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 887
Abstract
This study investigates the decomposition process of algal blooms (ABs) in eutrophic lakes and its impact on the labile endogenous nitrogen (N) cycle. In situ techniques such as diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and high-resolution dialysis (HR-Peeper) were employed to decipher the [...] Read more.
This study investigates the decomposition process of algal blooms (ABs) in eutrophic lakes and its impact on the labile endogenous nitrogen (N) cycle. In situ techniques such as diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and high-resolution dialysis (HR-Peeper) were employed to decipher the vertical distribution of N fractions within the sediment–water interface (SWI) in Taihu, China. Additionally, an annular flume was used to simulate regional differences in lake conditions and understand labile nitrogen transformation during AB decomposition. This study reveals that the NH4+-N fraction exuded from algae is subsequently converted into NO3-N and NO2-N through nitrification, resulting in a significant increase in the concentrations of NO3-N and NO2-N at the SWI. The decomposition of algae also induces a significant increase in dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration, referring to humic acid and humus-like components; a seven-millimeter decrease in dissolved oxygen (DO) penetration depth; as well as a significant decrease in the pH value near the SWI, which consequently promotes denitrification processes in the sediment. Moreover, the decomposition process influences nitrogen distribution patterns and the role conversion of sediments between a “source” and a “sink” of nitrogen. This investigation provides evidence on the migration and/or transformation of N fractions and offers insights into the dynamic processes across the SWI in eutrophic lakes. Full article
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17 pages, 16775 KiB  
Article
Visible Light Photocatalytic Degradation of Environmental Pollutants Using Zn-Doped NiO Nanoparticles
by S. Minisha, J. Johnson, Saikh Mohammad, Jeetendra Kumar Gupta, Sikandar Aftab, Asma A. Alothman and Wen-Cheng Lai
Water 2024, 16(2), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020340 - 19 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1241
Abstract
The study aims to contribute valuable insights into the potential applications of the photocatalyst, particularly in the realms of sustainable energy and environmental remediation. Here, Zn-doped NiO nanoparticles with different mole percentages of zinc ingredients are produced and analyzed. Synthesized Zn-doped NiO nanoparticles [...] Read more.
The study aims to contribute valuable insights into the potential applications of the photocatalyst, particularly in the realms of sustainable energy and environmental remediation. Here, Zn-doped NiO nanoparticles with different mole percentages of zinc ingredients are produced and analyzed. Synthesized Zn-doped NiO nanoparticles were evaluated structurally, optically, morphologically, elementally, and photocatalytically. According to X-ray diffraction analysis, cubic NiO and hexagonal Zn-doped cubic NiO nanoparticles were formed, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed metal dopants and metal-oxygen stretching, as well as Zn substitution and stabilization. A UV analysis revealed that zinc dopants reduced visible light absorption and bandgap. A decrease in bandgap indicates the importance of zinc incorporation and its interface with NiO. Electron scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the nanoparticles exhibited quasi-spherical morphologies and contained Ni, Zn, and O elements. Photocatalytic activity of the synthesized Zn-doped NiO nanoparticles increased with increasing Zn content, achieving a maximum at 8% Zn doping into NiO lattices of 92%. Through XPS analysis, the valencies of Zn, Ni, and O elements are demonstrated, as well as electron movements and bonding between the atoms. The zinc dopants on the metal oxide surface led to charge separation and radical reactions, resulting in enhanced degradation of phorate, salbutamol, and rhoda mine B activities. Hence, Zn-doped NiO nanoparticles are proposed as effective photocatalysts for environmental remediation. The findings are expected to have implications for advancing the field of photocatalysis and addressing challenges related to pollution and energy sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Treatment and Biopharmaceuticals – Research and Innovations)
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15 pages, 1274 KiB  
Article
The Flood Simulation of the Modified Muskingum Model with a Variable Exponent Based on the Artificial Rabbit Optimization Algorithm
by Min Li, Zhirui Cui and Tianyu Fan
Water 2024, 16(2), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020339 - 19 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 757
Abstract
In order to further improve the accuracy of flood routing, this article uses the Variable Exponential Nonlinear Muskingum Model (VEP-NMM), combined with the Artificial Rabbit Optimization (ARO) algorithm for parameter calibration, to construct the ARO-VEP-NMM flood routing model. Taking Wilson’s (1974) flood as [...] Read more.
In order to further improve the accuracy of flood routing, this article uses the Variable Exponential Nonlinear Muskingum Model (VEP-NMM), combined with the Artificial Rabbit Optimization (ARO) algorithm for parameter calibration, to construct the ARO-VEP-NMM flood routing model. Taking Wilson’s (1974) flood as an example, the model calculation results were compared and analyzed with the Muskingum model constructed with seven optimization algorithms. At the same time, six measured floods in the Zishui Basin were selected for model applicability testing. The results show that the ARO algorithm exhibits stronger robustness and search ability compared with other optimization algorithms and can better solve the parameter optimization problem of the Muskingum model. The use of the ARO-VEP-NMM model for flood routing accurately reflects the movement patterns of floods. The Nash coefficient of the Wilson section reached 0.9983, and the average Nash coefficient during the flood validation period in the Zishui Basin was 0.9, further verifying the adaptability and feasibility of the ARO-VEP-NMM model in flood routing. The research results can provide certain references and a theoretical basis for improving the accuracy of flood forecasting. Full article
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20 pages, 6401 KiB  
Article
Effects of Aquaculture and Thalassia testudinum on Sediment Organic Carbon in Xincun Bay, Hainan Island
by Qiuying Han, Wenxue Che, Hui Zhao, Jiahui Ye, Wenxuan Zeng, Yufeng Luo, Xinzhu Bai, Muqiu Zhao and Yunfeng Shi
Water 2024, 16(2), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020338 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 898
Abstract
Eutrophication due to aquaculture can cause the decline of seagrasses and impact their carbon storage capacity. This study explored the effects of aquaculture on the sediment organic carbon (SOC) in Thalassia testudinum seagrass beds using enzyme activity and microorganisms as indicators. Our results [...] Read more.
Eutrophication due to aquaculture can cause the decline of seagrasses and impact their carbon storage capacity. This study explored the effects of aquaculture on the sediment organic carbon (SOC) in Thalassia testudinum seagrass beds using enzyme activity and microorganisms as indicators. Our results showed that the distance to aquaculture significantly increased the SOC and TN of sediments; the C/N ratio of sediments was reduced by the distance to aquaculture. Distance to aquaculture and seagrasses significantly impacted the δ13C of sediments, and their significant interactive effects on the δ13C of sediments were found. Distance to aquaculture and seagrasses had significantly interactive effects on the cellulase activity of sediments. Distance to aquaculture and seagrasses separately reduced the invertase activity of sediments. SOC in the seagrass bed was significantly positively impacted by cellulase activity and polyphenol oxidase activity in sediments. Firmicutes, Desulfobacterota and Chloroflexi were the dominant taxa in the S1 and S2 locations. From the S1 location to the S2 location, the relative abundances of Firmicutes and Desulfobacterota increased. The functional profiles of COG were relatively similar between the S1 and S2 locations. BugBase phenotype predictions indicated that the microbial phenotypes of all the seagrass sediment samples were dominated by anaerobic bacteria in terms of oxygen utilizing phenotypes. FAPROTAX functional predictions indicated that aquaculture affects functions associated with seagrass bed sediment bacteria, particularly those related to carbon and nitrogen cycling. This study can provide an important basis for understanding the response mechanism of global carbon sink changes to human activities such as aquaculture and supply more scientific data for promoting the conservation and management of seagrass beds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conservation and Monitoring of Marine Ecosystem)
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29 pages, 6471 KiB  
Article
Load-Settlement Analysis of Axially Loaded Piles in Unsaturated Soils
by Zahra Gharibreza, Mahmoud Ghazavi and M. Hesham El Naggar
Water 2024, 16(2), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020337 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1132
Abstract
Unsaturated soil covers a significant part of the world, and studying the behavior of deep foundations in this medium is an important step in increasing accuracy and economic efficiency in geotechnical studies. This paper presents an analytical solution to investigate the load-carrying characteristics [...] Read more.
Unsaturated soil covers a significant part of the world, and studying the behavior of deep foundations in this medium is an important step in increasing accuracy and economic efficiency in geotechnical studies. This paper presents an analytical solution to investigate the load-carrying characteristics of single piles embedded in unsaturated soils, accounting for the effect of groundwater level on the pile’s response. For this purpose, relationships for shear modulus and Poisson’s ratio for unsaturated soils were collected from the literature to consider their effects as key parameters on pile performance. A parametric study was conducted to evaluate the effect of soil moisture content on the behavior of the pile-soil system for different soil types, and the effect of pile slenderness on its load-settlement behavior was studied for varying soil moisture contents. The results indicate that the pile stiffness increases as the soil suction increases while below a critical slenderness value, hence increasing the pile load capacity. However, this improvement occurs within a limited range of soil suction that is narrower for coarse-grained soils. The pile settlement corresponding to soil failure was also evaluated by modifying the existing solutions for unsaturated soils. The developed solutions were verified against the predictions of published solutions as well as the results of finite element analysis and pile load tests. It was found that the system stiffness decreases by 50% when the water table rises from the pile toe level to the ground surface in the studied soil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advancements in Unsaturated Soil Mechanics)
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17 pages, 7915 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation of the Evolution Process of Suspended Pipelines through River Bottoms under Unsteady Flow Conditions
by Changjing Fu, Yangming Xu and Tianlong Zhao
Water 2024, 16(2), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020336 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 843
Abstract
One of the major geological hazards that can cause harm to long-distance oil and gas pipelines are water-induced disasters. These disasters are quite common and widespread. Pipelines that cross river channels are at a higher risk of facing damage due to flood-induced erosion. [...] Read more.
One of the major geological hazards that can cause harm to long-distance oil and gas pipelines are water-induced disasters. These disasters are quite common and widespread. Pipelines that cross river channels are at a higher risk of facing damage due to flood-induced erosion. To shed light on the evolution pattern of riverbeds adjacent to pipelines under the influence of unsteady flow conditions, a flume model test was conducted, and the underlying mechanisms of local scour were elucidated. The experimental results demonstrate that pipelines are more susceptible to suspension during flood conditions. The suspension process of pipelines under flood conditions could be broadly divided into five stages. In comparison to constant flow conditions, the evolution process of local scour and the suspension of pipelines under unsteady flow lacked the erosion pit expansion stage, and the scour duration was shorter. Each stage exhibited distinct erosion characteristics, and both the peak flow rate and the number of flood peaks significantly impacted the maximum range and depth of the erosion pit. During pipeline-laying projects, selecting a covering layer with a larger particle size can enhance the erosion resistance of the riverbed around the pipeline. The study of the local erosion process of underwater crossing pipelines under unstable flow conditions can provide a reference for pipeline engineering design and riverbed pipeline protection strategies. Full article
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