Water Supply System Reliability, Safety and Risk Modelling & Assessment, Volume II

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Urban Water Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 February 2024) | Viewed by 5020

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Water Supply and Sewerage Systems, Faculty of Civil, Environmental Engineering and Architecture, Rzeszow University of Technology, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland
Interests: reliability and safety of municipal systems; water supply systems; water network; risk analysis connected with water supply systems operation; safety of water supply consumers; failure risk analysis; reliability-based risk assessment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Water Supply and Sewerage Systems, Faculty of Civil, Environmental Engineering and Architecture, Rzeszow University of Technology, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland
Interests: critical infrastructure; reliability and safety; water supply systems; consumers; failure; risk analysis; reliability-based risk assessment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The reliability and safety of engineering systems represent permanent scientific and operational issues. They become even more pressing issues if these engineering systems belong to critical infrastructures. A water supply system is a critical infrastructure in modern societies. The first mission of a WSS is to provide households with potable water in the required quantity, at the appropriate pressure, and on demand, as required by statutory regulations. The risk assessment is primarily focused on supply disruption risk (shortage or deficit) and their impacts on the environment, consumer health, and the global security of the city. An examination of the current operational state, potential major threats, and related hazards should be part of every risk assessment. The proposed approaches aim to address a wide spectrum of the issues concerning WSS reliability, safety and risk modelling, and assessment.

Dr. Katarzyna Pietrucha-Urbanik
Prof. Dr. Janusz Rak
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • hazard identification
  • matrix
  • manage drinking water supply safety
  • risk analysis
  • risk and vulnerability assessment
  • safety
  • water safety plans
  • water supply systems
  • water demand modeling
  • water supply systems
  • water network failure analysis
  • water losses
  • innovative methodologies
  • water quality monitoring
  • techniques and technology for smart water systems
  • optimal network design
  • water distribution networks
  • contamination
  • water–energy nexus
  • water quality
  • failure risk analysis
  • prediction models
  • the rehabilitation of water distribution networks
  • reliability-based risk assessment
  • risk assessment methodology
  • the safety of water supply systems

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 2655 KiB  
Article
A Novel IoT-Based Performance Testing Method and System for Fire Pumps
by Shangcong Zhang, Yongfang Li, Xuefei Chen, Ruyi Zhou, Ziran Wu and Taha Zarhmouti
Water 2024, 16(5), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16050792 - 6 Mar 2024
Viewed by 903
Abstract
Fire pumps are the key components of water supply in a firefighting system. At present, there is a lack of fire water pump testing methods that intelligently detect faulty states. Existing testing approaches require manual operation, which leads to low efficiency and accuracy. [...] Read more.
Fire pumps are the key components of water supply in a firefighting system. At present, there is a lack of fire water pump testing methods that intelligently detect faulty states. Existing testing approaches require manual operation, which leads to low efficiency and accuracy. To solve the issue, this paper presents an automatic and smart testing approach that acquires measurements of the flow, pressure, shaft power and efficiency from smart sensors via an IoT network, so that performance curves are obtained in the testing processes. An IoT platform is developed for data conversion, transmission and storage. The Discrete Fréchet Distance is applied to evaluate the similarities between the acquired performance curves and metric performance curves, to determine the working condition of the fire pump. The weights of the measurement dimensions for distance computation are optimized by the Genetic Algorithm to improve the distinction between normal and faulty performance curves. Finally, the experimental results show that the proposed method can completely detect faulty states and prove its high practicality for real firefighting systems. Full article
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39 pages, 7476 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Coagulation–Flocculation Treatment Using Aluminum Sulfate on a Polluted Surface Water Source: A Year-Long Study
by Hichem Tahraoui, Selma Toumi, Meriem Boudoukhani, Nabil Touzout, Asma Nour El Houda Sid, Abdeltif Amrane, Abd-Elmouneïm Belhadj, Mohamed Hadjadj, Yacine Laichi, Mohamed Aboumustapha, Mohammed Kebir, Abdellah Bouguettoucha, Derradji Chebli, Aymen Amin Assadi and Jie Zhang
Water 2024, 16(3), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16030400 - 25 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2162
Abstract
Safeguarding drinking water is a major public health and environmental concern because it is essential to human life but may contain pollutants that can cause illness or harm the environment. Therefore, continuous research is necessary to improve water treatment methods and guarantee its [...] Read more.
Safeguarding drinking water is a major public health and environmental concern because it is essential to human life but may contain pollutants that can cause illness or harm the environment. Therefore, continuous research is necessary to improve water treatment methods and guarantee its quality. As part of this study, the effectiveness of coagulation–flocculation treatment using aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3) was evaluated on a very polluted site. Samplings were taken almost every day for a month from the polluted site, and the samples were characterized by several physicochemical properties, such as hydrogen potential (pH), electrical conductivity, turbidity, organic matter, ammonium (NH+4), phosphate (PO43−), nitrate (NO3), nitrite (NO2), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), total hardness (TH), chloride (Cl−), bicarbonate (HCO3), sulfate (SO42−), iron (Fe3+), manganese (Mn2+), aluminum (Al3+), potassium (K+), sodium (Na+), complete alkalimetric titration (TAC), and dry residue (DR). Then, these samples were treated with Al2(SO4)3 using the jar test method, which is a common method to determine the optimal amount of coagulant to add to the water based on its physicochemical characteristics. A mathematical model had been previously created using the support vector machine method to predict the dose of coagulant according to the parameters of temperature, pH, TAC, conductivity, and turbidity. This Al2(SO4)3 treatment step was repeated at the end of each month for a year, and a second characterization of the physicochemical parameters was carried out in order to compare them with those of the raw water. The results showed a very effective elimination of the various pollutions, with a very high rate, thus demonstrating the effectiveness of the Al2(SO4)3. The physicochemical parameters measured after the treatment showed a significant reduction in the majority of the physicochemical parameters. These results demonstrated that the coagulation–flocculation treatment with Al2(SO4)3 was very effective in eliminating the various pollutions present in the raw water. They also stress the importance of continued research in the field of water treatment to improve the quality of drinking water and protect public health and the environment. Full article
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30 pages, 11534 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Large-Scale Water Diversion Projects on the Water Supply Network: A Case Study in Southwest China
by Kaiwen Song, Xiujuan Jiang, Tianye Wang, Dengming Yan, Hongshi Xu and Zening Wu
Water 2024, 16(2), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020357 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1423
Abstract
The uneven spatial and temporal distribution of water resources has consistently been one of the most significant limiting factors for social development in many regions. Furthermore, with the intensification of climate change, this inequality is progressively widening, posing a critical challenge to the [...] Read more.
The uneven spatial and temporal distribution of water resources has consistently been one of the most significant limiting factors for social development in many regions. Furthermore, with the intensification of climate change, this inequality is progressively widening, posing a critical challenge to the sustainable development of human societies. The construction of large-scale water projects has become one of the crucial means to address the contradictions between water supply and demand. Thus, evaluating the functional aspects of water source network structures and systematically planning the layout of engineering measures in a scientifically reasonable manner are pressing issues that require urgent attention in current research efforts. Addressing this, our study takes the Erhai Lake basin and the surrounding areas in southwest China as the study area and combines landscape ecology and network analysis theory methods to propose a water supply network analysis method that takes into account both structure and node characteristics. Based on this methodology, we analyze the connectivity characteristics of water supply networks in the Erhai region under current (2020) and future (2035) planning scenarios. The results show that there were 215 nodes and 216 links in the water supply network of the Erhai Lake basin in 2020; with the implementation of a series of water conservancy projects, the planned 2035 water supply network will increase by 122 nodes and 163 links, and the connectivity of the regional water network will be significantly improved. Also, we identify some key nodes in the network, and the results show that the water supply network in 2035 will have obvious decentralization characteristics compared with that in 2020. And, based on the network degradation analysis, we find that with the implementation of engineering measures, the resilience of the water supply network will be significantly strengthened by 2035, with stronger risk tolerance. This study extends the quantitative representation of water source network characteristics, which can provide a useful reference for water network structure planning and optimization. Full article
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