Next Issue
Volume 16, January-2
Previous Issue
Volume 15, December-2
 
 
water-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Water, Volume 16, Issue 1 (January-1 2024) – 189 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study aimed to assess the seasonal and size-related microhabitat use by native fish above and below small hydropower plants (SHPP). For this, fish were sampled using a modified point electrofishing procedure, and a multivariate approach was used to analyze microhabitat use and availability data from sites located upstream (reference) and downstream (disturbed) from two SHPPs in northeast Portugal. The results showed negligible differences in fish microhabitat use between downstream SHPP and upstream reference sites. The cover might have had a significant role in tempering the effects of detrimental environmental conditions, namely, peaking flows, by providing hydraulic shelter, highlighting the need to maintain riparian vegetation strips and submerged aquatic macrophytes, as well as the provision of coarse substrate that can be critical for fish. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
27 pages, 7485 KiB  
Article
A Three-Dimensional Fully-Coupled Fluid-Structure Model for Tsunami Loading on Coastal Bridges
by Dilshan S. P. Amarasinghe Baragamage and Weiming Wu
Water 2024, 16(1), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010189 - 4 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1209
Abstract
A three-dimensional (3D) fully-coupled fluid-structure model has been developed in this study to calculate the impact force of tsunamis on a flexible structure considering fluid-structure interactions. The propagation of a tsunami is simulated by solving the 3D Navier–Stokes equations using a finite volume [...] Read more.
A three-dimensional (3D) fully-coupled fluid-structure model has been developed in this study to calculate the impact force of tsunamis on a flexible structure considering fluid-structure interactions. The propagation of a tsunami is simulated by solving the 3D Navier–Stokes equations using a finite volume method with the volume-of-fluid technique. The structure motion under the tsunami impact force is simulated by solving the motion equation using the generalized alpha method. The structure motion is fed back into the fluid solver via a technique that combines a sharp-interface immersed boundary method with the cut-cell method. The flow model predicts accurate impact forces of dam-break flows on rigid blocks in three experimental cases. The fully coupled 3D flow-structure model is tested with experiments on a large-scale (1:5) model bridge under nonbreaking and breaking solitary waves. The simulated wave propagation and structure restoring forces generally agree well with the measured data. Then, the fully-coupled fluid-structure model is compared with an uncoupled model and applied to assess the effect of flexibility on structure responses to tsunami loading, showing that the restoring force highly depends on the dynamic characteristics of the structure and the feedback coupling between fluid and structure. The maximum hydrodynamic and restoring forces decrease with increasing structure flexibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Estuarine and Coastal Hydrodynamics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 5377 KiB  
Article
Study on Impoundment Deformation Characteristics and Crack of High Core Rockfill Dam Based on Inversion Parameters
by Litan Pan, Bo Wu, Daquan Wang, Xiongxiong Zhou, Lijie Wang and Yi Zhang
Water 2024, 16(1), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010188 - 4 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1100
Abstract
In the numerical simulation of earth-rock dam, accurate and reliable mechanical parameters of the dam material are the important basis for dam deformation predictions and dam safety evaluations. Based on the deformation monitoring data of Luding core wall rockfill dam, the rheological parameters [...] Read more.
In the numerical simulation of earth-rock dam, accurate and reliable mechanical parameters of the dam material are the important basis for dam deformation predictions and dam safety evaluations. Based on the deformation monitoring data of Luding core wall rockfill dam, the rheological parameters of rockfill and core wall materials are inverted in this paper. Combined with the actual filling and impoundment process of the dam, the numerical simulation is carried out, and the stress deformation and differential settlement of the dam after completion and impoundment are analyzed. The results showed that the stress deformation results of the dam based on the inversion parameters were in good agreement with the actual deformation. The horizontal displacement, settlement, and principal stress of the dam during the completion period were symmetrically distributed along the core wall. The maximum horizontal displacement occurred at the main dam on both sides of the core wall and the upstream and downstream dam slopes, and the maximum settlement occurred in the middle of the core wall. During the impoundment period, under the action of reservoir water pressure and upstream rockfill wetting deformation, the deformation and stress of the dam body no longer met the symmetrical distribution law, and the maximum horizontal displacement of the dam body during the impoundment period was located at 2/3 of the upstream dam slope. The maximum settlement of the dam body was located at 1/2 of the dam height. The maximum principal stress on the upstream side of the core wall was located on the left side of the bottom of the core wall, and the minimum principal stress was also located on the left side of the bottom of the core wall. The simulation results of the deformation and stress met the general law of earth-rock dam engineering. During the completion period, the deformation inclination of the dam crest was less than 1%. During the impoundment period, the deformation inclination of the dam crest area increased due to the wetting deformation of the upstream rockfill material. At the same time, the deformation inclination of the dam crest axis was larger than that of the upstream and downstream sides, and the deformation inclination of the dam crest at the middle of the valley was the largest, but it did not exceed 3%, that is, there would be no longitudinal cracks, which is consistent with the actual situation. The research results can better predict the stress deformation and crack of the dam body, and provide important support for dam safety evaluations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Advances in Hydraulic Structure and Geotechnical Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 4659 KiB  
Article
Occurrence, Distribution, and Sources of Aliphatic and Cyclic Hydrocarbons in Sediments from Two Different Lagoons along the Red Sea Coast of Saudi Arabia
by Mubarak T. Al-Otaibi, Ahmed I. Rushdi, Najeeb Rasul, Abdulqader Bazeyad, Khalid F. Al-Mutlaq, Saud S. Aloud and Hattan A. Alharbi
Water 2024, 16(1), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010187 - 4 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1117
Abstract
Surface sediment samples from Al-Qahma lagoon in the southern part and Al-Wajh lagoon in the northern part of the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia were collected by a Van Veen grab sampler to determine the characteristics, distribution, and sources of aliphatic and [...] Read more.
Surface sediment samples from Al-Qahma lagoon in the southern part and Al-Wajh lagoon in the northern part of the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia were collected by a Van Veen grab sampler to determine the characteristics, distribution, and sources of aliphatic and cyclic hydrocarbons. The total extractable organic matter (TEOM) was extracted with a dichloromethane/methanol mixture after drying and sieving the sediments and identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The TEOM comprised n-alkanes (302.6 ± 446.7 ng·g−1 and 64 ± 50 ng·g−1), hopanes (29.8 ± 132.3 ng·g−1 and 1.0 ± 2.5 ng·g−1), steranes (0.0 and traces), n-alkanoic acids (745.8 ± 799.6 ng·g−1 and 120.7 ± 92.0 ng·g−1), n-alkanols (457.4 ± 1085.6 ng·g−1 and 49.7 ± 32.3 ng·g−1), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (54.5 ± 96.8 ng·g−1 and 7.8 ± 8.5 ng·g−1), and phthalates (185.3 ± 169.9 ng·g−1 and 67.4 ± 70.4 ng·g−1) in the Al-Qahma and Al-Wajh lagoon sediments, respectively. The percentages of the various sources relative to total aliphatic and cyclic hydrocarbon concentrations were 6.9 ± 6% for terrestrial plants, 53.7 ± 19% for algae, 10 ± 2% for microbial, 16 ± 12% for petroleum, and 13.4 ± 7 for plasticizer inputs in Al-Qahma lagoon. In Al-Wajh lagoon, they were 9.7 ± 4% for terrestrial plants, 30.8 ± 14% for algae, 25.2 ± 5% for bacteria, 11.2 ± 3% for petroleum, and 23.1 ± 11% for plasticizers. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1847 KiB  
Review
Policy, Institutions and Regulation in Stormwater Management: A Hybrid Literature Review
by Carlos Novaes and Rui Cunha Marques
Water 2024, 16(1), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010186 - 4 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1223
Abstract
Policies, Institutions and Regulation (PIR) aspects matter for different sectors’ growth and inclusive sustainable development, but there is little information in the literature on how to evaluate the effects of PIR on management options and outcomes or, on how positive results PIR changes [...] Read more.
Policies, Institutions and Regulation (PIR) aspects matter for different sectors’ growth and inclusive sustainable development, but there is little information in the literature on how to evaluate the effects of PIR on management options and outcomes or, on how positive results PIR changes can bring. In terms of stormwater management systems, or urban drainage, PIR is also a controversial and absent matter. Multidisciplinarity, several actors, countless formal and informal rules, and strong contextual path dependence make the subject complex and intricate. Considering the enabling environment, an alignment between policies, institutions and regulations is required to achieve good results and provide sustainable services. This study conducted a hybrid literature review of peer-reviewed papers in this field to provide an overview of how researchers have been studying PIR relations. The gaps show that the understanding of the PIR is fragile, as an important element for analyzing of results to be achieved, including SDG6, the financing and obtaining funds, guarantees and grants for the execution, delivery, operation and maintenance urban stormwater services and infrastructure. The contribution of this review is not only about what exists, but also mainly about what does not exist, since the void keeps waiting to be filled. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2845 KiB  
Article
Groundwater Environment and Health Risk Assessment in an In Situ Oil Shale Mining Area
by Xiaorong Wang, Boyue Liu, Shaolin He, Hongying Yuan, Dongli Ji, Ruolin Li, Yang Song, Wei Xu, Bo Liu and Yingjun Xu
Water 2024, 16(1), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010185 - 4 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1113
Abstract
To clarify the risk posed to groundwater in oil shale in situ mining areas, we examine five leached pollutants: Fe, Mn, Cr, sulfate, and ammonia nitrogen. Potential groundwater contents of these five pollutants were evaluated using an improved Nemero comprehensive index method and [...] Read more.
To clarify the risk posed to groundwater in oil shale in situ mining areas, we examine five leached pollutants: Fe, Mn, Cr, sulfate, and ammonia nitrogen. Potential groundwater contents of these five pollutants were evaluated using an improved Nemero comprehensive index method and a health risk assessment method. The results show that, compared with the Class III groundwater quality standard (GB/T 14848-2017) used in the People’s Republic of China, average values of Fe, Mn, and sulfate in leaching solution from Fuyu oil shale exceed the standard, while Cr and ammonia nitrogen do not exceed the standard, and the leaching solution is within Class V groundwater quality. The average values of Fe and Mn in the leaching solution from Fushun oil shale exceed the Class III standard, while Cr, sulfate, and ammonia nitrogen values from this oil shale do not exceed the standard, and the leaching solution is Class IV in terms of groundwater quality. The weighting value used in the Nemero assessment method for the heavy metal Cr is the largest as its potential to cause harm to groundwater quality is the largest. The weight value for sulfate is the smallest as the harm degree is the smallest. The chemical carcinogen Cr has the greatest potential impact on human health. The health risk caused by the chemical non-carcinogen Mn is greater than that caused by Fe and ammonia nitrogen. When high pyrolysis temperatures are used, Mn will be released into groundwater in large quantities. Therefore, supervision and control should be strengthened. The results presented here can provide a reference for the comprehensive evaluation of groundwater risks caused by in situ oil shale mining. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Quality and Human Health Risk)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 7701 KiB  
Article
Promising and Environmentally Friendly Removal of Copper, Zinc, Cadmium, and Lead from Wastewater Using Modified Shrimp-Based Chitosan
by Aminur Rahman
Water 2024, 16(1), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010184 - 4 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1304
Abstract
This study explores the potential of modified shrimp-based chitosan (MSC) as an innovative adsorbent for eliminating heavy metals (HMs) from contaminated water sources. The modifications encompassed various chemical treatments, surface functionalization, and structural optimization to enhance the chitosan’s adsorption capabilities. Comprehensive analyses using [...] Read more.
This study explores the potential of modified shrimp-based chitosan (MSC) as an innovative adsorbent for eliminating heavy metals (HMs) from contaminated water sources. The modifications encompassed various chemical treatments, surface functionalization, and structural optimization to enhance the chitosan’s adsorption capabilities. Comprehensive analyses using FT-IR and SEM-EDS were conducted to evaluate the properties of the chitosan. The adsorption capacity of MSC was assessed using ICP-MS before and after the adsorption process. Moreover, the study investigated the efficiency of HM removal by MSC under different conditions, including variations in pH, adsorbent dosage, and contact time. Under neutral pH conditions, the highest adsorption rates of copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead were determined as 99.72%, 84.74%, 91.35%, and 99.92%, respectively, with corresponding adsorption capacities of 20.30 mg/g for copper, 7.50 mg/g for zinc, 15.00 mg/g for cadmium, and 76.34 mg/g for lead. Analysis based on the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models revealed highly significant adsorption of HMs, supported by strong correlation coefficients (r2 > 0.98) obtained from the data. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model with linear coefficients (r2) greater than 0.97 effectively explained the kinetic studies of metal adsorption employing modified shrimp shells. These coefficients indicate a robust fit of the models to the experimental adsorption data for heavy metals. Further confirmation of the effectiveness of the adsorbent was obtained through FT-IR spectroscopy, which confirmed the presence of specific functional groups on the adsorbent, such as N–H joined with –COO−, H–O, C−O−C, and C–H. Additionally, the SEM-EDS analysis detected the presence of elements on the surface of MSC chitosan. The results emphasize that MSC is a highly effective and cost-efficient adsorbent for eliminating Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb from wastewater, making it a promising eco-friendly choice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle Removal and Remediation Processes in Water and Soil)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 5371 KiB  
Article
The Carbon Emission Intensity of Rainwater Bioretention Facilities
by Deqi Wang, Xuefeng Liu, Huan Li, Hai Chen, Xiaojuan Wang, Wei Li, Lianbao Cao, Jianlin Liu, Tingting Zhang and Bigui Wei
Water 2024, 16(1), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010183 - 4 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1016
Abstract
To investigate the quantitative relationship between the volume capture of rainfall and carbon emissions from bioretention facilities, this study introduces the concept of the carbon intensity of volume capture of rainfall. The influence of four key factors—climatic conditions, aquifer height, permeability coefficient, and [...] Read more.
To investigate the quantitative relationship between the volume capture of rainfall and carbon emissions from bioretention facilities, this study introduces the concept of the carbon intensity of volume capture of rainfall. The influence of four key factors—climatic conditions, aquifer height, permeability coefficient, and facility area—was investigated using a residential neighborhood in Tianshui, China, as an example. The results reveal that the carbon intensity value is influenced not only by external environmental changes but also by the inherent attributes of bioretention facilities, such as aquifer height, permeability coefficient, and facility area. The maximum carbon intensity value for the volume capture of rainfall was −0.0005 kg CO2/m3, while the minimum was −0.0852 kg CO2/m3, representing a substantial difference of approximately 169 times. Orthogonal experiments identified the facility area as the most significant influencing factor on carbon intensity, with a correlation coefficient of 0.0520. The area of bioretention facilities can be prioritized to meet deployment requirements, taking into account volume capture reduction effects and carbon emissions. For facilities with a high carbon intensity, an emphasis should be placed on enhancing carbon reduction benefits, and various initiatives can be implemented to achieve this goal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Sensitive Urban Design and Decentralised Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2972 KiB  
Article
Differentiating Potential Suspended Sediment Sources Using Radionuclide Tracers and Soil Organic Matter Analysis in a Headwater Catchment in Chuncheon, South Korea
by Sooyoun Nam, Kidae Kim, Sujin Jang, Jaeuk Lee, Shinwoo Gi, Minseok Kim, Jin Kwan Kim and Sukwoo Kim
Water 2024, 16(1), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010182 - 4 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1133
Abstract
Identifying potential sources of suspended sediment (SS) in headwater catchments is crucial for water quality management. To differentiate these potential SS sources, we investigated the distribution of two fallout radionuclides (FRNs), 137Cs and 210Pbex, using gamma spectrometry along with [...] Read more.
Identifying potential sources of suspended sediment (SS) in headwater catchments is crucial for water quality management. To differentiate these potential SS sources, we investigated the distribution of two fallout radionuclides (FRNs), 137Cs and 210Pbex, using gamma spectrometry along with soil organic matter (SOM) analysis in a headwater catchment with five potential SS sources: cultivated land, non-harvested forest floor, eroded hillslope, harvested forest floor, and stream bank. The 137Cs and 210Pbex concentrations and the SOM content were considerably higher in the harvested forest floor materials than in the other four potential SS source materials. FRN concentrations revealed distinct properties according to the type of potential SS sources. Specifically, the combination of FRNs (with the effect of SOM content removed) associated with the mineral fraction and SOM showed distinguishable differences among the potential SS sources, except for no difference between cultivated land and eroded hillslope. Therefore, SOM and FRNs, or their combination, can be effective indices to differentiate or trace potential SS sources on various land use/land cover types within a catchment. Further field tests will allow the tracing techniques that bind FRNs with SOM to contribute to understanding SS transport from non-point sources within a catchment. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 5090 KiB  
Article
Fallowing Strategy and Its Impact on Surface Water and Groundwater Withdrawal, and Agricultural Economics: A System Dynamics Approach in Southern New Mexico
by Gholamreza Eslamifar, Hamid Balali and Alexander Fernald
Water 2024, 16(1), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010181 - 4 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1373
Abstract
Enhancing the comprehension of alterations in land use holds paramount importance for water management in semi-arid regions due to its effects on hydrology and agricultural economics. Allowing agricultural land to lie fallow has emerged as a technique to decrease water use. This research [...] Read more.
Enhancing the comprehension of alterations in land use holds paramount importance for water management in semi-arid regions due to its effects on hydrology and agricultural economics. Allowing agricultural land to lie fallow has emerged as a technique to decrease water use. This research employs the methodology of system dynamics modeling to evaluate the hydrologic and agricultural economic ramifications of employing the fallowing strategy, which aims to preserve water resources in interconnected socio-hydrologic systems. This strategy is explored across three different crops, focusing on the Mesilla–Rincon Valley (MRV) in southern New Mexico. The study’s timeline spans from 2022 to 2050 with historical background from 1969 and encompasses various dimensions, including water availability, land utilization, and agricultural economics. Three types of crops were selected for the fallowing strategy, including cotton, alfalfa/hay, and chile. For each crop, 2500 acres of it would be designated for fallowing separately in two subsequent years, allowing the land to be cultivated in the third year and recurring such pattern. Simulation findings across scenarios (GFDL, UKMO, and NCAR) indicate that water withdrawals for all crops decreased significantly, ranging from approximately 2.69% to 4.37%. Similarly, agriculture income experienced reductions, varying from around 1.53% to 2.26%. Also, surface water and groundwater withdrawals are represented as percentages. The data illustrate significant reductions in water withdrawals across all scenarios. For instance, in the GFDL scenario, surface water withdrawal decreased by approximately 1.85% for cotton, 2.56% for alfalfa/hay, and 1.58% for chile. Similarly, groundwater withdrawals saw substantial reductions, such as 14.93% for cotton, 20.44% for alfalfa/hay, and 12.62% for chile. These numbers emphasize the urgent need for sustainable water management practices to address the challenges posed by reduced water availability. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3501 KiB  
Article
Co-Transport of Aniline and TNT with Loess Colloid Particles in Saturated Loess Columns: Mechanism and Processes
by Zhaohui Meng, Sihai Hu, Ran Sun, Chengzhen Meng, Yaoguo Wu and Xiaofeng Sun
Water 2024, 16(1), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010180 - 4 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1038
Abstract
The transport of mobile colloidal particles with organic pollutants in porous media has attracted considerable attention. Aniline and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), as aromatic compounds and key components of energetic materials, are continuously released into the environment. This study compared the co-transport of loess colloidal [...] Read more.
The transport of mobile colloidal particles with organic pollutants in porous media has attracted considerable attention. Aniline and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), as aromatic compounds and key components of energetic materials, are continuously released into the environment. This study compared the co-transport of loess colloidal particles with aniline and TNT, aiming to investigate the influence of structural and physicochemical properties of the pollutants. The colloids were prepared and characterized, and static adsorption and dynamic column experiments were conducted. The results indicate that the adsorption processes of aniline and TNT both conformed to the quasi-second-order kinetic and the intra-particle diffusion models, with aniline exhibiting higher rate constants than TNT. The main adsorption mechanism involved van der Waals force, hydrogen bonding, and electrostatic interaction. Response surface experiments indicated that the adsorption capacity increased with higher initial concentration of organic compound but decreased with larger particle size and higher Na+ concentration. In column experiments, the adsorption of loess colloid particles on aniline and TNT was strongly correlated with the concentration of loess colloid particles. Loess colloid particles could be used as carriers to enhance the co-transport, with aniline exhibiting a faster transport rate due to the differences in polarity and molecular structure compared to TNT. In summary, loess colloidal particles enhanced the transport behavior of aniline and TNT in saturated loess columns. The differences in polarity and molecular structure of aniline and TNT further affect their co-transport mechanism in loess. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

18 pages, 4243 KiB  
Article
Investigating Nonpoint Source and Pollutant Reduction Effects under Future Climate Scenarios: A SWAT-Based Study in a Highland Agricultural Watershed in Korea
by Sayed Shah Jan Sadiqi, Won-Ho Nam, Kyoung-Jae Lim and Eunmi Hong
Water 2024, 16(1), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010179 - 3 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1908
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of nonpoint source (NPS) pollution reduction and pollutant dynamics in a highland agricultural watershed in Korea. We employed the SWAT model to simulate hydrological processes and pollution transport within the watershed. The model incorporates future climatic scenarios derived [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of nonpoint source (NPS) pollution reduction and pollutant dynamics in a highland agricultural watershed in Korea. We employed the SWAT model to simulate hydrological processes and pollution transport within the watershed. The model incorporates future climatic scenarios derived from downscaled climate projections to assess their impacts on NPS pollution and pollutant reduction methods. These changes lead to heightened surface runoff and erosion rates, resulting in elevated sediment and nutrient concentrations. The projection indicates an anticipated increase in the annual average temperature by 1.3 to 2.1 °C by the mid-century, under scenarios SSP126 and SSP585. Additionally, precipitation levels are projected to increase by 31 to 61 mm from the baseline to the end of the century. Variations in hydrological components such as evapotranspiration, streamflow, and soil moisture are expected to range from +3.2 to +17.2%, −9.1 to +8.1%, and 0.1 to 0.7%, respectively, during the years 2040 and 2080. Fluctuations in TN, SS, and TP loading are estimated to range from −4.5 to +2.3%, −5.8 to +29.0%, and +3.7 to +17.4%, respectively. This study emphasizes the importance of adaptive management options for stakeholders and the need for adaptive management options to reduce nonpoint source pollution and protect water quality to maintain sustainable water supplies and conserve the environment in this watershed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 17000 KiB  
Article
Does Marsh Restoration Have an Impact on Dew?
by Yingying Xu, Lei Chen, Haodong Hou and Yachao Zhang
Water 2024, 16(1), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010178 - 3 Jan 2024
Viewed by 863
Abstract
As an ecological factor of wetland ecosystems, dew condenses frequently and in large amounts. In the process of marsh wetland restoration, the differences in water depth and plant types in different restoration years may affect dew condensation and evaporation. In this study, by [...] Read more.
As an ecological factor of wetland ecosystems, dew condenses frequently and in large amounts. In the process of marsh wetland restoration, the differences in water depth and plant types in different restoration years may affect dew condensation and evaporation. In this study, by monitoring dew in natural marshes, unrestored marshes (farmlands), and marshes restored 15, 10, and 5 years ago in the plant growth period of 2022 in the Sanjiang Plain, China, it was found that the “cold and wet effect” of marshes was conducive to dew condensation and could prolong the evaporation time of dew. In the process of marsh restoration, the number of dew days increased from 106 days (farmland) to 122 days (15-year marsh restoration), and the duration increased from 791.1 ± 90.3 min (farmland) to 869.4 ± 100.5 min (15-year marsh restoration). The dew intensity increased from 0.06 ± 0.02 mm (farmland) to 0.13 ± 0.04 mm (15-year marsh restoration), and the annual dew amount increased from 35.10 mm/y (farmland) to 44.86 mm/y (15-year marsh restoration). The number of dew days and the duration were similar to those of natural marshes after 15 years of restoration. SO42−, Ca2+, NH4+ and NO3 were the main ions of dew in marsh in each restoration year and farmland. There was no significant difference in the ion concentration (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, NH4+, F, Cl, NO2, and SO42−) of natural marsh dew compared with that 15 years after restoration (p > 0.05), except for NO3. The marsh restored after 15 years had basically restored the characteristics of natural marsh in terms of the quality and quantity of dew. This study showed that marsh restoration increased dew, and dew was a good indicator of the restoration effect of marshes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biodiversity and Functionality of Aquatic Ecosystems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1830 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Coexistence of Anthropogenic and Natural Sources in a Three-Dimensional Aquifer
by Animesh Samanta, Ayan Chatterjee and Mritunjay Kumar Singh
Water 2024, 16(1), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010177 - 3 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 830
Abstract
A study using mathematical modeling has been conducted to analyze how both man-made and natural sources of contaminants affect various layers of an aquifer-aquitard system. The xy-, yz-, and zx-plane have been used to depict the locations where the natural sources of contaminant [...] Read more.
A study using mathematical modeling has been conducted to analyze how both man-made and natural sources of contaminants affect various layers of an aquifer-aquitard system. The xy-, yz-, and zx-plane have been used to depict the locations where the natural sources of contaminant occur on the xz- and yz-plane, and where the man-made sources occur, on the xy-plane. It is assumed that the sources occurring in different planes are constant, while the velocity of groundwater flow has been considered only along the x-axis. A three-dimensional advection dispersion equation (ADE) has been used to accurately model the flow of groundwater and contaminants through a porous medium. Three distinct sources exert their influence on three separate planes throughout the entire duration of this study, thus making it possible to model these sources using initial conditions. This study presents a profile of contaminant concentration in space and time when constant sources are located on different planes. Some physical assumptions have been considered to make the model relatable to real-world phenomena. Often, finding stability conditions for numerical solutions becomes difficult, so an unconditionally stable solution is more appreciable. The homotopy analysis method (HAM), a method known for its unconditional stability, has been used to solve a three-dimensional mathematical model (ADE) along with its initial conditions. Man-made sources show more impact than equal-strength natural sources in the aquifer-aquitard system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Soil and Water)
Show Figures

Figure 1

34 pages, 2836 KiB  
Systematic Review
Application and Efficacy of Management Interventions for the Control of Microplastics in Freshwater Bodies: A Systematic Review
by Suveshnee Munien, Puspa L. Adhikari, Kimberly Reycraft, Traci J. Mays, Trishan Naidoo, MacKenzie Pruitt, Jacqueline Arena and Sershen
Water 2024, 16(1), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010176 - 3 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1551
Abstract
This systematic review represents one of the first attempts to compare the efficacy of the full suite of management interventions developed to control (prevent or remove) microplastics (MPs) in freshwater bodies, both man-made and natural. The review also traces the evolution of research [...] Read more.
This systematic review represents one of the first attempts to compare the efficacy of the full suite of management interventions developed to control (prevent or remove) microplastics (MPs) in freshwater bodies, both man-made and natural. The review also traces the evolution of research on the topic in relation to the timing of key policy and regulatory events and investigates whether interventions are being applied within regions and freshwater bodies that represent concerns in terms of MP pollution. The review incorporated bibliometric analysis and meta-analysis of 124 original research articles published on the topic between 2012 and April 2023. To supplement the key findings, data were extracted from 129 review articles on the major knowledge gaps and recommendations. The number of articles on the topic increased with each year, coinciding with a range of global policy commitments to sustainability and mitigating plastic pollution. The majority of the studies focused on MPs in general, rather than any particular particle shape or polymer type, and were conducted at wastewater/sludge treatment plants. Upstream interventions accounted for the majority of studies reviewed (91.1%). A smaller proportion (4.8%) of studies involved reduction in production and physical removal at the point of production (1.6%); treatment-related objectives such as removal through filtration and separation and the combination of these with other technologies in hybrid systems were dominant. Of the physical, chemical and biological methods/technologies (and combinations thereof) employed, physical types (particularly membrane filtration) were most common. The majority of the studies within the wastewater/sludge, stormwater and in situ water/sediment categories exhibited removal efficacies >90%. Although new interventions are constantly being developed under laboratory conditions, their scalability and suitability across different settings are uncertain. Downstream interventions lack sustainability without effective upstream interventions. Though in situ methods are technically achievable, they may not be feasible in resource-limited settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Microplastics Pollution)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 5900 KiB  
Article
Distribution of Groundwater Hydrochemistry and Quality Assessment in Hutuo River Drinking Water Source Area of Shijiazhuang (North China Plain)
by Ziting Yuan, Yantao Jian, Zhi Chen, Pengfei Jin, Sen Gao, Qi Wang, Zijun Ding, Dandan Wang and Zhiyuan Ma
Water 2024, 16(1), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010175 - 3 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1218
Abstract
The Hutuo River Drinking Water Source Area is an important water source of Shijiazhuang (North China Plain). Knowing the characteristics of groundwater chemistry/quality is essential for the protection and management of water resources. However, there are few studies focused on the groundwater chemistry [...] Read more.
The Hutuo River Drinking Water Source Area is an important water source of Shijiazhuang (North China Plain). Knowing the characteristics of groundwater chemistry/quality is essential for the protection and management of water resources. However, there are few studies focused on the groundwater chemistry evolution over the drinking water area. In this study, total of 160 groundwater samples were collected in November 2021, and the spatial distribution of groundwater chemistry and related controlling factors were analyzed using hydrological and multivariate analysis. The entropy-weighted water quality index (EWQI) was introduced to assess the groundwater quality. The results show that the hydrogeochemical types of groundwater are Ca-HCO3 (78.1%), mixed Ca-Mg-Cl (20%), and Ca-Cl (1.9%) in the area. Graphical and binary diagrams indicate that groundwater hydrochemistry is mainly controlled by water–rock interaction (i.e., rock weathering, mineral dissolution, and ion exchange). Five principal components separated from the principal component analysis represent the rock–water interaction and agricultural return, redox environment, geogenic sources, the utilization of agricultural fertilizer, the weathering of aluminum silicates, and dissolution of carbonates, respectively. More than 70% of the samples are not recommended for irrigation due to the presence of high salt content in groundwater. EWQI assessment demonstrates that the quality of the groundwater is good. The outcomes of this study are significant for understanding the geochemical status of the groundwater in the Hutuo River Drinking Water Source Area, and helping policymakers to protect and manage the groundwater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Chemistry and Quality in Coastal Aquifers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2353 KiB  
Article
Adsorption Performance of Different Wetland Substrates for Ammonia Nitrogen: An Experimental Study
by Peng Li, Minghui Liu, Jiaxing Zhou, Li Chen and Meifeng Cai
Water 2024, 16(1), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010174 - 3 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1069
Abstract
To investigate the adsorption performance of different substrates for ammonia nitrogen in wastewater, adsorption experiments are conducted on four substrates, namely, zeolite, quartz sand, volcanic rock, and biological ceramsite, and the experimental data are analyzed using adsorption isotherms and three kinetic models. The [...] Read more.
To investigate the adsorption performance of different substrates for ammonia nitrogen in wastewater, adsorption experiments are conducted on four substrates, namely, zeolite, quartz sand, volcanic rock, and biological ceramsite, and the experimental data are analyzed using adsorption isotherms and three kinetic models. The results show that with the increasing dosage of the substrates, the adsorption capacity gradually decreases, and the removal rate gradually increases. The removal rates all show a rapid increase in the early stage (the first 14 h) and gradually reach a stable state in the later stage (after more than 48 h). The higher the concentration of ammonia nitrogen in the NH4Cl solution, the greater the unit adsorption capacity of ammonia nitrogen by the substrate, the longer the adsorption time required to reach adsorption equilibrium, the lower the total removal rate of ammonia nitrogen, and the longer it takes for the concentration of ammonia nitrogen in the substrate and solution to reach equilibrium. The adsorption capacity of zeolite to ammonia nitrogen is much higher than that of quartz sand, biological ceramsite, and volcanic rock, so zeolite is suitable as the wetland substrate. The adsorption of ammonia nitrogen by the four substrates is principally multi-molecular layer adsorption, and the adsorption phase is heterogeneous. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 3243 KiB  
Review
Flash Flood Susceptibility Modelling Using Soft Computing-Based Approaches: From Bibliometric to Meta-Data Analysis and Future Research Directions
by Gilbert Hinge, Mohamed A. Hamouda and Mohamed M. Mohamed
Water 2024, 16(1), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010173 - 3 Jan 2024
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1585
Abstract
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in flood susceptibility modeling. In this study, we conducted a bibliometric analysis followed by a meta-data analysis to capture the nature and evolution of literature, intellectual structure networks, emerging themes, and knowledge gaps in [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in flood susceptibility modeling. In this study, we conducted a bibliometric analysis followed by a meta-data analysis to capture the nature and evolution of literature, intellectual structure networks, emerging themes, and knowledge gaps in flood susceptibility modeling. Relevant publications were retrieved from the Web of Science database to identify the leading authors, influential journals, and trending articles. The results of the meta-data analysis indicated that hybrid models were the most frequently used prediction models. Results of bibliometric analysis show that GIS, machine learning, statistical models, and the analytical hierarchy process were the central focuses of this research area. The analysis also revealed that slope, elevation, and distance from the river are the most commonly used factors in flood susceptibility modeling. The present study discussed the importance of the resolution of input data, the size and representation of the training sample, other lessons learned, and future research directions in this field. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 3370 KiB  
Article
Modeling the Structure and Diffusion of Porous Layers
by Marat Satayev, Abdugani Azimov, Gani Iztleuov and Lazzat Satayeva
Water 2024, 16(1), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010172 - 2 Jan 2024
Viewed by 961
Abstract
The aim of this work is to develop an adsorber with a fixed bed of adsorbent and a mathematical model of the adsorption bed. On the basis of the theory of fractal clusters, an equation for calculating the layer porosity that takes into [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to develop an adsorber with a fixed bed of adsorbent and a mathematical model of the adsorption bed. On the basis of the theory of fractal clusters, an equation for calculating the layer porosity that takes into account the average cluster radius, the fractal dimension of the cluster structure and the anisotropy index of the adsorbent layer is proposed. The adsorption mechanism in the layer was established, and the proportionality coefficients were estimated based on the tetrahedral packing of grains in the layer. Based on the analysis of the movement of the carrier through the adsorption layer and its deformation, an equation that describes the change in the porosity of the granular layer when the water flow moves through it, depending on the proportionality coefficients, is proposed. An equation that made it possible to calculate the change in the porosity of the layer in comparison with the porosity of the stationary stacking was obtained. An effective design for the adsorber that made it possible to increase the efficiency of using the structure of porous adsorption layers was developed. Equations of the heat and mass transfer taking into account the granule shape coefficient, effective diffusion coefficient and mass transfer coefficient were derived. These equations establish the relationship between the average distance between active centers on the adsorption surface and the degree of filling of the adsorption surface with the adsorbed component. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2551 KiB  
Article
Quantifying Drivers of Methane Hydrobiogeochemistry in a Tidal River Floodplain System
by Z. Jason Hou, Nicholas D. Ward, Allison N. Myers-Pigg, Xinming Lin, Scott R. Waichler, Cora Wiese Moore, Matthew J. Norwood, Peter Regier and Steven B. Yabusaki
Water 2024, 16(1), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010171 - 2 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1159
Abstract
The influence of coastal ecosystems on global greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets and their response to increasing inundation and salinization remains poorly constrained. In this study, we have integrated an uncertainty quantification (UQ) and ensemble machine learning (ML) framework to identify and rank the [...] Read more.
The influence of coastal ecosystems on global greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets and their response to increasing inundation and salinization remains poorly constrained. In this study, we have integrated an uncertainty quantification (UQ) and ensemble machine learning (ML) framework to identify and rank the most influential processes, properties, and conditions controlling methane behavior in a freshwater floodplain responding to recently restored seawater inundation. Our unique multivariate, multiyear, and multi-site dataset comprises tidal creek and floodplain porewater observations encompassing water level, salinity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), nitrous oxide (pN2O), methane (pCH4), and the stable isotopic composition of methane (δ13CH4). Additionally, we incorporated topographical data, soil porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention parameters for UQ analysis using a previously developed 3D variably saturated flow and transport floodplain model for a physical mechanistic understanding of factors influencing groundwater levels and salinity and, therefore, CH4. Principal component analysis revealed that groundwater level and salinity are the most significant predictors of overall biogeochemical variability. The ensemble ML models and UQ analyses identified DO, water level, salinity, and temperature as the most influential factors for porewater methane levels and indicated that approximately 80% of the total variability in hourly water levels and around 60% of the total variability in hourly salinity can be explained by permeability, creek water level, and two van Genuchten water retention function parameters: the air-entry suction parameter α and the pore size distribution parameter m. These findings provide insights on the physicochemical factors in methane behavior in coastal ecosystems and their representation in local- to global-scale Earth system models. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2371 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Underground Structures on Urban Flood Models
by Martina Hauser, Stefan Reinstaller, Martin Oberascher, Dirk Muschalla and Manfred Kleidorfer
Water 2024, 16(1), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010170 - 1 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1282
Abstract
Owing to climate change, heavy rainfall events have increased in recent years, often resulting in urban flooding. Urban flood models usually consider buildings to be closed obstacles, which is not the case in reality. To address this research gap, an existing 1D/2D model [...] Read more.
Owing to climate change, heavy rainfall events have increased in recent years, often resulting in urban flooding. Urban flood models usually consider buildings to be closed obstacles, which is not the case in reality. To address this research gap, an existing 1D/2D model was extended with underground structures. The underground structures were located using site visits, Google Earth, and information provided by the city administration. Control strategies were used to represent partially open doors or tilted windows. The model was simulated with three measured rainfall events in three different scenarios. Scenarios with underground structures resulted in small storage volumes in the structures and a slightly less flooded area on the surface. The assumptions made were analysed using sensitivity analysis. Varying the number and location of underground structures resulted in small variations in the stored volume and surface flood volume. The sensitivity analysis also showed that the thresholds for height and velocity had a large impact, whereas the opening percentage did not influence the number of buildings affected. The conclusion of the study is that the inclusion of underground structures has little effect on the predicted flooded areas but can be useful in quantifying the water depth in potentially vulnerable buildings. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 8165 KiB  
Article
Hydrochemical and Isotopic Characteristics and the Spatiotemporal Differences of Surface Water and Groundwater in the Qaidam Basin, China
by Haijiao Yang, Jiahua Wei and Kaifang Shi
Water 2024, 16(1), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010169 - 31 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1177
Abstract
In the context of climate change, precipitation and runoff in the arid inland basins of northwest China have undergone significant changes. The Qaidam Basin (QB) is a typical highland arid inland area. Understanding the spatial and temporal variations in surface water and groundwater [...] Read more.
In the context of climate change, precipitation and runoff in the arid inland basins of northwest China have undergone significant changes. The Qaidam Basin (QB) is a typical highland arid inland area. Understanding the spatial and temporal variations in surface water and groundwater chemistry and isotopes, as well as their causes, is crucial for future water resource management and ecological protection. Samples of river, lake, and groundwater, as well as others, were collected and tested in five typical watersheds in the summer and winter. The hydrochemistry and isotopic spatiotemporal differences in various water bodies were studied using the significant difference method, water vapor flux models, hydrochemistry, isotopes, and other methods for cause analyses. The results indicate the following: (1) There are differences in hydrochemistry between the southern and northern basins because the southern basin is more influenced by the dissolution of salt rocks and evaporation, whereas the northern basin is mainly affected by carbonate weathering. (2) The enrichment of δD and δ18O in the northern basin gradually increases from west to east, while in the southern basin, it is the opposite. This is because the southern basin receives a larger contribution of water vapor from the mid-latitude westerlies, while the northern basin primarily relies on local evaporation as its water vapor source. (3) Significant differences are observed in the total dissolved solids (TDS) and hydrochemical types of river water and groundwater between the summer and winter due to higher rates of rock weathering and evaporation in the summer. (4) The more pronounced seasonal differences in hydrogen and oxygen stable isotopes in the southern basin are due to higher rates of internal water vapor circulation in the summer. (5) The similarity in characteristics between river water and groundwater is the result of strong exchanges between river water and groundwater from piedmonts to terminals. The spatiotemporal heterogeneity of terminal lakes is attributed to the accumulation of salts and groundwater replenishment from other sources. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 5340 KiB  
Article
Bayesian Optimization for Contamination Source Identification in Water Distribution Networks
by Khalid Alnajim and Ahmed A. Abokifa
Water 2024, 16(1), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010168 - 31 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1156
Abstract
In the wake of the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, extensive research efforts have been dedicated to the development of computational algorithms for identifying contamination sources in water distribution systems (WDSs). Previous studies have extensively relied on evolutionary optimization techniques, which require [...] Read more.
In the wake of the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, extensive research efforts have been dedicated to the development of computational algorithms for identifying contamination sources in water distribution systems (WDSs). Previous studies have extensively relied on evolutionary optimization techniques, which require the simulation of numerous contamination scenarios in order to solve the inverse-modeling contamination source identification (CSI) problem. This study presents a novel framework for CSI in WDSs using Bayesian optimization (BO) techniques. By constructing an explicit acquisition function to balance exploration with exploitation, BO requires only a few evaluations of the objective function to converge to near-optimal solutions, enabling CSI in real-time. The presented framework couples BO with EPANET to reveal the most likely contaminant injection/intrusion scenarios by minimizing the error between simulated and measured concentrations at a given number of water quality monitoring locations. The framework was tested on two benchmark WDSs under different contamination injection scenarios, and the algorithm successfully revealed the characteristics of the contamination source(s), i.e., the location, pattern, and concentration, for all scenarios. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the performance of the framework using various BO techniques, including two different surrogate models, Gaussian Processes (GPs) and Random Forest (RF), and three different acquisition functions, namely expected improvement (EI), probability of improvement (PI), and upper confident bound (UCB). The results revealed that BO with the RF surrogate model and UCB acquisition function produced the most efficient and reliable CSI performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Distribution System Quality Analysis and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 5180 KiB  
Article
Adsorption Mechanism of Methylene Blue on Purified Red Phosphorus and Effects of Different Temperatures on Methylene Blue Desorption
by Tiantian Chen, Jiayu Sun, Ruixue Jiang, Tongfei Zhang, Yulei Zhang and Xiaochen Li
Water 2024, 16(1), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010167 - 31 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1111
Abstract
Purified red phosphorus (RP) can be used as an adsorbent. However, the adsorption mechanism and reuse ability of purified RP have not been reported. This study utilized X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques (a statistical physics model and [...] Read more.
Purified red phosphorus (RP) can be used as an adsorbent. However, the adsorption mechanism and reuse ability of purified RP have not been reported. This study utilized X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques (a statistical physics model and the standard molar free energy of formation) to investigate the adsorption mechanism of methylene blue (MB) by purified RP. Purification did not change commercial RP structure according to X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the adsorption process only included physical adsorption according to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflection absorption spectra. The specific areas of commercial RP and purified RP were 0.02 cm3/g and 5.27 cm3/g, respectively. Thus, purified RP has a higher adsorption capacity compared with commercial RP. A statistical physics model showed that, as the temperature increased from 288 to 308 K, the qe, Dm and qsat of purified RP for MB increased from 179.87, 0.824 and 0.824 to 303.26 mg/g, 1.497 mol/kg and 1.497 mol/kg, respectively. The fitted values of ΔrSmθ, ΔrHmθ and ΔrGmθ were 104.38 J·mol−1·K−1, −2.7 × 103 J·mol−1 and negative, respectively. Thus, according to adsorption energy, the adsorption of MB by purified RP was a spontaneous process, which was mainly driven by entropy increasing. Compared with neutral dye, the purified RP had higher adsorption ability for the cationic dye and anionic dye. As the purified RP dose increased from 30 to 150 mg, the adsorption capacity of purified RP increased. However, as the MB concentration and pH increased, the adsorption capacity of purified RP decreased. The purified RP had excellent reuse ability and high temperature desorption can be applied to obtain its reuse ability. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2426 KiB  
Article
Study on the Spatiotemporal Variation in and Driving Mechanism of Water Quality in Baiyangdian Lake
by Yang Liu and Qianqian Zhang
Water 2024, 16(1), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010166 - 31 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1065
Abstract
Analyzing 165 data from five national control sites in Baiyangdian Lake, this study unveils its spatiotemporal pattern of water quality. Utilizing machine learning and multivariate statistical techniques, this study elucidates the effects of rainfall and human activities on the lake’s water quality. The [...] Read more.
Analyzing 165 data from five national control sites in Baiyangdian Lake, this study unveils its spatiotemporal pattern of water quality. Utilizing machine learning and multivariate statistical techniques, this study elucidates the effects of rainfall and human activities on the lake’s water quality. The results show that the main pollutants in Baiyangdian Lake are TN, TP, and IMN. Spatially, human activities are the main drivers of water quality, with the poorest quality observed in the surrounding village area. The temporal dynamics of water quality parameters exhibit three distinct patterns: Firstly, parameters predominantly influenced by point source pollution, like TN and NH4+-N, show lower concentrations during flood periods. Secondly, parameters affected by non-point source pollution, such as TP, show higher concentrations during flood periods. Thirdly, irregular variations were observed in pH, DO, and IMN. The evaluation of Baiyangdian Lake’s water quality based on the grey relationship analysis method indicates that its water quality is good, falling within Classes I and II. Time series analysis found that the dilution effect of rainfall and the scouring action of runoff dominate the temporal variation in water quality in Baiyangdian Lake. The major pollution sources were identified as domestic sewage, followed by agricultural non-point source pollution and the release of internal pollutants. Additionally, aquaculture emerged as a significant contributor to the Lake’s pollution. This research provides a scientific basis for controlling the continuous deterioration of Baiyangdian Lake’s water quality and restoring its ecological function. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 17673 KiB  
Article
Scanning Electron Microscope Analysis of Polypropylene Filter Cartridges Used in Drinking Water Purification Systems
by Andrei Zaharia, Valentin Nedeff, Juan A. López-Ramírez, Emilian Moșneguțu, Narcis Bârsan, Mirela Lehadus-Panaite, Jamroziak Krzysztof and Claudia Tomozei
Water 2024, 16(1), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010165 - 31 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1240
Abstract
In recent years, more and more emphasis has been placed on the use of home filtration systems as a coarse pre-filtration step. The PP (polypropylene) filter cartridge is one of the most common of these systems, with the role of retaining solid suspensions [...] Read more.
In recent years, more and more emphasis has been placed on the use of home filtration systems as a coarse pre-filtration step. The PP (polypropylene) filter cartridge is one of the most common of these systems, with the role of retaining solid suspensions from drinking water. However, few studies have focused on the fouling analysis of PP cartridges using EDS (Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) analysis methods. Through this study, a clear and in-depth view of the structures and morphology of PP filter cartridges as well as their impurity retention capacities and their impact is provided with the help of an SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) analyzer. To achieve these goals, it was necessary to establish a specialized preparation methodology for this type of material in order to analyze it using the SEM and, at the same time, determine the optimal setting of the SEM parameters (improved resolution, reduced acceleration voltage, reduced data acquisition time, etc.) depending on the analysis performed for the visualization and detailed characterization of surfaces. Based on the SEM-EDS analysis and characterization, an uneven distribution of impurities on the surface of the PP fibers was identified. The number of impurities varied according to the depth of the cartridge due to the sieving effect that occurred owing to the varied sizes and shapes of the impurities, but also the structural differences and pore sizes of the filter material. So, the most common chemical elements identified were Al, Si, Na, Cl, Ca, Fe, and S, having a predominantly higher intensity from the inside to the outside of the PP filter cartridge due to pressure forces and the uneven flow of filtered water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water and Wastewater Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 2723 KiB  
Article
Hydrology as a Determinant of Riparian Habitat Structure in Lowland River Floodplains
by Paweł Burandt, Mirosław Grzybowski, Katarzyna Glińska-Lewczuk, Wojciech Gotkiewicz, Monika Szymańska-Walkiewicz and Krystian Obolewski
Water 2024, 16(1), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010164 - 31 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1193
Abstract
The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between the structure of phytocenoses in riparian wetland ecosystems and the hydrologic regime in a lowland river floodplain. The hydrobotanical study was conducted over three years—2017, 2018, and 2019—which differed in hydrological conditions [...] Read more.
The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between the structure of phytocenoses in riparian wetland ecosystems and the hydrologic regime in a lowland river floodplain. The hydrobotanical study was conducted over three years—2017, 2018, and 2019—which differed in hydrological conditions (wet, average, and dry) in a middle section of the Supraśl floodplain (NE Poland) as a case study. The results showed that the structure and pattern of phytocenoses in the floodplain are primarily controlled by the hydrological regime of the river and the geomorphological features of the area. The reach and duration of the flood contributed to a specific pattern of riparian vegetation. Based on the plant community structure and riparian habitat indicators such as soil moisture, fertility, reaction pH, soil granulometry, and organic matter content, four habitat types were identified and supported by linear discriminant analysis (LDA): wet, semi-wet, semi-dry, and dry zones. The indicator species analysis (ISA) revealed species characteristic of the zones with the dominance of reed rush, reed canary grass, anthropogenic or partially natural herbaceous communities along watercourses or riparian meadows, respectively. Natural inundation of the river water is an important driver of site-specific vegetation elements and habitat types and determines habitat availability, biodiversity, and ecosystem functions of wetlands. This knowledge can serve as the basis for conservation efforts, sustainable management practices, and decision-making processes aimed at maintaining the biodiversity and ecological integrity of riparian ecosystems in similar regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquatic Ecosystems: Biodiversity and Conservation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 5554 KiB  
Article
A Method for Estimating the Hydrodynamic Values of Anastomosing Rivers: The Expression of Channel Morphological Parameters
by Suiji Wang
Water 2024, 16(1), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010163 - 31 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1036
Abstract
An anastomosing river is a stable multiple-channel system separated by inter-channel wetlands, and there are serious difficulties in observing the hydrodynamics of such river patterns in situ. Therefore, there are few reports on the hydrodynamic data of such rivers, for example, the upper [...] Read more.
An anastomosing river is a stable multiple-channel system separated by inter-channel wetlands, and there are serious difficulties in observing the hydrodynamics of such river patterns in situ. Therefore, there are few reports on the hydrodynamic data of such rivers, for example, the upper Columbia and Pearl Rivers. In order to obtain the hydrodynamic parameter values at flow cross-sections of anastomosing rivers, without having to observe hydraulic radius, this study proposes a method called the Expression of Channel Morphological Parameters (ECMP) for hydrodynamic estimation. The calculation formula of the ECMP method is based on the shape factor (width–depth ratio), scale factor (mean depth), and gradient factor of the channel cross-sections of anastomosing rivers below a given water level as independent variables. This method can be used to calculate the mean velocity, discharge, specific stream power, and gross stream power of the flow cross-section at different water levels, only requiring the measurements of channel morphological parameters such as the mean depth, width–depth ratio, and gradient at the channel cross-section below the corresponding water level. The applicability of the ECMP method was verified using measured hydrological data. The results showed that the ECMP method is a practical estimation method with higher accuracy that is convenient for calculating the hydrodynamic parameters of anastomosing rivers. It can also be used to reconstruct ancient anastomosing rivers using the channel morphological parameters revealed from the fill sediments in ancient channels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape Dynamics and Fluvial Geomorphology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2331 KiB  
Article
Microcystis aeruginosa Removal and Simultaneous Control of Algal Organic Matter (AOM) Release Using an Electro-Flocculation–Electro-Fenton (EC-EF) System without Chemical Addition
by Wendi Shen, Lili An, Xin Xu, Feng Yan and Ruihua Dai
Water 2024, 16(1), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010162 - 31 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1131
Abstract
Harmful cyanobacterial blooms pose a serious environmental threat to global water ecology and drinking water safety. Microcystis aeruginosa, a dominant cyanobacterial species in cyanobacterial blooms, was removed using the electro-flocculation–electro-Fenton (EC-EF) technology. In the EC-EF system, the iron anode was used as [...] Read more.
Harmful cyanobacterial blooms pose a serious environmental threat to global water ecology and drinking water safety. Microcystis aeruginosa, a dominant cyanobacterial species in cyanobacterial blooms, was removed using the electro-flocculation–electro-Fenton (EC-EF) technology. In the EC-EF system, the iron anode was used as a sacrificial anode to produce iron ions in situ. Combining the aeration device with the graphite felt cathode as one unit realizes a direct and effective air supply to the cathode, and improves the electrical Fenton efficiency for generating oxidizing groups such as hydroxyl radicals. The cyanobacteria removal efficiency was up to 94.6% under optimal process conditions with a current density of 1.08 mA/cm2, an electrolysis time of 5 min, and an aeration flow rate of 0.06 L·min−1. At the same time, the microcystins (MCs) and total organic carbon (TOC) content in the water were controlled. The mechanism of cyanobacterial cell removal using this EC-EF system was investigated via characterization of cyanobacterial cells and flocs and cell membrane permeability analysis. The moderate oxidation and iron hydroxide encapsulation of this system are both beneficial to maintaining the integrity of cyanobacterial cells. The results demonstrated that EC-EF is a chemical-free and eco-friendly cyanobacteria removal technology. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 5221 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of Cavitation Bubble Collapse inside an Inclined V-Shape Corner by Thermal Lattice Boltzmann Method
by Yu Li, Jingyi Ouyang, Yong Peng and Yang Liu
Water 2024, 16(1), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010161 - 31 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1135
Abstract
Cavitation happening inside an inclined V-shaped corner is a common and important phenomenon in practical engineering. In the present study, the lattice Boltzmann models coupling velocity and temperature fields are adopted to investigate this complex collapse process. Based on a series of simulations, [...] Read more.
Cavitation happening inside an inclined V-shaped corner is a common and important phenomenon in practical engineering. In the present study, the lattice Boltzmann models coupling velocity and temperature fields are adopted to investigate this complex collapse process. Based on a series of simulations, the fields of density, pressure, velocity and temperature are obtained simultaneously. Overall, the simulation results agree with the experiments, and they prove that the coupled lattice Boltzmann models are effective to study cavitation bubble collapse. It was found that the maximum temperature of bubble collapse increases approximately linearly with the rise of the distance between the single bubble center and the corner. Meanwhile, the velocity of the micro-jet increases and the pressure peak at the corner decreases correspondingly. Moreover, the effect of angle of the V-shaped wall on the collapse process of bubbles is similar to the effect of distance between the single bubble center and the corner. Moreover, with the increase in bubble radius, the maximum temperature of bubble collapse increases proportionally, the starting and ending of the micro-jet are delayed and the pressure peak at the corner becomes larger and also is delayed. In the double bubble collapse, the effect of distance between two bubble centers on the collapse process of bubbles is discussed in detail. Based on the present study, appropriate measures can be proposed to prevent or utilize cavitation in practical engineering. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 7161 KiB  
Article
Multi-Station Hydrological Modelling to Assess Groundwater Recharge of a Vast Semi-Arid Basin Considering the Problem of Lack of Data: A Case Study in Seybouse Basin, Algeria
by Cagri Alperen Inan, Ammar Maoui, Yann Lucas and Joëlle Duplay
Water 2024, 16(1), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010160 - 31 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1495
Abstract
Water resource management scenarios have become more crucial for arid to semi-arid regions. Their application prerequisites rigorous hydrological modelling approaches since data are usually exposed to uncertainties and inaccuracies. In this work, Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), an open source semi-distributed, continuous-time, process-based [...] Read more.
Water resource management scenarios have become more crucial for arid to semi-arid regions. Their application prerequisites rigorous hydrological modelling approaches since data are usually exposed to uncertainties and inaccuracies. In this work, Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), an open source semi-distributed, continuous-time, process-based physical hydrological model is used to model hydrological processes and eventually calculate groundwater recharge estimations in Seybouse basin, Northeast Algeria. The model uses estimated rainfall to calibrate the model with observed discharge from hydrometric stations. Model calibration and validation are performed over four hydrometric stations located in the basin. Uncertainty analysis and sensitivity analysis supported the calibration period. SUFI-2 algorithm is used for uncertainty estimations along with a global sensitivity analysis prior to calibration simulations. Simulated flood hydrographs showed generally good accuracy with few misfits on the peaks. The model obtained satisfactory and consistent calibration and validation results for which the Nash score varied from 0.5 to 0.7 for calibration and from −0.1 to 0.6 for validation and R2 from 0.6 to 0.7 for calibration and 0.03 to 0.8 for validation. Moreover, estimated water budget values show strong similarities with the observed values found in the literature. The present work shows that the rigorously calibrated and validated SWAT model can simulate hydrological processes as well as major high and low flows using estimated rainfall data. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop