Topic Editors

Department of Civil Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi, Greece
Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi, Greece
Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI), University of Florence, 50145 Florence, Italy

Research on River Engineering

Abstract submission deadline
30 November 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
31 January 2025
Viewed by
17358

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

River engineering is one of the most important subjects in hydraulic engineering. The main scientific fields that are necessary for understanding the basic principles of river engineering include hydrology, hydraulics, and geomorphology. Using hydrologic rainfall-runoff models, the river inflows originating from rainfall-induced overland flow can be calculated. We must route river floods during intense storms. Flood routing can be calculated using both hydrologic and hydraulic models. Hydraulic models are based on water mass and momentum conservation equations, which are hyperbolic-type partial differential equations that are solved using numeric methods (e.g., finite difference schemes). Soil erosion products from the surrounding basins are transported by the overland flow into the rivers, and constitute the so-called wash load. The river bed can be eroded by the river flow, or suspended sediment can be deposited onto the river bed. So, the geomorphology of the river bed is strongly affected by sediment transport. Numerous computational models for the bed load and total load have been developed in the past. In order to account for sediment transport in rivers, the sediment continuity equation should be added to the water mass and momentum conservation equations. Sediment transport is mainly influenced by unsteady turbulent flows, which are normal physical condition in rivers. The vegetation on river banks also influences the river flow. The hydraulic and geomorphologic conditions in reservoirs and lakes are different from those in rivers. Generally, hydraulic structures (e.g., dams) modify the hydraulic and geomorphologic regimes in rivers.

Prof. Dr. Vlassios Hrissanthou
Dr. Mike Spiliotis
Dr. Konstantinos Kaffas
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • river hydraulics
  • engineering hydrology
  • river bed geomorphology
  • unsteady turbulent flow
  • river bank vegetation
  • sediment transport
  • bed and bank erosion
  • river bed deposition
  • hydraulic structures

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Hydrology
hydrology
3.2 4.1 2014 17.8 Days CHF 1800 Submit
Land
land
3.9 3.7 2012 14.8 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Remote Sensing
remotesensing
5.0 7.9 2009 23 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Water
water
3.4 5.5 2009 16.5 Days CHF 2600 Submit

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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2 pages, 553 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Dehkordi et al. An Empirical Relation for Estimating Sediment Particle Size in Meandering Gravel-Bed Rivers. Water 2024, 16, 444
by Arman Nejat Dehkordi, Ahmad Sharafati, Mojtaba Mehraein and Seyed Abbas Hosseini
Water 2024, 16(8), 1127; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16081127 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 397
Abstract
There were errors in the original publication [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Research on River Engineering)
0 pages, 2286 KiB  
Article
An Empirical Relation for Estimating Sediment Particle Size in Meandering Gravel-Bed Rivers
by Arman Nejat Dehkordi, Ahmad Sharafati, Mojtaba Mehraein and Seyed Abbas Hosseini
Water 2024, 16(3), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16030444 - 29 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 812 | Correction
Abstract
This paper aims to obtain a relation for estimating the median size of bed sediment, d50, at the bends of meandering rivers based on real data. To achieve such a purpose, field data, including topographic, sediment sampling, and flow measurements, were [...] Read more.
This paper aims to obtain a relation for estimating the median size of bed sediment, d50, at the bends of meandering rivers based on real data. To achieve such a purpose, field data, including topographic, sediment sampling, and flow measurements, were collected from various rivers in Iran at different times of the year. Then, the Buckingham Π-theorem was applied to identify the effective dimensionless numbers such as the Shields function, Reynolds particle number, Froude number, submerged specific gravity of sediment, and aspect and curvature ratios. A correlation analysis was conducted between such factors to eliminate those dependent on others. In the following, three regression techniques, containing the power function approach, the general additive model (GAM), and the multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS), were chosen to achieve the best relation. The obtained results indicated that the developed MARS model produced a better result than the others and was much more satisfactory, with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.96 and 0.95 and root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 140.64 and 140.47 for the training and testing phases, respectively. Furthermore, the MARS outputs were validated with an analytical method, which showed that MARS fitted with the field data much better. Consequently, the distinguished merit of this study is the development of a relation for determining d50 that shows which geometric and hydraulic parameters have the most effect on sediment size in the river bend. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Research on River Engineering)
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21 pages, 4421 KiB  
Article
The Role of Stream Restoration in Mitigating Sediment and Phosphorous Loads in Urbanizing Watersheds
by Kevin MacKenzie, Steve Auger, Sara Beitollahpour and Bahram Gharabaghi
Water 2024, 16(2), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020363 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 836
Abstract
Stream corridor erosion can majorly contribute to the overall sediment and phosphorus load in urbanizing watersheds. However, the relative contribution of stream bed and bank erosion, compared with upland watershed sources and the potential for stream restoration to mitigate total contaminant loads, is [...] Read more.
Stream corridor erosion can majorly contribute to the overall sediment and phosphorus load in urbanizing watersheds. However, the relative contribution of stream bed and bank erosion, compared with upland watershed sources and the potential for stream restoration to mitigate total contaminant loads, is poorly understood. In this study, a new method was developed, using the percent impervious cover (PIC) indicator of urbanization to evaluate the relative contribution of the stream corridor versus upland watershed contributions to observed total sediment and phosphorus loads in the receiving watercourse. This method was used to develop a cost-optimized mitigation plan, including implementing low-impact development (LID) stormwater infrastructure for urban areas and agricultural best management practices (BMPs) for rural areas in the watershed and stream restoration for the degraded stream reaches. A new cost–benefit analysis methodology is developed and used to assess the relative benefits of the mitigation measures for the case study of the Tannery Creek sub-watershed of the East Holland River in Ontario, Canada. The novel contributions of this study include the development of three relationships to estimate sediment and associated phosphorus loading based on contributing catchment area and land use, as well as a method to optimize the costs and benefits of planned mitigation measures. The results support stream restoration as an essential and cost-effective part of a comprehensive water quality watershed management plan to help maintain healthy streams in urbanized watersheds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Research on River Engineering)
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15 pages, 5387 KiB  
Article
Back-Calculation of Manning’s Roughness Coefficient by 2D Flow Simulation and Influence of In-Channel Physical Parameters in a Mountain River, Japan
by Hiroshi Takata, Shogo Obata, Tatsuro Sato and Yukihiro Shimatani
Water 2024, 16(2), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020320 - 17 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1042
Abstract
This study attempts to back-calculate Manning’s roughness coefficients by repeating a two-dimensional flow simulation to fit the spatially and temporally dense river water-level data observed in Japan’s Yamatsuki River, a typical mountainous river with an average riverbed gradient of 1/50 and an average [...] Read more.
This study attempts to back-calculate Manning’s roughness coefficients by repeating a two-dimensional flow simulation to fit the spatially and temporally dense river water-level data observed in Japan’s Yamatsuki River, a typical mountainous river with an average riverbed gradient of 1/50 and an average river width of 17.9 m. Furthermore, we aim to clarify the influence of the in-channel physical parameters on the coefficient of roughness obtained through the above method. In the Yamatsuki River, 16 water-level gauges were installed at intervals of about 40~80 m in the longitudinal direction in the study reach. Manning’s roughness coefficients were back-calculated by repeating two-dimensional flow simulations to match the observed water levels of a flood in 2021 (the estimated maximum flow rate is 11.5 m3/s). The back-calculated roughness coefficients approached a constant value in the range of 0.05 to 0.1 s/m1/3 as the relative water depth increased, indicating that the roughness coefficient can be considered a constant value when performing plane two-dimensional flow calculations for flooding. The roughness coefficient during flooding was found to be correlated with the slope and step height (H)-step length (L)- channel slope (S) ratios (H/L/S). An equation for predicting the roughness coefficient during flooding based on the physical parameters of the channel is also proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Research on River Engineering)
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19 pages, 4594 KiB  
Article
Comparative Experimental Study of Geotube Groins and Mixed Clay–Geotube Groins under Various Flow Conditions
by Xiaobing Tu, Hongxiang Gao, Kejie Fan, Jiahao Xu, Jianxiong Li, Chunchen Xia and Xinjie Pang
Water 2023, 15(21), 3844; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15213844 - 3 Nov 2023
Viewed by 710
Abstract
During the cofferdam construction of the toe reinforcement project at the Qiantang River Estuary, the scouring of the riverbed at the groin head often led to the collapse of geotube groins due to strong tidal currents. Based on field experience, employing a combination [...] Read more.
During the cofferdam construction of the toe reinforcement project at the Qiantang River Estuary, the scouring of the riverbed at the groin head often led to the collapse of geotube groins due to strong tidal currents. Based on field experience, employing a combination of clay and geotubes proved to be a more effective solution to this problem. This study adopted a flume model experiment to investigate the scouring and deposition around geotube groins and mixed clay–geotube groins. The results indicated that the influence of tidal surges on geomorphic changes surrounding the groins was more pronounced during spring tides than during neap tides. Under the same flow conditions, the scour depth at the head of the geotube groin was notably deeper than that of the mixed clay–geotube groin. Additionally, sediment silting behind the mixed clay–geotube groin was significantly greater than that behind the geotube groin. The clay component of the mixed clay–geotube groin served to mitigate the head scour, enhancing the overall structural stability to a certain extent. The geotube groin, with its surrounding scour pits expanding over time, experienced increasing tensile strain. This resulted in the rupture of the geotextile material, the loss of internal sand and, ultimately, groin collapse. It was found that mixed clay–geotube groins were better suited for cofferdam construction in strong tidal estuaries compared to geotube groin alternatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Research on River Engineering)
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13 pages, 23701 KiB  
Brief Report
On Internal Erosion of the Pervious Foundation of Flood Protection Dikes
by Laurence Girolami, Stéphane Bonelli, Rémi Valois, Naïm Chaouch and Jules Burgat
Water 2023, 15(21), 3747; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15213747 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1060
Abstract
This work focuses on the mechanisms that trigger internal erosion of the pervious foundation of flood protection dikes. The origin of these permeable layers is generally attributed to the presence of a paleo-valley and paleo-channels filled with gravelly-sandy sediments beneath the river bed [...] Read more.
This work focuses on the mechanisms that trigger internal erosion of the pervious foundation of flood protection dikes. The origin of these permeable layers is generally attributed to the presence of a paleo-valley and paleo-channels filled with gravelly-sandy sediments beneath the river bed and dikes. These layers may extend into the protected area. Visual observations of leaks, sand boils and sinkholes in the protected area testify to internal erosion processes in the underground soil. Local geological conditions are part of the information to be sought to explain these processes: presence of permeable soils and position of interfaces. Results obtained on Agly dikes (France), using two classical geophysical methods (EMI and ERT), were analyzed using cored soils and showed that it is not enough to simply conclude to the presence of backward erosion piping. The possibility of internal erosion, such as suffusion or contact erosion, must also be considered as the cause of leaks, sand boils and sinkholes. As the results obtained are explained by the presence of a paleo-valley and paleo-channels beneath the river bed and dikes—commonly encountered in this context—the methodology presented and the results obtained are likely to be relevant for many dikes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Research on River Engineering)
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14 pages, 5719 KiB  
Article
Flooding Depth and Flooding Duration with the Zonation of Riparian Plant Communities in the Three Gorges Reservoir of China
by Xuemei Yi, Yuanyang Huang, Yi Jiang, Maohua Ma, Qiao Chen and Shengjun Wu
Water 2023, 15(18), 3228; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183228 - 11 Sep 2023
Viewed by 875
Abstract
The hydraulics of flows, especially the flooding process, influence the patterns of riparian plant zonation. Different characteristics of the flooding process should be analyzed to correlate plant zonation with flooding due to their different effect modes. The effects of flooding characteristics on riparian [...] Read more.
The hydraulics of flows, especially the flooding process, influence the patterns of riparian plant zonation. Different characteristics of the flooding process should be analyzed to correlate plant zonation with flooding due to their different effect modes. The effects of flooding characteristics on riparian plants have yet to be studied, especially in the field. Thus, two elements of the flow regime, flooding duration and depth, were analyzed in relation to the riparian plants of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The taxonomic indices and the functional diversity of the riparian plants in three seasons in 2019 and the corresponding inundation character were surveyed. Our results showed that the riparian plant diversity and functional diversity varied by season. A significant negative relationship between plant diversity and flooding depth was observed, while flooding duration was not a significant predictor in different seasons. The greater explanatory capacity of flooding depth than that of flooding duration suggests that flooding depth could be a better indicator of the zonation of the riparian vegetation in this area. Concerning the vital component of flow hydraulics, growing opportunities to study flooding depth and strategies that consider both flooding time and flooding depth in a reservoir should be offered, as they will assist in refining process-based river restoration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Research on River Engineering)
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29 pages, 8537 KiB  
Article
The Investigation of Local Scour around Bridge Piers with the Protection of a Quasi-Stumps Group
by Yisheng Zhang, Jiangfei Wang, Qi Zhou, Yingchun Cai and Wei Tang
Water 2023, 15(15), 2858; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15152858 - 7 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1477
Abstract
In this study, a quasi-stumps group structure was proposed and placed upstream of the bridge piers to mitigate the scour of the waterflow on the riverbed. Both experiment and numerical simulations using FLOW 3D were employed to study the protective effect of this [...] Read more.
In this study, a quasi-stumps group structure was proposed and placed upstream of the bridge piers to mitigate the scour of the waterflow on the riverbed. Both experiment and numerical simulations using FLOW 3D were employed to study the protective effect of this structure. The numerical results were in good agreement with the experimental findings. It was found that the quasi-stumps group can effectively reduce the flow velocities around the bridge piers, thereby promoting the deposition of suspended sediment. As a result, there was no erosion around the piers, and instead, siltation was formed, which contributed to the stability of the piers. The deposition height around the piers increased as the L (the horizontal distance between the quasi-stumps group and the piers) decreased and both the P (the height of the quasi-stumps group) and S (the ratio of the area of a single leaf on the quasi-stumps group to the cross-sectional area of a single pier) increased. As the L, P, and S increased, the quantity of suspended sediment deposition over the entire riverbed increased. The optimal combination of the quasi-stumps group’s protective effect was determined to be L = D (pier diameter), P = H (water depth), and S = 0.148. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Research on River Engineering)
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21 pages, 15310 KiB  
Article
Numerical–Experimental Study of Scour in the Discharge of a Channel: Case of the Carrizal River Hydraulic Control Structure, Tabasco, Mexico
by Christian Caballero, Alejandro Mendoza, Moisés Berezowsky and Abel Jiménez
Water 2023, 15(15), 2788; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15152788 - 1 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1061
Abstract
Scour processes occur, among other causes, by the interaction of flow and sediment transport around structures built within a river. It is important to identify the location and quantify the magnitude of scour to avoid under or overestimation since the former puts the [...] Read more.
Scour processes occur, among other causes, by the interaction of flow and sediment transport around structures built within a river. It is important to identify the location and quantify the magnitude of scour to avoid under or overestimation since the former puts the structure at risk and the latter demands an excessive economic cost. The data obtained from a physical model with a scale of 1:60 (without distortion) was used to assess the accuracy of a 2D free-surface numerical model (2DH) in predicting maximum scour. The physical model corresponds to the hydraulic-regulating structure located at the entrance of the Carrizal River, tributary to the Mezcalapa River bifurcation, located in Tabasco, Mexico. The scour is produced by the effect of a jet generated by a discharge channel. The maximum experimental scour was compared to the results of a numerical model and the estimation of four empirical equations: Breusers, Farhoudi and Smith, Negm, and Dietz. Setting an acceptance threshold of 75% accuracy, only the Breusers method provided values close to the measured values, and the numerical model failed to reproduce the location and magnitude of maximum scour, yet when the 2DH model was calibrated for secondary flow effects in the hydraulics. This indicates that the application of 2D models for the estimation of scour caused by jets may not provide good results when secondary currents are developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Research on River Engineering)
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15 pages, 2536 KiB  
Article
Determination of the Canal Discharge Capacity Ratio and Roughness to Assess Its Maintenance Status: Application in Egypt
by Mohamed Elsayed Gabr, Ehab M. Fattouh and Mohamed K. Mostafa
Water 2023, 15(13), 2387; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15132387 - 28 Jun 2023
Viewed by 2076
Abstract
Waterlogging and soil salinity issues can be handled using surface or subsurface drainage networks, soil bed elevation, and soil and crop management patterns. A properly operating and maintained drainage system is important for both rural and urban inhabitants to protect lives and property [...] Read more.
Waterlogging and soil salinity issues can be handled using surface or subsurface drainage networks, soil bed elevation, and soil and crop management patterns. A properly operating and maintained drainage system is important for both rural and urban inhabitants to protect lives and property from flooding and high groundwater levels, enhance health conditions, and safeguards water purity, soil salinity, and waterlogging. It also supports and increases crop yields and consequently rural incomes. This study assessed the maintenance condition of the main surface drains (Baloza and ELFarama) located in the Tina Plain (50,000 acres) and a portion of the Southeast El-Kantara regions (25,000 acres) in North Sinai, Egypt, based on the values of the Discharge Capacity Ratio (DCR) and Manning’s roughness (n). Ten measurement locations at the drain cross-section were used in the investigation. For the ELFarama Drain, the average values of n and DCR were found to be 0.029 and 86.2%, and for the Baloza Drain, they were 0.032 and 78.6%, respectively. Compared to the design values, the actual Manning’s roughness was higher, indicating that the drainage canals’ capacities had been reduced and that their upkeep was inadequate. In both drains, sedimentation is present and they need to be maintained, according to the hydrographic surveying results for the actual cross-sections compared to the planned cross-sections. A methodology for the channel maintenance method is presented. For removing vegetation and dredging sediment, a long-boom mechanical hydraulic excavator with a bucket is suggested and to be conducted every two years. To the results of this study, the amount of weed infestation in vegetated channels is the main factor that affects Manning’s roughness coefficient value. It is now easier to calculate the proportion of weeds that are submerged in vegetated channels using echo-sound sonar technology. The DCR is an affordable and simple methodology to assess the channel maintenance status for sustainable agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Research on River Engineering)
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21 pages, 5536 KiB  
Article
Multifrequency Downstream Hydraulic Geometry of Alluvial Mountain Rivers Located on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau
by Chao Qin, Baosheng Wu, Yuan Xue, Xudong Fu, Guangqian Wang and Ge Wang
Water 2023, 15(11), 2139; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15112139 - 5 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1120
Abstract
Downstream hydraulic geometry (DHG) for multiple discharge frequencies remains poorly investigated. This paper seeks to clarify the DHG relations of different discharge frequencies and proposes the definition, mathematical expression, and geomorphological interpretation of multifrequency DHG (MFDHG). It also verifies the existence of DHG [...] Read more.
Downstream hydraulic geometry (DHG) for multiple discharge frequencies remains poorly investigated. This paper seeks to clarify the DHG relations of different discharge frequencies and proposes the definition, mathematical expression, and geomorphological interpretation of multifrequency DHG (MFDHG). It also verifies the existence of DHG and MFDHG in the six major exoreic rivers located in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. MFDHG can be depicted with (1) log-linear plots between DHG coefficients and exponents for multiple discharge frequencies and (2) independent DHG curves intersecting near congruent discharge, width, depth, or velocity. The results show that rivers in the study area exhibit strong DHG relations. The variations in the DHG coefficients and exponents usually exhibit opposite trends with increasing discharge frequency. The MFDHG of a river reach is generally stronger than that of a river basin. Congruent hydraulics, as indices of geometric variability and hydraulic self-similarity, reflect consistent changes in hydraulic variables downstream. MFDHG is a novel geomorphic phenomenon that bridges spatiotemporal dimensions in HG systems and provides a basis for establishing an overall HG relationship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Research on River Engineering)
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15 pages, 6440 KiB  
Article
Application of the Iber Two-Dimensional Model to Recover the Water Quality in the Lurín River
by Omayra Luzmila Mori-Sánchez, Lia Ramos-Fernández, Willy Eduardo Lluén-Chero, Edwin Pino-Vargas and Lisveth Flores del Pino
Hydrology 2023, 10(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology10040084 - 5 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1713
Abstract
The Lurín River is one of the main sources of water for the city of Lima. However, the discharge of domestic wastewater, the presence of dumps, and long periods of drought cause the deterioration of the water resource. In this study, DO, [...] Read more.
The Lurín River is one of the main sources of water for the city of Lima. However, the discharge of domestic wastewater, the presence of dumps, and long periods of drought cause the deterioration of the water resource. In this study, DO, BOD5, E. coli, T, EC, TSSU, and h were monitored at 13 monitoring points spread over 20 km of river influence. This information was used to calibrate the parameters of KdboKaireKdos, and Kdec in the Iber two-dimensional numerical model, obtaining values of 0.55 d1, [4.84 d1–80.65 d1], 10 g O2 m2d1, and [1.49 d1–15.42 d1], respectively, with efficiencies ranging from “very good” to “satisfactory”. In the hydraulic model, a discretization of the channel, banks, and plains of 3, 5, and 7 m, respectively, was considered, resulting in a computational calculation time of 4 days in each simulation. The greatest contamination occurs in July at km 5 + 400 up to the Pan-American bridge. Therefore, it is proposed to recover the river by optimizing the San Bartolo Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) and a new WWTP in Pachacámac to avoid diffuse contamination, with discharge flows of 0.980 m3s1 and 0.373 m3s1, respectively, and 4 mg L1, 15 mg L1 and 1000 NMP/100 mL for DO, BOD5, and E. coli, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Research on River Engineering)
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16 pages, 12972 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Planform Complexity and Morphodynamic Properties of Brahmaputra River in Bangladesh: Protection and Exploitation of Riparian Areas
by Shiblu Sarker, Tanni Sarker, Olkeba Tolessa Leta, Sarder Udoy Raihan, Imran Khan and Nur Ahmed
Water 2023, 15(7), 1384; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15071384 - 3 Apr 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2715
Abstract
The Brahmaputra River (BR) is a heavily braided river, due to various intricate paths, high discharge variability and bank erodibility, as well as multi-channel features, which, in turn, cause huge energy dissipation. The river also experiences anastomosing planform changes in response to seasonal [...] Read more.
The Brahmaputra River (BR) is a heavily braided river, due to various intricate paths, high discharge variability and bank erodibility, as well as multi-channel features, which, in turn, cause huge energy dissipation. The river also experiences anastomosing planform changes in response to seasonal water and sediment waves, resulting in a morphology with extreme complexity. The purpose of this study was to provide detailed and quantitative insights into the properties of planform complexity and dynamics of channel patterns that can complement previous studies. This was achieved by investigating the applicability of the anastomosing classification on the Brahmaputra river’s planform, and computing disorder/unpredictability and complexity of fluctuations using the notion of entropy and uniformity of energy conversion rate by the channels, by means of a power spectral density approach. In addition, we also evaluated their correlation with discharge as a dynamic imprint of river systems on alluvial landscapes, in order to test the hypothesis that river flow may be responsible for the development of anastomosing planforms. The analysis suggests that higher discharge values could lead to less complex planform and less fluctuations on the alluvial landscape, as compared to lower discharge values. The proposed framework has significant potential to assist in understanding the response of complex alluvial planform under flow dynamics for the BR and other similar systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Research on River Engineering)
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