Advanced Research on Hydraulic Engineering and Hydrological Modelling

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 March 2024) | Viewed by 15475

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing 210029, China
Interests: interconnected river system network; urban water environment; engineering hydraulics; hydraulic safety monitoring and assessment
Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing 210029, China
Interests: hydrodynamics of lake; engineering hydraulics; application of image recognition technology in hydraulic engineering; influence prediction of thermal discharge in power plant

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hydraulics and hydrology play an important role in supporting water security, the water environment and water ecology. In recent years, the construction of high dams (such as the Baihetan Project) has solved many problems, and produced many practical theories, techniques and practical experiences in the field of hydraulics and hydrology. In addition, with the rapid development of new technologies such as information technology and big data, their integration with hydraulics and hydrology has become a hot issue at present. The above related research results need to be summarized and shared to better facilitate the development of this area of interest.

In this Special Issue, we welcome research papers, review papers and case studies related to hydrodynamics and hydrology, including, but not limited to, the following topics:

  • River system connections and water security;
  • Flood discharge energy dissipation and atomization protection;
  • Hydraulic safety monitoring and evaluation;
  • Lake water environment assessment and restoration;
  • Applications of new technology in water conservancy projects.

Prof. Dr. Shiqiang Wu
Dr. Ang Gao
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • hydraulic engineering
  • hydrological modelling
  • lakes
  • river system
  • hydraulic safety
  • new technology in hydraulics

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 6020 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Composite Cavitation Nozzle Parameters Based on the Response Surface Methodology
by Gao Huang, Chengjun Qiu, Mengtian Song, Wei Qu, Yuan Zhuang, Kaixuan Chen, Kaijie Huang, Jiaqi Gao, Jianfeng Hao and Huili Hao
Water 2024, 16(6), 850; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16060850 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 741
Abstract
Cavitation is typically observed when high-pressure submerged water jets are used. A composite nozzle, based on an organ pipe, can increase shear stress on the incoming flow, significantly enhancing cavitation performance by stacking Helmholtz cavities in series. In the present work, the flow [...] Read more.
Cavitation is typically observed when high-pressure submerged water jets are used. A composite nozzle, based on an organ pipe, can increase shear stress on the incoming flow, significantly enhancing cavitation performance by stacking Helmholtz cavities in series. In the present work, the flow field of the composite nozzle was numerically simulated using Large Eddy Simulation and was paired with the response surface method for global optimizing the crucial parameters of the composite nozzle to examine their effect on cavitation behavior. Utilizing peak gas-phase volume percent as the dependent variable and the runner diameter, Helmholtz chamber diameter, and Helmholtz chamber length as independent variables, a mathematical model was constructed to determine the ideal parameters of the composite nozzle through response surface methodology. The optimized nozzle prediction had an error of only 2.04% compared to the simulation results, confirming the accuracy of the model. To learn more about the cavitation cloud properties, an experimental setup for high-pressure cavitation jets was also constructed. Impact force measurements and high-speed photography tests were among the experiments conducted. The simulated evolution period of cavitation cloud characteristics is highly consistent with the experimental period. In the impact force measurement experiment, the simulated impact force oscillates between 256 and 297 N, and the measured impact force oscillates between 260 N and 289 N, with an error between 1.5% and 2.7%. The simulation model was verified by experimental results. This study provides new insights for the development of cavitation jet nozzle design theory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Hydraulic Engineering and Hydrological Modelling)
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25 pages, 8405 KiB  
Article
Improving Flash Flood Hydrodynamic Simulations by Integrating Leaf Litter and Interception Processes in Steep-Sloped Natural Watersheds
by Gergely Ámon, Katalin Bene, Richard Ray, Zoltán Gribovszki and Péter Kalicz
Water 2024, 16(5), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16050750 - 1 Mar 2024
Viewed by 780
Abstract
More frequent high-intensity, short-duration rainfall events increase the risk of flash floods on steeply sloped watersheds. Where measured data are unavailable, numerical models emerge as valuable tools for predicting flash floods. Recent applications of various hydrological and hydrodynamic models to predict overland flow [...] Read more.
More frequent high-intensity, short-duration rainfall events increase the risk of flash floods on steeply sloped watersheds. Where measured data are unavailable, numerical models emerge as valuable tools for predicting flash floods. Recent applications of various hydrological and hydrodynamic models to predict overland flow have highlighted the need for improved representations of the complex flow processes that are inherent in flash floods. This study aimed to identify an optimal modeling approach for characterizing leaf litter losses during flash floods. At a gauged watershed in the Hidegvíz Valley in Hungary, a physical-based model was calibrated using two distinct rainfall–runoff events. Two modeling methodologies were implemented, integrating canopy interception and leaf litter storage, to understand their contributions during flash flood events. The results from the model’s calibration demonstrated this approach’s effectiveness in determining the impact of leaf litter on steep-sloped watersheds. Soil parameters can estimate the behavior of leaf litter during flash flood events. In this study, hydraulic conductivity and initial water content emerged as critical factors for effective parametrization. The findings underscore the potential of a hydrodynamic model to explore the relationship between leaf litter and flash flood events, providing a framework for future studies in watershed management and risk-mitigation strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Hydraulic Engineering and Hydrological Modelling)
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13 pages, 2221 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Decreased Atmospheric Pressure on Forced Aeration of Discharged Flow
by Yijiao Guo, Luchen Zhang, Lei Yu, Shaoze Luo, Chuang Liu and Yuan Liu
Water 2024, 16(2), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020353 - 21 Jan 2024
Viewed by 803
Abstract
To account for changes in the performance of spillway aerator structures of high-altitude dams, depressurization generalized model experiments and theoretical analyses were conducted in this study. Measurements were taken for ventilation hole air velocity, cavity subpressure, cavity length, and air concentration in crucial [...] Read more.
To account for changes in the performance of spillway aerator structures of high-altitude dams, depressurization generalized model experiments and theoretical analyses were conducted in this study. Measurements were taken for ventilation hole air velocity, cavity subpressure, cavity length, and air concentration in crucial regions. The study proposed correction formulas for the aeration coefficient and water air concentration in aerator devices operating under low atmospheric pressure. The pressure range of the experiments was between 26.3 kPa and 101.3 kPa. The results indicated that with decreasing atmospheric pressure, ventilation hole air velocity, ventilation volume, cavity subpressure, and water air concentration all showed a decreasing trend. For every 15 kPa decrease in pressure, ventilation hole air velocity decreased by approximately 24%. When the atmospheric pressure dropped from 101.3 kPa to 26.3 kPa, the cavity subpressure decreased and eventually approached zero. The maximum reduction in air concentration was 14.9% in the cavity backwater area, 38.5% at the cavity end, and 38.3% in the downstream bubble escape segment. The proposed correction formulas could be used for a rapid estimation of ventilation volume and air concentration in low-pressure environments. This research provides a scientific basis for the design of aeration devices in water projects located in high-altitude regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Hydraulic Engineering and Hydrological Modelling)
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16 pages, 17426 KiB  
Article
A Methodology for Water Resource Management and the Planning of the Coastal Reservoir in Indonesia
by Indratmo Soekarno, Mohammad Bagus Adityawan, Calvin Sandi, Salma Izzatu Amatullah, Mohammad Farid, Yadi Suryadi, Bagus Pramono Yakti, Asrini Chrysanti, Arno Adi Kuntoro, Widyaningtias and Muhammad Rizki Purnama
Water 2024, 16(2), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020344 - 20 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1353
Abstract
Metropolitan areas in Indonesia, specifically Jabodetabek, are projected to continue experiencing population growth. This will result in increased water demand, which, if left unchecked, could lead to a water crisis. Additionally, the region faces persistent flooding issues. To mitigate these challenges, the Indonesian [...] Read more.
Metropolitan areas in Indonesia, specifically Jabodetabek, are projected to continue experiencing population growth. This will result in increased water demand, which, if left unchecked, could lead to a water crisis. Additionally, the region faces persistent flooding issues. To mitigate these challenges, the Indonesian government proposes the creation of a coastal reservoir. However, a methodology for the pre-feasibility study of such reservoirs in Indonesia is currently lacking. This study addresses this gap by presenting a methodological framework encompassing hydrology and water allocation analyses as well as numerical modeling related to hydraulic and sedimentation aspects of coastal reservoirs. The methodology was designed to be adaptable based on data availability. Finally, this methodology was applied to a case study located at the Cisadane River estuary. The water allocation simulation showed that the reservoir can release an annual optimum discharge of 80.618 m3/s in wet years and 22.731 m3/s in dry years. Flood modeling demonstrated a modest impact on reducing early-hour floods, with a water level decrease of around 20–50 cm within 5 km of the reservoir. Furthermore, sediment modeling revealed varying sedimentation and erosion depths along the rivers, with approximately 62,300 m3/year settling in the reservoir. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Hydraulic Engineering and Hydrological Modelling)
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19 pages, 10206 KiB  
Article
Study of a Tailings Dam Failure Pattern and Post-Failure Effects under Flooding Conditions
by Zhong Gao, Jinpeng Liu, Wen He, Bokai Lu, Manman Wang and Zikai Tang
Water 2024, 16(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010068 - 23 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1265
Abstract
Tailings dams are structures that store both tailings and water, so almost all tailings dam accidents are water related. This paper investigates a tailings dam’s failure pattern and damage development under flood conditions by conducting a 1:100 large-scale tailings dam failure model test. [...] Read more.
Tailings dams are structures that store both tailings and water, so almost all tailings dam accidents are water related. This paper investigates a tailings dam’s failure pattern and damage development under flood conditions by conducting a 1:100 large-scale tailings dam failure model test. It also simulates the tailings dam breach discharge process based on the breach mode using FLOW-3D software, and the extent of the impact of the dam failure debris flow downstream was derived. Dam failure tests show that the form of dam failure under flood conditions is seepage failure. The damage manifests itself in the form of flowing soil, which is broadly divided into two processes: the seepage stabilization phase and the flowing soil development damage phase. The dam failure test shows that the rate of rise in the height of the dam saturation line is faster and then slower. The order of the saturation line at the dam face is second-level sub-dam, third-level sub-dam, first-level sub-dam, and fourth-level sub-dam. The final failure of the tailings dam is the production of a breach at the top of the dam due to the development of the dam’s fluid damage zone to the dam top. The simulated dam breach release results show that by the time the dam breach fluid is released at 300 s, the area of over mud has reached 95,250 square meters. Local farmland and roads were submerged, and other facilities and buildings would be damaged to varying degrees. Based on the data from these studies, targeted measures for rectifying hidden dangers and preventing dam breaks from both technical and management aspects can be proposed for tailings dams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Hydraulic Engineering and Hydrological Modelling)
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15 pages, 5467 KiB  
Article
Study on the Hydraulic Response of an Open-Channel Water Transmission Project after Flow Switching
by Naifeng Zhang, Honglei Ren and Fei Lin
Water 2023, 15(18), 3201; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15183201 - 8 Sep 2023
Viewed by 739
Abstract
For the complex and changing water transfer conditions along the nullah water transfer project, it is of great significance to analyze the hydraulic response characteristics of the channel pool to ensure the safe and efficient operation of the project. In this paper, using [...] Read more.
For the complex and changing water transfer conditions along the nullah water transfer project, it is of great significance to analyze the hydraulic response characteristics of the channel pool to ensure the safe and efficient operation of the project. In this paper, using the adjustable reservoir capacity of the channel pool, combined with the earliest and latest regulation time, a method is proposed to determine the optimal regulation time of water conservancy engineering structures through the hydraulic response characteristics. In order to validate the method, the hydraulic response characteristics of the channel pool during the whole regulation period were investigated using an actual river diversion project as an example. By using the Sobol global sensitivity analysis method, the sensitivity analysis of three variables (water transfer flow, upstream initial flow, and downstream water level) was conducted, and the results showed that the change of water transfer flow was the most-critical factor affecting the optimal regulation time. In order to quantitatively study the correlation between the water transfer flow and the optimal regulation time, the water transfer flow factor was coupled to the existing prediction model, and the results showed that the coupled model can efficiently predict the optimal regulation time, and the NSE coefficient can reach 0.98. In addition, the coupled model can be efficiently used to serve on-site dispatchers for accurately predicting the optimal regulation time and making the corresponding safety decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Hydraulic Engineering and Hydrological Modelling)
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20 pages, 5363 KiB  
Article
Flow Field and Gas Field Distribution of Non-Submerged Cavitation Water Jet Based on Dual-Nozzle with Concentric Configuration
by Yun Luo, Jingyu Zang and Hongxiang Zheng
Water 2023, 15(16), 2904; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15162904 - 11 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1080
Abstract
Cavitation water jet peening is an efficient and green surface treatment technology. The dual-nozzle can realize a cavitation water jet in air (non-submerged condition), which can be used for the surface treatment of large structures. The flow field characteristics of the dual-nozzle determine [...] Read more.
Cavitation water jet peening is an efficient and green surface treatment technology. The dual-nozzle can realize a cavitation water jet in air (non-submerged condition), which can be used for the surface treatment of large structures. The flow field characteristics of the dual-nozzle determine the cavitation effect. In this paper, the simulation of a cavitation water jet in air is carried out using Fluent software. The flow field characteristics containing velocity distribution, impact pressure, and gas phase volume fraction distribution are studied in detail. Furthermore, the effects of the nozzle structure parameters and incidence pressure on flow field characteristics are discussed. It was found that the structure parameters of the inner nozzle have a great influence on the flow field characteristics. Setting a contraction segment and expansion segment can improve the impact pressure and increase the intensity of the cavitation jet. Increasing the throat diameter and incidence pressure of the internal nozzle is also beneficial to improve the impact pressure and cavitation intensity. In order to assure a good cavitation effect, nozzle optimization should be performed. This study has guiding significance for the design of the dual-nozzle for a non-submerged cavitation water jet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Hydraulic Engineering and Hydrological Modelling)
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22 pages, 6211 KiB  
Article
Rivers under Ice: Evaluating Simulated Morphodynamics through a Riffle-Pool Sequence
by Karine Smith, Jaclyn M. H. Cockburn and Paul V. Villard
Water 2023, 15(8), 1604; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081604 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1436
Abstract
Modeling in ice-covered rivers is limited due to added computational complexity, specifically challenges with the collection of field calibration data. Using River2D, a 2-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling software, this study simulates depth-averaged velocity and shear stress distributions under ice cover and in open-water conditions [...] Read more.
Modeling in ice-covered rivers is limited due to added computational complexity, specifically challenges with the collection of field calibration data. Using River2D, a 2-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling software, this study simulates depth-averaged velocity and shear stress distributions under ice cover and in open-water conditions during varying flow conditions in a small, shallow riffle-pool sequence. The results demonstrated differences in velocity distribution throughout the channel and increases in discharge were found to impact the velocity magnitude under ice cover, while the spatial distribution remained consistent. A recirculating eddy found along the pool’s left bank was exacerbated under ice cover, with potential implications for silver shiner habitat suitability. Bed shear stress magnitude did not vary significantly between ice and open water, although the spatial distribution differed notably. Model validation demonstrated success in simulating water depth and velocities, and the shear stress was estimated within a reasonable margin. Using hydrodynamic models provides valuable insight into seasonal changes in velocities and shear stress when ice is present. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Hydraulic Engineering and Hydrological Modelling)
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17 pages, 8024 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation of the Stress on a Cylinder Exerted by a Stratified Current Flowing on Uneven Ground
by Yin Wang, Ming Xu, Lingling Wang, Sha Shi, Chenhui Zhang, Xiaobin Wu, Hua Wang, Xiahui Xiong and Chunling Wang
Water 2023, 15(8), 1598; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081598 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1135
Abstract
In this study, a three-dimensional internal wave (IW)—cylinder—terrain coupled numerical model is established. Based on the large-eddy simulation (LES) method, the IW mechanical characteristics of the cylinder and the flow field evolution around the cylinder over different types of terrains are explored. The [...] Read more.
In this study, a three-dimensional internal wave (IW)—cylinder—terrain coupled numerical model is established. Based on the large-eddy simulation (LES) method, the IW mechanical characteristics of the cylinder and the flow field evolution around the cylinder over different types of terrains are explored. The similarities and differences in the mechanical characteristics of the cylinders in the environments with and without terrains are compared. The research results show that, when the IWs propagate over terrain, the waveform structures are prone to continuous changes. The intense reverse alternating flow of the upper and the lower water, bounded by the pycnocline, results in huge IWs forces differences between the case without terrains and the cases with terrains. In the case without terrains, the maximum horizontal resultant force on the cylinder is positive, while the resultant forces are negative in the cases with terrain. Compared with the case without terrain, the shallow-water effect caused by the combined action of the terrain and the IWs enhances the flow field strength, making the lower parts of the cylinder suffer larger horizontal forces in the opposite direction to the IW direction. Moreover, the additional vortices produced by the interaction between the IWs and the terrain causes a more complex flow field around the cylinder and the greater forces on the cylinder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Hydraulic Engineering and Hydrological Modelling)
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21 pages, 7823 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Flow Characteristics around a Square Cylinder with Boundary Constraint
by Zhun Xu, Shiqiang Wu, Xiufeng Wu, Wanyun Xue, Fangfang Wang, Ang Gao and Weile Zhang
Water 2023, 15(8), 1507; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081507 - 12 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2922
Abstract
Based on the two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the finite volume method and structured multigrid, the flow characteristics around a square cylinder with boundary constraint are analysed. The gap ratio G/D (G is the distance from the cylinder to the channel boundary, [...] Read more.
Based on the two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the finite volume method and structured multigrid, the flow characteristics around a square cylinder with boundary constraint are analysed. The gap ratio G/D (G is the distance from the cylinder to the channel boundary, and D is the side length of the square cylinder) does not change the four flow patterns. Under the laminar vortex street phase, the boundary constraint only reduces the scale of the vortices. The vortex centres are pressed toward the boundaries of the channel, and a low velocity zone is formed near the boundary, but the law of vorticity attenuation along the flow direction is not changed. The flow pattern classification map shows that the boundary constraint increases the Reynolds number required to generate the turbulence flow pattern, and the range of the Reynolds number in the flow pattern of the laminar vortex street has a maximum increase range. The correlation between the time-averaged drag coefficient or the vortex shedding frequency and Reynolds number under different gap ratios indicates that the resistance of the square cylinder and the vortex shedding frequency increase accordingly with the strengthening of the boundary constraint. When G/D < 3.5, the increase is particularly obvious. Meanwhile, the correlation characteristics between the resistance or the vortex shedding frequency of the square cylinder and the Reynolds number are unrelated to the boundary constraint strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Hydraulic Engineering and Hydrological Modelling)
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Review

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14 pages, 1491 KiB  
Review
Technical Challenges of Safety Emergency Drawdown for High Dam and Large Reservoir Project
by Xueyu Zheng, Luchen Zhang, Jiaxiu Yang, Shuaiqun Du, Shiqiang Wu and Shaoze Luo
Water 2023, 15(8), 1538; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081538 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1723
Abstract
With the development of a 300 m high dam and large reservoir construction, the emergency drawdown capacity of cascade reservoirs, especially high dams, has become a hot issue of concern to all sectors of society while giving play to huge comprehensive benefits. Based [...] Read more.
With the development of a 300 m high dam and large reservoir construction, the emergency drawdown capacity of cascade reservoirs, especially high dams, has become a hot issue of concern to all sectors of society while giving play to huge comprehensive benefits. Based on a thorough investigation of the current situation of drawdown facilities for high dams and large reservoirs with a height of 200 m or more in the world, this paper finds that drawdown facilities currently face difficulties such as insufficient drawdown capacity, poor safety and stability of high head structures, extremely high lift hoisting equipment, and high difficulty in high head water seal technology. It is pointed out that the key technologies that need to be urgently addressed for a deep drawdown of high dams and large reservoirs are the pressure-bearing capacity of gates and the capacity limit of hoists. As a result, the elevation of the bottom tunnel of the drawdown building cannot be arranged and the orifice is limited, and the drawdown depth and discharge capacity are limited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Hydraulic Engineering and Hydrological Modelling)
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