Next Issue
Volume 12, September
Previous Issue
Volume 12, July

Water, Volume 12, Issue 8 (August 2020) – 243 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The low desert of California is the major date production area within the United States. This study aims to acquire crop water use and crop coefficient information for California date palms. The novelty of the effort is using the residual of energy balance method with a combination of surface renewal and eddy covariance techniques. The study develops a data set and relationships that could serve as a reference for further studies and applications to date production in arid and semi-arid regions. The findings may assist farmers in employing adaptive tools to utilize water more efficiently and achieve full economic gains in a sustainable manner, especially as water resources become less available or more expensive. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Profile of the Spatial Distribution Patterns of the Human and Bacteriophage Virome in a Wastewater Treatment Plant Located in the South of Spain
Water 2020, 12(8), 2316; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082316 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 903
Abstract
In wastewater treatment plants, most microbial characterization has focused on bacterial, archaeal, and fungal populations. Due to the difficult isolation, quantification, and identification of viruses, only a limited number of virome studies associated with wastewater treatment plants have been carried out. However, the [...] Read more.
In wastewater treatment plants, most microbial characterization has focused on bacterial, archaeal, and fungal populations. Due to the difficult isolation, quantification, and identification of viruses, only a limited number of virome studies associated with wastewater treatment plants have been carried out. However, the virus populations play an important role in the microbial dynamics in wastewater treatment systems and the biosafety of effluents. In this work, the viral members present in influent wastewater, mixed liquor (aerobic bioreactor), excess sludge, and effluent water of a conventional activated sludge system for the treatment of urban wastewater were identified. Viral members were observed by transmission electron microscopy and studied through next-generation sequencing studies. The results showed the dominance of bacteriophages in the viral community in all samples, with the dominant viral phylotype classified as Escherichia coli O157 typing phage 7. Moreover, different human viruses, such as Cynomolgus cytomegalovirus and Gammaherpesvirus, were also detected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Ecology of Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Systems)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Virtual Tracers to Detect Sources of Water and Track Water Reuse across a River Basin
Water 2020, 12(8), 2315; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082315 - 18 Aug 2020
Viewed by 902
Abstract
Water managers around the world face the increasingly challenging task to evaluate the impacts of technological measures and policy mechanisms from the local to the river basin scale. A toolset providing quantitative, actionable information on dependencies and trade-offs between upstream and downstream water [...] Read more.
Water managers around the world face the increasingly challenging task to evaluate the impacts of technological measures and policy mechanisms from the local to the river basin scale. A toolset providing quantitative, actionable information on dependencies and trade-offs between upstream and downstream water users is currently lacking. Yet, any intervention needs to be assessed in terms of consequences for downstream water users. This study evaluates the potential of a tracer-like approach, implemented in the water allocation software WEAP, to quantitatively track return flows and their downstream reuse in the river basin context. The WEAP-Virtual Tracer (WEAP-VT) approach was successfully applied to one of Europe’s driest river basins, the Segura River Basin in Spain. For each water demand site, the different original sources of water supply, dependency on upstream return flows, and downstream reuse of its return flow were assessed. Based on these results, agricultural, urban, and environmental water users were evaluated in terms of their suitability for water saving measures and their vulnerability to the reduction in upstream return flows. A scenario analysis simulating the improvement of local efficiency improvements shows that specific irrigation schemes and ecosystems become deprived of water. Hence, efficiency improvement in water-scarce basins should be considered with caution. The demonstrated ability to quantify key water reuse indicators for individual water users and at different aggregation levels makes WEAP-VT a valuable tool to support water resource management decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Use and Scarcity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Sensitivity Analyses of the Seepage and Stability of Layered Rock Slope Based on the Anisotropy of Hydraulic Conductivity: A Case Study in the Pulang Region of Southwestern China
Water 2020, 12(8), 2314; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082314 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 752
Abstract
In the study of the seepage characteristics of layered rock slope under rainfall conditions, the majority of previous research has considered the hydraulic conduction to be isotropic, or only considered the anisotropy ratio of the hydraulic conductivity, ignoring the anisotropy angle. In the [...] Read more.
In the study of the seepage characteristics of layered rock slope under rainfall conditions, the majority of previous research has considered the hydraulic conduction to be isotropic, or only considered the anisotropy ratio of the hydraulic conductivity, ignoring the anisotropy angle. In the current study, a layered rock slope in the Pulang region was selected as an example. Then, based on the fitting parameters of the Van Genuchten model, pore water pressure sensitivity analyses of the layered rock slope were carried out. The anisotropy ratio and anisotropy angle were used to analyze the sensitivity of the seepage and stability of the layered rock slopes. The results show that as the anisotropy angle of hydraulic conductivity of layered rock slope decreased, the maximum volume water content of surface (MWCS) of layered rock slope gradually increased. Additionally, as the anisotropy ratio decreased and the anisotropy angle increased, the rising heights of the groundwater (RHG) of layered rock slope gradually increased. When the hydraulic conduction of layered rock slope was considered isotropic, the factor of safety (FS) tended to be overestimated. As the anisotropy ratio decreased and the anisotropy angle increased, the factor of safety (FS) of layered rock slope decreased. Prevention should be the objective for rock slopes with larger dip angles in the bedding plane in the Pulang region. This study provides feasible schemes for the evaluation of the seepage and stability of layered rock slopes in Pulang region of southwestern China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrological Modeling Research for Rainfall-Induced Landslides)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Transient Phenomena Generated in Emptying Operations in Large-Scale Hydraulic Pipelines
Water 2020, 12(8), 2313; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082313 - 18 Aug 2020
Viewed by 646
Abstract
Air pockets generated during emptying operations in pressurized hydraulic systems cause significant pressure drops inside pipes. To avoid these sudden pressure changes, one of the most widely used methods involves the installation of air valves along the pipeline route. These elements allow air [...] Read more.
Air pockets generated during emptying operations in pressurized hydraulic systems cause significant pressure drops inside pipes. To avoid these sudden pressure changes, one of the most widely used methods involves the installation of air valves along the pipeline route. These elements allow air exchange between the exterior and the interior of the pipe, which alleviates the pressure drops produced and thus prevents possible breaks or failures in the structure of the installation. This study uses a mathematical model previously validated by the authors in smaller installations to simulate all hydraulic variables involved in emptying processes over time. The purpose of these simulations is the validation of the mathematical model in real large-scale installations, and to do this, the results obtained with the mathematical model are compared with actual measurements made by the partner company. The hydraulic system selected for the study is a pipeline with a nominal diameter of 400 mm and a total length of 1020 m. The results obtained from the mathematical model show great similarity with the experimental measurements, thus validating the model for emptying large pipes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Hydrologic Model Evaluation and Assessment of Projected Climate Change Impacts Using Bias-Corrected Stream Flows
Water 2020, 12(8), 2312; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082312 - 18 Aug 2020
Viewed by 798
Abstract
Hydrologic models driven by downscaled meteorologic data from general circulation models (GCM) should be evaluated using long-term simulations over a historical period. However, simulations driven by GCM data cannot be directly evaluated using observed flows, and the confidence in the results can be [...] Read more.
Hydrologic models driven by downscaled meteorologic data from general circulation models (GCM) should be evaluated using long-term simulations over a historical period. However, simulations driven by GCM data cannot be directly evaluated using observed flows, and the confidence in the results can be relatively low. The objectives of this paper were to bias correct simulated stream flows from calibrated hydrologic models for two basins in New Jersey, USA, and evaluate model performance in comparison to uncorrected simulations. Then, we used stream flow bias correction and flow duration curves (FDCs) to evaluate and assess simulations driven by statistically downscaled GCMs for the historical period and the future time slices 2041–2070 and 2071–2099. Bias correction of stream flow from simulations increased confidence in the performance of two previously calibrated hydrologic models. Results indicated there was no difference in projected FDCs for uncorrected and bias-corrected flows in one basin, while this was not the case in the second basin. This result provided greater confidence in projected stream flow changes in the former basin and implied more uncertainty in projected stream flows in the latter. Applications in water resources can use the methods described to evaluate the performance of GCM-driven simulations and assess the potential impacts of climate change with an appropriate level of confidence in the model results. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Production and Marketing of Mineral Water in 21st Century Spain
Water 2020, 12(8), 2311; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082311 - 18 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1555
Abstract
Since the end of the last century, Spain has become a country of reference in the European Union due to its volume of bottled mineral water. This study aims to analyze the evolution of the key aspects of this sector over the last [...] Read more.
Since the end of the last century, Spain has become a country of reference in the European Union due to its volume of bottled mineral water. This study aims to analyze the evolution of the key aspects of this sector over the last two decades. Through this research, it has been verified that (i) Spanish mineral water has been analyzed for a long time from a medicinal and geochemical point of view, and not so much in commercial analysis; (ii) water has great diversity due to the abundance of hydrogeological domains that this country offers; (iii) a very strict legal framework must be complied for its commercialization; (iv) its consumption has been growing; and (v) the business structure is characterized by the predominance of a small group of companies, with a very important role in multinational corporations. Three nature reserves: Montseny, Sierra Nevada, and Guadarrama Mountains, stand out from the rest of the Spanish territory in terms of catchment and packaging of natural mineral water, which is an increasingly strategic resource. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Quantifying the Benefits of Residential Greywater Reuse
Water 2020, 12(8), 2310; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082310 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1129
Abstract
There is paucity of data on the quantification of the benefits of residential greywater reuse via direct diversion. While estimates have been made based on modelling the potential mains water savings, it is also recognised that the practicalities of system operation and occupant [...] Read more.
There is paucity of data on the quantification of the benefits of residential greywater reuse via direct diversion. While estimates have been made based on modelling the potential mains water savings, it is also recognised that the practicalities of system operation and occupant behaviour introduce substantial variation to these estimates. Three single residential housing projects in Fremantle, Western Australia, undertaken over ten years with a substantial focus on water efficiency and mains water substitution, have provided an opportunity to quantify these benefits. All three dwellings were intensively metered and documented. This paper describes the learnings generated along the way, including the methodology developed to effectively integrate direct diversion greywater reuse into a productive garden, along with other water sources to satisfy landscape water demand. Importantly a robust quantification of actual greywater volumes and associated mains water savings was made. The publication of actual greywater volumes will significantly contribute to this field and go a long way towards validating the merits of residential greywater reuse on mains water savings when systems are properly installed and operated. Brief considerations are also provided for energy efficiency and financial assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of Greywater and Wastewater for Irrigation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Dam Break Modeling in a Cascade of Small Earthen Dams: Case Study of the Čižina River in the Czech Republic
Water 2020, 12(8), 2309; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082309 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1046
Abstract
Failures of small dams can pose a serious threat to people and property even if the size of the schemes is relatively low. In many cases, small dams are situated in a cascade along streams, meaning that the failure of the uppermost dam [...] Read more.
Failures of small dams can pose a serious threat to people and property even if the size of the schemes is relatively low. In many cases, small dams are situated in a cascade along streams, meaning that the failure of the uppermost dam may cause the dams downstream to fail. In this paper, a cascade of three small reservoirs, Lichnov II (14.6 m high), Lichnov III (10 m high), and Pocheň (8.5 m high), is the subject of the dam break analyses carried out via various methods such as empirical formulae, analogy, and hydraulic modeling. The dam-break flood routing was simulated using a shallow water flow hydraulic model. The simulations confirm that the attenuation effect of the peak discharge is governed by the flood volume, slope, and morphology of the floodplain and increases with the distance from the breached dam following an approximately exponential trend. When estimating peak discharge, empirical formulae derived for a single dam break should be applied carefully as they may underestimate the peak outflow by up to 10% in the case of a dam cascade. The attenuation volume of small reservoirs is small when compared to the flood volume, meaning that the attenuation of the peak discharge usually varies between 5–10%. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Analysis of Barriers and Opportunities for Reclaimed Wastewater Use for Agriculture in Europe
Water 2020, 12(8), 2308; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082308 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1229
Abstract
This paper presents an analysis of the perception regarding reclaimed wastewater reuse in agriculture conducted in the European Union regions. The analysis is based upon a SWOT framework and applies a cluster analysis to reduce the dimension of the responses enabling an assessment [...] Read more.
This paper presents an analysis of the perception regarding reclaimed wastewater reuse in agriculture conducted in the European Union regions. The analysis is based upon a SWOT framework and applies a cluster analysis to reduce the dimension of the responses enabling an assessment of the different perceptions of water reuse. More than one hundred key actors identified among the regions participated in the evaluation of the relevance of aspects identified. The results indicate some groups of countries according to natural conditions (water scarcity) and the strategic role of agriculture as a key factor to determine agent’s perceptions and attitudes. The results indicate that the forthcoming EU regulation of water reuse should focus in the problems of the perceived high cost of reclaimed water for farmers and the sanitary risk perception for irrigated crops by consumers as the critical points for fostering the use of reclaimed water in agriculture and the need for regional implementation of the global regulatory framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Institutions and Economics of Water Scarcity and Droughts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Correction
Correction: Liu, S. et al. Numerical Investigation of a Hydrosplitting Fracture and Weak Plane Interaction Using Discrete Element Modeling, Water 2020, 12, 535
Water 2020, 12(8), 2307; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082307 - 17 Aug 2020
Viewed by 927
Abstract
In the published article [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Nonparametric Stochastic Approach for Disaggregation of Daily to Hourly Rainfall Using 3-Day Rainfall Patterns
Water 2020, 12(8), 2306; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082306 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 595
Abstract
As infrastructure and populations are highly condensed in megacities, urban flood management has become a significant issue because of the potentially severe loss of lives and properties. In the megacities, rainfall from the catchment must be discharged throughout the stormwater pipe networks of [...] Read more.
As infrastructure and populations are highly condensed in megacities, urban flood management has become a significant issue because of the potentially severe loss of lives and properties. In the megacities, rainfall from the catchment must be discharged throughout the stormwater pipe networks of which the travel time is less than one hour because of the high impervious rate. For a more accurate calculation of runoff from the urban catchment, hourly or even sub-hourly (minute) rainfall data must be applied. However, the available data often fail to meet the hydrologic system requirements. Many studies have been conducted to disaggregate time-series data while preserving distributional statistics from observed data. The K-nearest neighbor resampling (KNNR) method is a useful application of the nonparametric disaggregation technique. However, it is not easy to apply in the disaggregation of daily rainfall data into hourly while preserving statistical properties and boundary continuity. Therefore, in this study, three-day rainfall patterns were proposed to improve reproducible ability of statistics. Disaggregated rainfall was resampled only from a group having the same three-day rainfall patterns. To show the applicability of the proposed disaggregation method, probability distribution and L-moment statistics were compared. The proposed KNNR method with three-day rainfall patterns reproduced better the characteristics of rainfall event such as event duration, inter-event time, and toral amount of rainfall event. To calculate runoff from urban catchment, rainfall event is more important than hourly rainfall depth itself. Therefore, the proposed stochastic disaggregation method is useful to hydrologic analysis, particularly in rainfall disaggregation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Characteristics of Fluorescence Spectra, UV Spectra, and Specific Growth Rates during the Outbreak of Toxic Microcystis Aeruginosa FACHB-905 and Non-Toxic FACHB-469 under Different Nutrient Conditions in a Eutrophic Microcosmic Simulation Device
Water 2020, 12(8), 2305; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082305 - 17 Aug 2020
Viewed by 725
Abstract
Microcystis aeruginosa is the dominant alga forming cyanobacteria blooms, the growth of which is limited by available nutrients. Thus, it is necessary to study cyanobacteria blooms and explore the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa under different nutrient conditions. In this paper, we take Microcystis [...] Read more.
Microcystis aeruginosa is the dominant alga forming cyanobacteria blooms, the growth of which is limited by available nutrients. Thus, it is necessary to study cyanobacteria blooms and explore the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa under different nutrient conditions. In this paper, we take Microcystis aeruginosa, including toxic Freshwater Algae Culture of Hydrobiology Collection (FACHB)-905 and non-toxic FACHB-469 strains, into account. The strains were cultured using a simulation device under different nutrient conditions. Ultraviolet spectra, three-dimensional fluorescence spectra, and kinetic parameter indicators of the two species are studied. Compared to FACHB-469, the results show that the specific growth rate of FACHB-905 is much higher, in particular, FACHB-905 is the dominant species under low nutrient conditions. Furthermore, the UV spectral characteristics indicate that the molecular weight of dissolved organic matter in the culture tank of toxic FACHB-905 is greater than that of FACHB-469. Additionally, the humification index of toxic FACHB-905 is slightly higher as well, which suggests that it is more stable in the presence of dissolved organic matter during blooms. Therefore, the toxic Microcystis strain is more likely to become the dominant species in water blooms under lower eutrophic conditions and water blooms formed by the toxic Microcystis strain may be more difficult to recover from. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae: Indices of Water and Ecological Quality)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Quantile Mapping Method to Fill in Discontinued Daily Precipitation Time Series
Water 2020, 12(8), 2304; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082304 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 806
Abstract
We present and assess a method to estimate missing values in daily precipitation time series for the Mediterranean island of Crete. The method involves a quantile mapping methodology originally developed for the bias correction of climate models’ output. The overall methodology is based [...] Read more.
We present and assess a method to estimate missing values in daily precipitation time series for the Mediterranean island of Crete. The method involves a quantile mapping methodology originally developed for the bias correction of climate models’ output. The overall methodology is based on a two-step procedure: (a) assessment of missing values from nearby stations and (b) adjustment of the biases in the probability density function of the filled values towards the existing data of the target. The methodology is assessed for its performance in filling-in the time series of a dense precipitation station network with large gaps on the island of Crete, Greece. The results indicate that quantile mapping can benefit the filled-in missing data statistics, as well as the wet day fraction. Conceptual limitations of the method are discussed, and correct methodology application guidance is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Removal of Cadmium from Contaminated Water Using Coated Chicken Bones with Double-Layer Hydroxide (Mg/Fe-LDH)
Water 2020, 12(8), 2303; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082303 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 824
Abstract
Occurrence of heavy metals in freshwater sources is a grave concern due to their severe impacts on public health and aquatic life. Cadmium (Cd2+) is one of the most dangerous heavy metals, and can cause serious diseases even at low concentrations. [...] Read more.
Occurrence of heavy metals in freshwater sources is a grave concern due to their severe impacts on public health and aquatic life. Cadmium (Cd2+) is one of the most dangerous heavy metals, and can cause serious diseases even at low concentrations. Hence, a wide range of treatment technologies exist, such as nanofiltration and biological reactors. In this context, the present investigation aims at the development of a new adsorption medium, made from chicken bones coated with iron (Fe) and magnesium (Mg) hydroxides, to remove cadmium from water. This novel chicken bone functional substance was manufactured by applying layered double hydroxides (LDH) into the chicken bones. Initially, the new adsorption medium was characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR technology), then it was applied to remove cadmium from water under different conditions, including pH of water (3–7.5), agitation speed (50–200 rpm), adsorbent dose (1–20 g per 100 mL), and contact time (30–120 min). Additionally, the reaction kinetics were studied using a pseudo-first order kinetic model. The results obtained from the present study proved that the new adsorption medium removed 97% of cadmium after 120 min at an agitation speed of 150 rpm, pH of 5, and adsorption dose of 10 g per 100 mL. The results also showed that the new adsorption medium contains a significant number of functional groups, including hydroxyl groups. According to the outcomes of the kinetic study, the mechanism of removing metal is attributed to surface precipitation, ion exchange, complexation, hydrogen binding between pollutants, and the LDH-chicken bone substance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Applications of Electrocoagulation in Water and Wastewater)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Biosand Filter as a Point-of-Use Water Treatment Technology: Influence of Turbidity on Microorganism Removal Efficiency
Water 2020, 12(8), 2302; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082302 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1158
Abstract
The number of people living without access to clean water can be reduced by the implementation of point-of-use (POU) water treatment. Among POU treatment systems, the domestic biosand filter (BSF) stands out as a viable technology. However, the performance of the BSF varies [...] Read more.
The number of people living without access to clean water can be reduced by the implementation of point-of-use (POU) water treatment. Among POU treatment systems, the domestic biosand filter (BSF) stands out as a viable technology. However, the performance of the BSF varies with the inflow water quality characteristics, especially turbidity. In some locations, people have no choice but to treat raw water that has turbidity above recommended levels for the technology. This study aimed to measure the efficiency with which the BSF removes microorganisms from well water and from fecal-contaminated water with turbidity levels of 3, 25, and 50 NTU. Turbidity was controlled by the addition of kaolin to water. Turbidity removal varied from 88% to 99%. Reductions in total coliform (TC) and Escherichia coli ranged from 0.54–2.01 and 1.2–2.2 log removal values (LRV), respectively. The BSF that received water with a higher level of turbidity showed the greatest reduction in the concentration of microorganisms. Additional testing with water contaminated with four bacterial pure cultures showed reductions between 2.7 and 3.6 LRV. A higher reduction in microorganisms was achieved after 30–35 days in operation. Despite the filter’s high efficiency, the filtrates still had some microorganisms, and a disinfection POU treatment could be added to increase water safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Point-of-Use Water Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Impact of Multi-Projects on the Alteration of the Flow Regime in the Middle and Lower Course of the Hanjiang River, China
Water 2020, 12(8), 2301; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082301 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 801
Abstract
A large number of water resources development projects have significantly changed the natural flow regime of the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River, especially the Danjiangkou Reservoir, cascade reservoirs, the South-to-North Water Diversion Middle Line Project and their compensation projects, completed [...] Read more.
A large number of water resources development projects have significantly changed the natural flow regime of the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River, especially the Danjiangkou Reservoir, cascade reservoirs, the South-to-North Water Diversion Middle Line Project and their compensation projects, completed in 1973, 2000, and 2014, respectively. The daily streamflow data of three stations in the middle and lower mainstream of the Hanjiang River are divided into four periods corresponding to pre-impact (1954–1973), interim (1974–1999), transition (2000–2013) and post-impact (2014–2018). Eco-flow metrics and indicators of hydrologic alteration (IHA) were used to study the change of natural flow regime. The annual streamflow decreased gradually during the four periods. The construction of the Danjiangkou Reservoir increased streamflow, minimum flow value, and the number of reversals in the dry season along the middle and lower course of the Hanjiang River. Moreover, the dam reduced streamflow, maximum flow value, low pulse duration, and the rise and fall rates in the wet season. Additionally, the streamflow reduced corresponding to the completion of cascade reservoirs and the Middle Route of South-to-North Water Diversion Project. In particular, the streamflow decreased drastically from July to September, affected by the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. Furthermore, the compensation projects, such as the Yangtze-Hanjiang Water Diversion Project, mitigate the reduction of streamflow from July to September in the downstream. The study provides insights into the ecological and economic benefits associated with water resources development and use in the mainstream of the middle and lower course of the Hanjiang River for the achievement of sustainable development in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Observed Microphysical Characteristics of Stratiform and Convective Precipitation over an Inland Arid Region of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau
Water 2020, 12(8), 2300; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082300 - 16 Aug 2020
Viewed by 734
Abstract
This study analyzed the microphysical characteristics of stratiform and convective precipitation over an inland arid region of Qinghai–Tibet Plateau in summer for the first time. The observed precipitation data were from the OTT Parsivel2 laser raindrop spectrometer and the raindrop size distribution [...] Read more.
This study analyzed the microphysical characteristics of stratiform and convective precipitation over an inland arid region of Qinghai–Tibet Plateau in summer for the first time. The observed precipitation data were from the OTT Parsivel2 laser raindrop spectrometer and the raindrop size distribution can be described by a gamma distribution and a general exponential distribution. The results indicate that: (1) compared to the exponential distribution, the gamma distribution is the better function with which to describe the raindrop size distribution in this region; (2) the raindrop sizes are mainly below 1 mm, and the raindrop sizes which contribute most to the rainfall intensity are below 2 mm for stratiform precipitation and convective precipitation; (3) the mean values of microphysical parameters, e.g., rainfall intensity, radar reflectivity factor, and liquid water content, are higher for convective precipitation than stratiform precipitation; and (4) the standard ZR relationship underestimates the radar reflectivity factor in this region. Overall, the obtained results will enhance our understanding and facilitate future studies regarding the microphysical characteristics of precipitation in such regions. For example, the obtained ZR relationship can be a reference for estimating the radar reflectivity factor in this region with higher accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrometeorological Observation and Modeling)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A GIS-Based Fit for the Purpose Assessment of Brackish Groundwater Formations as an Alternative to Freshwater Aquifers
Water 2020, 12(8), 2299; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082299 - 16 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 926
Abstract
A fit for purpose (FFP) framework has been developed to evaluate the suitability of brackish water resources for various competing uses. The suitability or the extent of unsuitability for an intended use is quantified using an overall compatibility index (OCI). The approach is [...] Read more.
A fit for purpose (FFP) framework has been developed to evaluate the suitability of brackish water resources for various competing uses. The suitability or the extent of unsuitability for an intended use is quantified using an overall compatibility index (OCI). The approach is illustrated by applying it to evaluate the feasibility of the Dockum Hydrostratigraphic Unit (Dockum-HSU) as a water supply alternative in the Southern High Plains (SHP) region of Texas. The groundwater in Dockum-HSU is most compatible for hydraulic fracturing uses. While the water does not meet drinking water standards, it can be treated with existing desalination technologies over most of the study area, except perhaps near major population centers. The groundwater from Dockum-HSU is most compatible for cotton production, but not where it is currently grown. It can be a useful supplement to facilitate a smoother transition of corn to sorghum cropping shifts happening in parts of the SHP. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR), sodium, sulfate, and radionuclides are major limiting constituents. Dockum-HSU can help reduce the freshwater footprint of the Ogallala Aquifer in the SHP by supporting non-agricultural uses. Greater regional collaboration and more holistic water management practices are however necessary to optimize brackish groundwater use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Static Liquefaction Capacity of Saturated Undisturbed Loess in South Jingyang Platform
Water 2020, 12(8), 2298; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082298 - 16 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 720
Abstract
According to a previous geological investigation, high-speed and long-distance loess landslides in the South Jingyang platform in Shaanxi Province are closely related to the static liquefaction of loess. Considering the typical loess landslides in this area, isotropic consolidated undrained (ICU) triaxial tests and [...] Read more.
According to a previous geological investigation, high-speed and long-distance loess landslides in the South Jingyang platform in Shaanxi Province are closely related to the static liquefaction of loess. Considering the typical loess landslides in this area, isotropic consolidated undrained (ICU) triaxial tests and scanning electron microscopy analyses were conducted in this study. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The stress-strain curves indicate strong strain softening under different confining pressures. The pore water pressure increases significantly and then remains at a high level; (2) The liquefaction potential index (LPI) shows an increasing trend followed by stabilization; the larger the LPI is, the smaller the state parameter (Ψ) is. The steady-state points of the loess are in the instability region; however, the steady-state strength is not zero; (3) Based on the ICU test results, the average pore diameter decreases; the shape ratio remains essentially unchanged; and the fractal dimension and roundness show different trends. The proportions of the macropore and mesopore decrease; that of the small pore increases slightly; and that of the micropore increases significantly; (4) The compression deformation of the highly spaced pores causes rapid strain hardening. A rapid strain softening results from the pore throat blockage at the beginning of particle rearrangement and reorganization. A stable strain softening is related to the agglomeration blocking of the reconstructed pore throat in the gradually stable stage of particle rearrangement and reorganization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil–Water Conservation, Erosion, and Landslide)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Evaluating the Impacts of Pumping on Aquifer Depletion in Arid Regions Using MODFLOW, ANFIS and ANN
Water 2020, 12(8), 2297; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082297 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1005
Abstract
In arid regions, the groundwater drawdown consistently increases, and even for a constant pumping rate, long-term predictions remain a challenge. The present research applies the modular three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow (MODFLOW) model to a unique aquifer facing challenges of undefined boundary conditions. Artificial [...] Read more.
In arid regions, the groundwater drawdown consistently increases, and even for a constant pumping rate, long-term predictions remain a challenge. The present research applies the modular three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow (MODFLOW) model to a unique aquifer facing challenges of undefined boundary conditions. Artificial neural networks (ANN) and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) have also been investigated for predicting groundwater levels in the aquifer. A framework is developed for evaluating the impact of various scenarios of groundwater pumping on aquifer depletion. A new code in MATLAB was written for predictions of aquifer depletion using ANN/ANFIS. The geotechnical, meteorological, and hydrological data, including discharge and groundwater levels from 1980 to 2018 for wells in Qassim, were collected from the ministry concerned. The Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency and mean square error examined the performance of the models. The study found that the existing pumping rates can result in an alarming drawdown of 105 m in the next 50 years. Appropriate water conservation strategies for maintaining the existing pumping rate can reduce the impact on aquifer depletion by 33%. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Development of a Fuzzy-Function-Based Performance Indicator for Water Distribution System’s Emergency Condition
Water 2020, 12(8), 2296; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082296 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 727
Abstract
Emergency interconnected operation (EIO) between adjacent blocks in a water distribution system (WDS) is one of the most effective countermeasures of a water utility when abnormal conditions (e.g., suspended water supply, pipe burst) occur at a certain location. For improved WDS operation and [...] Read more.
Emergency interconnected operation (EIO) between adjacent blocks in a water distribution system (WDS) is one of the most effective countermeasures of a water utility when abnormal conditions (e.g., suspended water supply, pipe burst) occur at a certain location. For improved WDS operation and management, calculating a reliable performance indicator that accurately represents the states of consumers under both normal and abnormal conditions is essential. In this study, a water supply performance indicator (WSPI) was developed for assessing the hydraulic performance of a WDS in terms of consumer usability and satisfaction. A fuzzy function is used to represent the consumer satisfaction with the water supply level, and the satisfaction of different consumers can be adjusted by setting the variables of the fuzzy function. The WSPI can be applied to a hydraulic analysis model based on data from an actual WDS to assess the water supply capacity for each node and the entire network. It can also be used in an advanced pressure-driven analysis model to assess the WDS performance under various abnormal conditions. The proposed WSPI was applied to six suspended water supply scenarios of an actual WDS with and without EIO to assess the effectiveness of this countermeasure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Hydraulic Performance and Modelling of Pressurized Drip Irrigation System
Water 2020, 12(8), 2295; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082295 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1001
Abstract
This study was conducted at Laman Sayur, Malaysia Agro Exposition Park Serdang (MAEPS), to investigate the hydraulic performance of a small-scale drip irrigation system. The modelling was carried out using EPANET software to understand how the drip irrigation system is operated. Model results [...] Read more.
This study was conducted at Laman Sayur, Malaysia Agro Exposition Park Serdang (MAEPS), to investigate the hydraulic performance of a small-scale drip irrigation system. The modelling was carried out using EPANET software to understand how the drip irrigation system is operated. Model results show that the errors are small, i.e., 2.2% and 3.0% for pressures, and 1.7% for discharge in lateral pipe 1 and lateral pipe 2. The root mean square error (RMSE) and the mean bias error (MBE) for discharge were recorded at 0.04 L/h and 0.03 L/h for lateral pipe 1 and 0.04 L/h and 0.02 L/h for lateral pipe 2. RMSE and MBE for pressure were recorded at 0.61 m and 0.68 m for lateral pipe 1, and 0.79 m and 0.68 m for lateral pipe 2, respectively. These results show that the model yields good performance. For hydraulic performance, the field measurement was conducted with four operating pressures: P1 (15.3), P2 (20.4), P3 (25.5), and P4 (28.6) meters. The hydraulic parameters evaluated were the coefficient of uniformity (CU), the emission uniformity (EU), the coefficient of variation (CV), and the emitter flow variation (EFV). The operating pressure during the measurement is constant according to the specified pressure. The results show that CU, CV, and EU are in the excellent classification, and values of CU and EU have more than 95% efficiency. The value for CV is below 0.03, which is excellent. The EFV is 10% when operating at 25.5 m and 15.3 m and is considered desirable. On the other hand, for the 28.6 m and 15.3 m operating pressures, the EFV parameters were recorded at 13.6% and 10.29%, respectively, and are classified acceptable. This study concluded that the operating pressures, P2 (20.4 m) and P3 (25.5 m), were performed under excellent classification for all hydraulic parameters evaluated. Based on the outputs from the model, it is inferred that the existing drip irrigation system at Laman Sayur MAEPS is operated in an over-powered state. With the current pump power consumption, the irrigation system could be operated at a minimum of four times the capacity of the existing irrigation system. To reduce the power consumption, it is suggested that the system is operated at a lower pumping power. This would minimize the operating costs especially for the development of a new drip irrigation system that has the same capacity as the drip irrigation system that is currently being operated at Laman Sayur, MAEPS Serdang. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Exergy Optimization of a Solar Collector in Flat Plate Shape Equipped with Elliptical Pipes Filled with Turbulent Nanofluid Flow: A Study for Thermal Management
Water 2020, 12(8), 2294; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082294 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1841
Abstract
In this paper, forced convection of a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)–water nanofluid (NF) in a new flat plate solar collector (FPSC) equipped with elliptical pipes instead of circular ones is investigated. The three-dimensional conservation equations were solved in the domain with the finite [...] Read more.
In this paper, forced convection of a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)–water nanofluid (NF) in a new flat plate solar collector (FPSC) equipped with elliptical pipes instead of circular ones is investigated. The three-dimensional conservation equations were solved in the domain with the finite volume method (FVM) based on the semi-implicit method for pressure linked equations (SIMPLE) algorithm. The laminar-turbulent range of the Reynolds number (Re) and the volume fraction of the NF (ϕ) were 50–12,000 and 0–0.1, respectively. The optimization process was accomplished through the comparison of diverse parameters to attain the optimal case with the highest exergy efficiency. In this study, it was concluded that, in the case of using elliptical pipes instead of circular tubes, the time that the fluid was inside the FPSC increased, which led to an increase in the outlet temperature, while the exergy efficiency of the FPSC increased. Additionally, it was observed that using elliptical pipes enhanced the outlet fluid temperature, energy efficiency, and exergy efficiency. Generally, while the trend of exergy efficiency variation with effective parameters was rising, applying elliptical pipes caused the efficiency to increase. In addition, the exergy efficiency variation decreased when these parameters were changed. The highest value of exergy efficiency was 7.1%. On the other hand, for each specific FPSC, there was a unique mass flow rate at which the exergy efficiency reached its maximum value, and for higher mass flow rates, the efficiency was slightly diminished and then remained unchanged. Finally, the highest exergy efficiency was achieved for ϕ = 0.10%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pipeline Fluid Mechanics 2020)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
An Ensemble Climate-Hydrology Modeling System for Long-Term Streamflow Assessment in a Cold-Arid Watershed
Water 2020, 12(8), 2293; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082293 - 14 Aug 2020
Viewed by 721
Abstract
Climate change can bring about substantial alternatives of temperature and precipitation in the spatial and temporal patterns. These alternatives would impact the hydrological cycle and cause flood or drought events. This study has developed an ensemble climate-hydrology modeling system (ECHMS) for long-term streamflow [...] Read more.
Climate change can bring about substantial alternatives of temperature and precipitation in the spatial and temporal patterns. These alternatives would impact the hydrological cycle and cause flood or drought events. This study has developed an ensemble climate-hydrology modeling system (ECHMS) for long-term streamflow assessment under changing climate. ECHMS consists of multiple climate scenarios (two global climate models (GCMs) and four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) emission scenarios), a stepwise-cluster downscaling method and semi-distributed land use-based runoff process (SLURP) model. ECHMS is able to reflect the uncertainties in climate scenarios, tackle the complex relationships (e.g., nonlinear/linear, discrete/continuous) between climate predictors and predictions without functional assumption, and capture the combination of snowmelt– and rainfall–runoff process with a simplicity of operation. Then, the developed ECHMS is applied to Kaidu watershed for analyzing the changes of streamflow during the 21st century. Results show that by 2099, the temperature increment in Kaidu watershed is mainly contributed by the warming in winter and spring. The precipitation will increase obviously in spring and autumn and decrease in winter. Multi-year average streamflow would range from 105.6 to 113.8 m3/s across all scenarios during the 21st century with an overall increasing trend. The maximum average increasing rate is 2.43 m3/s per decade in October and the minimum is 0.26 m3/s per decade in January. Streamflow change in spring is more sensitive to climate change due to its complex runoff generation process. The obtained results can effectively identify future streamflow changing trends and help manage water resources for decision makers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Hydrological Image Building Using Curve Number and Prediction and Evaluation of Runoff through Convolution Neural Network
Water 2020, 12(8), 2292; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082292 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 816
Abstract
This study developed a runoff model using a convolution neural network (CNN), which had previously only been used for classification problems, to get away from artificial neural networks (ANNs) that have been extensively used for the development of runoff models, and to secure [...] Read more.
This study developed a runoff model using a convolution neural network (CNN), which had previously only been used for classification problems, to get away from artificial neural networks (ANNs) that have been extensively used for the development of runoff models, and to secure diversity and demonstrate the suitability of the model. For this model’s input data, photographs typically used in the CNN model could not be used; due to the nature of the study, hydrological images reflecting effects such as watershed conditions and rainfall were required, which posed further difficulties. To address this, the method of a generating hydrological image using the curve number (CN) published by the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) was suggested in this study, and the hydrological images using CN were found to be sufficient as input data for the CNN model. Furthermore, this study was able to present a new application for the CN, which had been used only for estimating runoff. The model was trained and generalized stably overall, and R2, which indicates the relationship between the actual and predicted values, was relatively high at 0.82. The Pearson correlation coefficient, Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), and root mean square error (RMSE), were 0.87, 0.60, and 16.20 m3/s, respectively, demonstrating a good overall model prediction performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Elucidation of the Mechanism of Blockage in Sewer Pipes by Fatty Acid Deposition and Suspended Solid
Water 2020, 12(8), 2291; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082291 - 14 Aug 2020
Viewed by 879
Abstract
The objective of this study is to elucidate the mechanism by which blockages occur in sewer pipes following the deposition of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) and suspended solids (SS). In this study, a simulated wastewater flow experiment was conducted to elucidate the [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to elucidate the mechanism by which blockages occur in sewer pipes following the deposition of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) and suspended solids (SS). In this study, a simulated wastewater flow experiment was conducted to elucidate the mechanism of sewer pipe blockage using lauric acid as fatty acid and florisil to simulate FOG and SS blockages, respectively. Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride pipes (ϕ = 50 mm) with a flow speed of 2 L/min and 1% inclination were used in this experiment. In “Case L & F (lauric acid florisil),” the deposition of florisil and adhesion of solids increased at the bottom of the sewer pipe over a set period. After seven days, decreases in lauric acid concentration from 1000 to 57 mg/L and in Ca2+ concentration from 18 to 0.8 mg/L were observed. FOG deposits formed solids by the saponification of lauric acid and Ca2+ from tap water. In the simulated kitchen wastewater, either lauric acid or florisil exhibited solid deposition and adhesion. Based on these findings, the blockage mechanism was elucidated to confirm FOG deposition of and SS influenced by the combination of lauric acid, Ca2+, and florisil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Wastewater Treatment and Sustainable Drainage Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Moving beyond the Mirage: Water Scarcity and Agricultural Use Inefficiency in USA
Water 2020, 12(8), 2290; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082290 - 14 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1221
Abstract
The purpose of this article is to examine water scarcity and food security in the United States, the world’s largest grain producer, and to provide empirical evidence that high volumes of water-intensive crops are grown in water-scarce regions. The primary methodology is to [...] Read more.
The purpose of this article is to examine water scarcity and food security in the United States, the world’s largest grain producer, and to provide empirical evidence that high volumes of water-intensive crops are grown in water-scarce regions. The primary methodology is to analyze data using Geographic Information System (GIS) and to visually represent the results through statistical mapping of water stress overlaid with the amount of production of different commodities. The article concludes by discussing strategies to restructure agriculture to improve water efficiency and to maintain regional agricultural economies that depend on the sustainability of water resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agriculture Water Management and Water Saving Strategies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Potential Use of Geophysical Methods to Identify Cavities, Sinkholes and Pathways for Water Infiltration
Water 2020, 12(8), 2289; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082289 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1113
Abstract
The use of geophysical characterization of karst systems can provide an economical and non-invasive alternative for extracting information about cavities, sinkholes, pathways for water infiltration as well as the degree of karstification of underlying carbonate rocks. In the present study, three geophysical techniques, [...] Read more.
The use of geophysical characterization of karst systems can provide an economical and non-invasive alternative for extracting information about cavities, sinkholes, pathways for water infiltration as well as the degree of karstification of underlying carbonate rocks. In the present study, three geophysical techniques, namely, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Very Low Frequency Electromagnetic (VLFEM) methods were applied at three different locations in relation to fluvial karst, which is listed as an environmentally sensitive area in Rio Vermelho, Mambaí, Goiás, Brazil. In the data acquisition phase, the GPR, direct-current (DC) resistivity and VLFEM profiles were obtained at the three locations in the area. Data were analyzed using commonly adopted processing workflows. The GPR results showed a well-defined lithology of the site based on the amplitude of the signal and radar typologies. On the other hand, the inverted resistivity cross-sections showed a three-layered stratigraphy, pathways of water infiltration and the weathered structures in carbonate (Bambui group). The interpretation of VLFEM as contours of current density resulted from Fraser and Karous–Hjelt filters, indicated the presence of conductive structures (high apparent current density) that might be linked to the weathered carbonate and other conductive and resistive anomalies associated with the water-filled and dry cavities (cave), respectively. The results encourage the integrated application of geophysical techniques such as the reconnaissance for further detailed characterization of the karst areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Projection of Droughts as Multivariate Phenomenon in the Rhine River
Water 2020, 12(8), 2288; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082288 - 14 Aug 2020
Viewed by 808
Abstract
Drought is a complex phenomenon whose characterization is best achieved from a multivariate perspective. It is well known that it can generate adverse consequences in society. In this regard, drought duration, severity, and their interrelationship play a critical role. In a climate change [...] Read more.
Drought is a complex phenomenon whose characterization is best achieved from a multivariate perspective. It is well known that it can generate adverse consequences in society. In this regard, drought duration, severity, and their interrelationship play a critical role. In a climate change scenario, drought characterization and the assessment of the changes in its pattern are essential for a proper quantification of water availability and managing strategies. The purpose of this study is to characterize hydrological droughts in the Rhine River in a multivariate perspective for the historical period and estimate the expected multivariate drought patterns for the next decades. Further, a comparison of bivariate drought patterns between historical and future projections is performed for different return periods. This will, first, indicate if changes can be expected and, second, what the magnitudes of these possible changes could be. Finally, the underlying uncertainty due to climate projections is estimated. Four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) are used along with five General Circulation Models (GCM). The HBV hydrological model is used to simulate discharge in both periods. Characterization of droughts is accomplished by the Standardized Runoff Index and the interdependence between drought severity and duration is modelled by a two-dimensional copula. Projections from different climate models show important differences in the estimation of the number of drought events for different return periods. This study reveals that duration and severity present a clear interrelationship, suggesting strongly the appropriateness of a bivariate model. Further, projections show that the bivariate interdependencies between drought duration and severity show clearly differences depending on GCMs and RCPs. Apart from the influence of GCMs and RCMs, it is found that return periods also play an important role in these relationships and uncertainties. Finally, important changes in the bivariate drought patterns between the historical period and future projections are estimated constituting important information for water management purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Association between Drinking Water Nitrate and Adverse Reproductive Outcomes: A Systematic PRISMA Review
Water 2020, 12(8), 2287; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082287 - 14 Aug 2020
Viewed by 937
Abstract
One in six couples experience fertility problems. Environmental factors may affect reproductive health; however, evidence is lacking regarding drinking water nitrates and outcomes of male and female fertility. The aim of this study was to investigate if exposure to nitrates in drinking water [...] Read more.
One in six couples experience fertility problems. Environmental factors may affect reproductive health; however, evidence is lacking regarding drinking water nitrates and outcomes of male and female fertility. The aim of this study was to investigate if exposure to nitrates in drinking water is associated with adverse reproductive outcomes in humans, and animals of fertile age. We conducted a systematic literature search and included case-control studies, cohort studies, and randomized control trials reporting on the association between drinking water nitrate exposure of men, women, or animals and adverse reproductive outcomes, specified as: Semen quality parameters, time to pregnancy (TTP), pregnancy rates, assisted reproductive technologies (ART), and spontaneous abortion. Findings were reported in a narrative synthesis. A total of 12 studies were included. The only human study included reported a decrease in spontaneous abortion at any detectable nitrate level. Overall, the 11 included animal studies support a potential negative effect on semen quality parameters but report equivocal results on TTP and number of offspring produced, and higher risk of spontaneous abortion. In conclusion, animal studies indicate possible effects on semen quality parameters and spontaneous abortion. However, with a few studies, including some with methodological limitations and small sample sizes, caution must be applied when interpreting these results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water and One Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop