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Article

Evaluating the Impacts of Pumping on Aquifer Depletion in Arid Regions Using MODFLOW, ANFIS and ANN

1
Graduate Student, Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Qassim University, Buraydah, Qassim 51452, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Qassim University, Buraydah, Qassim 51452, Saudi Arabia
3
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering & Technology, Taxila 47080, Pakistan
4
Department of Irrigation and Hydraulics, College of Engineering, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21544, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(8), 2297; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082297
Received: 10 July 2020 / Revised: 11 August 2020 / Accepted: 13 August 2020 / Published: 15 August 2020
In arid regions, the groundwater drawdown consistently increases, and even for a constant pumping rate, long-term predictions remain a challenge. The present research applies the modular three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow (MODFLOW) model to a unique aquifer facing challenges of undefined boundary conditions. Artificial neural networks (ANN) and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) have also been investigated for predicting groundwater levels in the aquifer. A framework is developed for evaluating the impact of various scenarios of groundwater pumping on aquifer depletion. A new code in MATLAB was written for predictions of aquifer depletion using ANN/ANFIS. The geotechnical, meteorological, and hydrological data, including discharge and groundwater levels from 1980 to 2018 for wells in Qassim, were collected from the ministry concerned. The Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency and mean square error examined the performance of the models. The study found that the existing pumping rates can result in an alarming drawdown of 105 m in the next 50 years. Appropriate water conservation strategies for maintaining the existing pumping rate can reduce the impact on aquifer depletion by 33%. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater; MODFLOW; ANN; groundwater modeling; arid regions; groundwater aquifer groundwater; MODFLOW; ANN; groundwater modeling; arid regions; groundwater aquifer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Almuhaylan, M.R.; Ghumman, A.R.; Al-Salamah, I.S.; Ahmad, A.; Ghazaw, Y.M.; Haider, H.; Shafiquzzaman, M. Evaluating the Impacts of Pumping on Aquifer Depletion in Arid Regions Using MODFLOW, ANFIS and ANN. Water 2020, 12, 2297. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082297

AMA Style

Almuhaylan MR, Ghumman AR, Al-Salamah IS, Ahmad A, Ghazaw YM, Haider H, Shafiquzzaman M. Evaluating the Impacts of Pumping on Aquifer Depletion in Arid Regions Using MODFLOW, ANFIS and ANN. Water. 2020; 12(8):2297. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082297

Chicago/Turabian Style

Almuhaylan, Mohammed R., Abdul R. Ghumman, Ibrahim S. Al-Salamah, Afaq Ahmad, Yousry M. Ghazaw, Husnain Haider, and Md. Shafiquzzaman 2020. "Evaluating the Impacts of Pumping on Aquifer Depletion in Arid Regions Using MODFLOW, ANFIS and ANN" Water 12, no. 8: 2297. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082297

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