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Determination of Actual Evapotranspiration and Crop Coefficients of California Date Palms Using the Residual of Energy Balance Approach

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UC Cooperative Extension Imperial County, University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 1050 East Holton Road, Holtville, CA 92250, USA
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USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Citrus and Dates, 1060 Martin Luther King Blvd, Riverside, CA 92507, USA
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USDA-ARS, United States Salinity Laboratory, 450 West Big Springs Road, Riverside, CA 92507, USA
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Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
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California Department of Water Resources, 901 P Street, Sacramento, CA 95814, USA
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UC Cooperative Extension Riverside County, University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 21150 Box Springs Road, Moreno Valley, CA 92557, USA
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Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(8), 2253; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082253
Received: 4 July 2020 / Revised: 10 August 2020 / Accepted: 10 August 2020 / Published: 11 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Water, Agriculture and Aquaculture)
As water scarcity becomes of greater concern in arid and semi-arid regions due to altered weather patterns, greater and more accurate knowledge regarding evapotranspiration of crops produced in these areas is of increased significance to better manage limited water resources. This study aimed at determining the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) and crop coefficients (Ka) in California date palms. The residual of energy balance method using a combination of surface renewal and eddy covariance techniques was applied to measure ETa in six commercial mature date palm orchards (8–22 years old) over one year. The experimental orchards represent various soil types and conditions, irrigation management practices, canopy characteristics, and the most common date cultivars in the region. The results demonstrated considerable variability in date palm consumptive water use, both spatially and temporally. The cumulative ETa (CETa) across the six sites ranged from 1299 to 1501 mm with a mean daily ETa of 7.2 mm day−1 in June–July and 1.0 mm day−1 in December at the site with the highest crop water consumption. The mean monthly Ka values varied between 0.63 (December) and 0.90 (June) in the non-salt-affected, sandy loam soil date palms with an average density of 120 plants ha−1 and an average canopy cover and tree height of more than 80% and 11.0 m, respectively. However, the values ranged from 0.62 to 0.75 in a silty clay loam saline-sodic date palm orchard with 55% canopy cover, density of 148 plants ha−1, and 7.3 m tree height. Inverse relationships were derived between the CETa and soil salinity (ECe) in the crop root zone; and between the mean annual Ka and ECe. This information addresses the immediate needs of date growers for irrigation management in the region and enables them to more efficiently utilize water and to achieve full economic gains in a sustainable manner, especially as water resources become less available or more expensive. View Full-Text
Keywords: California low desert; crop coefficient; date palm; evapotranspiration; residual of energy balance calculations California low desert; crop coefficient; date palm; evapotranspiration; residual of energy balance calculations
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MDPI and ACS Style

Montazar, A.; Krueger, R.; Corwin, D.; Pourreza, A.; Little, C.; Rios, S.; Snyder, R.L. Determination of Actual Evapotranspiration and Crop Coefficients of California Date Palms Using the Residual of Energy Balance Approach. Water 2020, 12, 2253. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082253

AMA Style

Montazar A, Krueger R, Corwin D, Pourreza A, Little C, Rios S, Snyder RL. Determination of Actual Evapotranspiration and Crop Coefficients of California Date Palms Using the Residual of Energy Balance Approach. Water. 2020; 12(8):2253. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082253

Chicago/Turabian Style

Montazar, Aliasghar, Robert Krueger, Dennis Corwin, Alireza Pourreza, Cayle Little, Sonia Rios, and Richard L. Snyder. 2020. "Determination of Actual Evapotranspiration and Crop Coefficients of California Date Palms Using the Residual of Energy Balance Approach" Water 12, no. 8: 2253. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082253

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