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Open AccessArticle

Removal of Cadmium from Contaminated Water Using Coated Chicken Bones with Double-Layer Hydroxide (Mg/Fe-LDH)

1
Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babel 51002, Iraq
2
Environmental Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babel 51002, Iraq
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(8), 2303; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082303
Received: 24 June 2020 / Revised: 8 August 2020 / Accepted: 10 August 2020 / Published: 17 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Applications of Electrocoagulation in Water and Wastewater)
Occurrence of heavy metals in freshwater sources is a grave concern due to their severe impacts on public health and aquatic life. Cadmium (Cd2+) is one of the most dangerous heavy metals, and can cause serious diseases even at low concentrations. Hence, a wide range of treatment technologies exist, such as nanofiltration and biological reactors. In this context, the present investigation aims at the development of a new adsorption medium, made from chicken bones coated with iron (Fe) and magnesium (Mg) hydroxides, to remove cadmium from water. This novel chicken bone functional substance was manufactured by applying layered double hydroxides (LDH) into the chicken bones. Initially, the new adsorption medium was characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR technology), then it was applied to remove cadmium from water under different conditions, including pH of water (3–7.5), agitation speed (50–200 rpm), adsorbent dose (1–20 g per 100 mL), and contact time (30–120 min). Additionally, the reaction kinetics were studied using a pseudo-first order kinetic model. The results obtained from the present study proved that the new adsorption medium removed 97% of cadmium after 120 min at an agitation speed of 150 rpm, pH of 5, and adsorption dose of 10 g per 100 mL. The results also showed that the new adsorption medium contains a significant number of functional groups, including hydroxyl groups. According to the outcomes of the kinetic study, the mechanism of removing metal is attributed to surface precipitation, ion exchange, complexation, hydrogen binding between pollutants, and the LDH-chicken bone substance. View Full-Text
Keywords: adsorption of cadmium; cadmium; heavy metal; raw waste bones adsorption of cadmium; cadmium; heavy metal; raw waste bones
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alquzweeni, S.S.; Alkizwini, R.S. Removal of Cadmium from Contaminated Water Using Coated Chicken Bones with Double-Layer Hydroxide (Mg/Fe-LDH). Water 2020, 12, 2303. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082303

AMA Style

Alquzweeni SS, Alkizwini RS. Removal of Cadmium from Contaminated Water Using Coated Chicken Bones with Double-Layer Hydroxide (Mg/Fe-LDH). Water. 2020; 12(8):2303. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082303

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alquzweeni, Saif S.; Alkizwini, Rasha S. 2020. "Removal of Cadmium from Contaminated Water Using Coated Chicken Bones with Double-Layer Hydroxide (Mg/Fe-LDH)" Water 12, no. 8: 2303. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082303

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