Hydrological Modeling Research for Rainfall-Induced Landslides

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021) | Viewed by 14022

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Department of Chemistry, Life Sciences and Environmental Sustainability, University of Parma, Str. dell\'Università, 12, 43121 Parma, PR, Italy
Interests: slope stability; unsaturated soils; soil-atmosphere interaction; field monitoring; rainfall-induced landslides; physical modeling; numerical modeling; early warning systems; regional-scale landslide hazard; hydrological modeling
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Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, University of Bologna, Viale Fanin, 44, 40125 Bologna BO, Italy
Interests: dielectric characterization of the Antarctica Polar Cap by Perforations at Dome-C; dielectric spectroscopy of porous media; computational heat and mass transfer; molecular dynamics; chaotic and complex environmental systems; wind patterns and distribution for wind power; shallow landslides; hydrological modelling; heat dissipation of underground electrical power cables

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Guest Editor
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
Interests: landslides monitoring; landslides modeling; soil hydrology; remote sensing
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Guest Editor
Department of Engineering and Architecture, University of Parma, 43121 Parma, Italy
Interests: inverse problems in surface hydrology; hydraulics and groundwater modeling; impacts of climate change on meteorological variables and water resources
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Rainfall-induced landslides, which can involve different kinds of soils at different depths, cause widespread direct and indirect damage to cultivations, infrastructures, man-made settlements, and, sometimes, even many casualties all over the world. Although it is rather evident that rainfall is the main trigger of many slope failures, modeling of the interaction between soil and weather phenomena, especially for forecasting purposes at different scales, is done using different methodological approaches. In particular, hydrological research, strictly connected with aspects dealing with soil physics, soil mechanics, and geology,  has recently made a strong contribution to the understanding of the processes at stake.

On the one hand, some models have been developed to describe at the microscopic scale the hydro-mechanical behavior of partially saturated soils involved in landslides; on the other hand, further models take into account macroscopic effects of soil–atmosphere interaction, in order to cope with some urgent geo-environmental problems on a large scale. Moreover, the contribution given by hydrogeological modeling to the development of early-warning systems against landslides, including those based on satellite measurements, should not be overlooked.

This Special Issue will collect high-quality original research and review papers dealing with the recent advances in hydrological modeling for rainfall-induced landslides from several perspectives and their current or potential applications at different scales.

We encourage the submission of papers that focus on physical, theoretical, and numerical modeling aimed to simulate both laboratory and field experiments.

Prof. Dr. Roberto Valentino
Prof. Dr. Claudia Meisina
Dr. Massimiliano Bordoni
Prof. Dr. Marco Bittelli
Dr. Marco D’Oria
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Hydrological modeling at different scales
  • Soil hydrological behavior
  • Soil-atmosphere interaction
  • Hydro-mechanical triggering models
  • Landslide triggering
  • Numerical modelling
  • Geostatistics
  • Porous media dynamics
  • Water balance
  • Rainfall thresholds

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 3674 KiB  
Article
Improving Spatial Landslide Prediction with 3D Slope Stability Analysis and Genetic Algorithm Optimization: Application to the Oltrepò Pavese
by Nunziarita Palazzolo, David J. Peres, Massimiliano Bordoni, Claudia Meisina, Enrico Creaco and Antonino Cancelliere
Water 2021, 13(6), 801; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060801 - 15 Mar 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4062
Abstract
In this study, we compare infinite slope and the three-dimensional stability analysis performed by SCOOPS 3D (software to analyze three-dimensional slope stability throughout a digital landscape). SCOOPS 3D is a model proposed by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), the potentialities of which [...] Read more.
In this study, we compare infinite slope and the three-dimensional stability analysis performed by SCOOPS 3D (software to analyze three-dimensional slope stability throughout a digital landscape). SCOOPS 3D is a model proposed by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), the potentialities of which have still not been investigated sufficiently. The comparison between infinite slope and 3D slope stability analysis is carried out using the same hydrological analysis, which is performed with TRIGRS (transient rainfall infiltration and grid-based regional slope-stability model)—another model proposed by USGS. The SCOOPS 3D model requires definition of a series of numerical parameters that can have a significant impact on its own performance, for a given set of physical properties. In the study, we calibrate these numerical parameters through a multi-objective optimization based on genetic algorithms to maximize the model predictability performance in terms of statistics of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) confusion matrix. This comparison is carried out through an application on a real case study, a catchment in the Oltrepò Pavese (Italy), in which the areas of triggered landslides were accurately monitored during an extreme rainfall on 27–28 April 2009. Results show that the SCOOPS 3D model performs better than the 1D infinite slope stability analysis, as the ROC True Skill Statistic increases from 0.09 to 0.37. In comparison to other studies, we find the 1D model performs worse, likely for the availability of less detailed geological data. On the other side, for the 3D model we find even better results than the two other studies present to date in the scientific literature. This is to be attributed to the optimization process we proposed, which allows to have a greater gain of performance passing from the 1D to the 3D simulation, in comparison to the above-mentioned studies, where no optimization has been applied. Thus, our study contributes to improving the performances of landslide models, which still remain subject to many uncertainty factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrological Modeling Research for Rainfall-Induced Landslides)
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13 pages, 2967 KiB  
Article
Post-Failure Dynamics of Rainfall-Induced Landslide in Oltrepò Pavese
by Sauro Manenti, Andrea Amicarelli, Nunziarita Palazzolo, Massimiliano Bordoni, Enrico Creaco and Claudia Meisina
Water 2020, 12(9), 2555; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092555 - 13 Sep 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2112
Abstract
Prediction of landslide hazard risk at hill slope induced by intense rainfall requires the appropriate modeling of the interactions between soil and weather phenomena, leading to failure as well as a reliable prediction of post-failure dynamics. In the peculiar case of fast shallow [...] Read more.
Prediction of landslide hazard risk at hill slope induced by intense rainfall requires the appropriate modeling of the interactions between soil and weather phenomena, leading to failure as well as a reliable prediction of post-failure dynamics. In the peculiar case of fast shallow landslides behaving like dense granular flows, a suitable modeling approach for large and rapid deformations is necessary to estimate potential related damage. The impact force exerted by the leading edge of the earth-flow on the downstream structure should be estimated for both damage prediction and design of effective protection measures. In this paper, a free open source 3D research code based on standard weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (WCSPH) method is validated by modeling a full-scale rainfall-induced shallow landslide which occurred in Oltrepò Pavese (Northern Italy). The code allows resolving the vertical velocity gradients, potentially providing a more reliable representation of the landslide dynamics and impact force. Mechanical parameters are consistent with average soil characteristics, avoiding calibration analysis. The final landslide profile is compared with an experimental survey for model validation, showing good fit. Influence of uncertainties of geotechnical parameters on the landslide front velocity and impact force on the downstream wall is evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrological Modeling Research for Rainfall-Induced Landslides)
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19 pages, 11902 KiB  
Article
Sensitivity Analyses of the Seepage and Stability of Layered Rock Slope Based on the Anisotropy of Hydraulic Conductivity: A Case Study in the Pulang Region of Southwestern China
by Chengzhi Xia, Guangyin Lu, Dongxin Bai, Ziqiang Zhu, Shuai Luo and Guangkeng Zhang
Water 2020, 12(8), 2314; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082314 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2463
Abstract
In the study of the seepage characteristics of layered rock slope under rainfall conditions, the majority of previous research has considered the hydraulic conduction to be isotropic, or only considered the anisotropy ratio of the hydraulic conductivity, ignoring the anisotropy angle. In the [...] Read more.
In the study of the seepage characteristics of layered rock slope under rainfall conditions, the majority of previous research has considered the hydraulic conduction to be isotropic, or only considered the anisotropy ratio of the hydraulic conductivity, ignoring the anisotropy angle. In the current study, a layered rock slope in the Pulang region was selected as an example. Then, based on the fitting parameters of the Van Genuchten model, pore water pressure sensitivity analyses of the layered rock slope were carried out. The anisotropy ratio and anisotropy angle were used to analyze the sensitivity of the seepage and stability of the layered rock slopes. The results show that as the anisotropy angle of hydraulic conductivity of layered rock slope decreased, the maximum volume water content of surface (MWCS) of layered rock slope gradually increased. Additionally, as the anisotropy ratio decreased and the anisotropy angle increased, the rising heights of the groundwater (RHG) of layered rock slope gradually increased. When the hydraulic conduction of layered rock slope was considered isotropic, the factor of safety (FS) tended to be overestimated. As the anisotropy ratio decreased and the anisotropy angle increased, the factor of safety (FS) of layered rock slope decreased. Prevention should be the objective for rock slopes with larger dip angles in the bedding plane in the Pulang region. This study provides feasible schemes for the evaluation of the seepage and stability of layered rock slopes in Pulang region of southwestern China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrological Modeling Research for Rainfall-Induced Landslides)
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19 pages, 3531 KiB  
Article
Effect of Rainfall, Runoff and Infiltration Processes on the Stability of Footslopes
by Hung-En Chen, Yen-Yu Chiu, Tung-Lin Tsai and Jinn-Chuang Yang
Water 2020, 12(5), 1229; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051229 - 25 Apr 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4255
Abstract
To analyze the effect of runoff on shallow landslides, a model coupling one-dimensional rainfall–runoff and two-dimensional infiltration was established to simulate rainfall, infiltration, and runoff processes. Based on Bishop’s limit equilibrium method, the slope failure of a hypothetical footslope was studied. First, conditions [...] Read more.
To analyze the effect of runoff on shallow landslides, a model coupling one-dimensional rainfall–runoff and two-dimensional infiltration was established to simulate rainfall, infiltration, and runoff processes. Based on Bishop’s limit equilibrium method, the slope failure of a hypothetical footslope was studied. First, conditions with and without inflow were compared. The results reveal a remarkable difference in factors of safety (FS) between the two conditions, suggesting that considering the effect of runoff is crucial for landslide modeling. In terms of a series of tests of the various magnitudes, durations, lag-time, and peak position of the hydrograph, analyses show that larger inflow leads to more accumulated infiltration and triggers landslides earlier. A long-term duration inflow decreases the stability more than short intensive inflow does. With subsequent surface inflow, slope failure may occur after rainfalls stop, owing to the inflow, and the shape of inflow hydrographs could slightly affect the variance in FS. Results also indicate the necessity of considering the surface runoff when using a numerical model to analyze landslide, particularly on a footslope. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrological Modeling Research for Rainfall-Induced Landslides)
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