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Nutrients, Volume 12, Issue 5 (May 2020) – 339 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The front-of-pack nutrition label Nutri-Score appears an interesting tool to discriminate the [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Phytase and Lactic Acid-Treated Cereal Grains Differently Affected Calcium and Phosphorus Homeostasis from Intestinal Uptake to Systemic Metabolism in a Pig Model
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1542; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051542 - 25 May 2020
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Abstract
High intestinal availability of dietary phosphorus (P) may impair calcium (Ca) homeostasis and bone integrity. In the present study, we investigated the effect of phytase supplementation in comparison to the soaking of cereal grains in 2.5% lactic acid (LA) on intestinal Ca and [...] Read more.
High intestinal availability of dietary phosphorus (P) may impair calcium (Ca) homeostasis and bone integrity. In the present study, we investigated the effect of phytase supplementation in comparison to the soaking of cereal grains in 2.5% lactic acid (LA) on intestinal Ca and P absorption; intestinal, renal, and bone gene expression regarding Ca and P homeostasis; bone parameters; and serum levels of regulatory hormones in growing pigs. Thirty-two pigs were randomly assigned to one of four diets in a 2 × 2 factorial design in four replicate batches for 19 days. The diets comprised either untreated or LA-treated wheat and maize without and with phytase supplementation (500 phytase units/kg). Although both treatments improved the P balance, phytase and LA-treated cereals differently modulated gene expression related to intestinal absorption, and renal and bone metabolism of Ca and P, thereby altering homeostatic regulatory mechanisms as indicated by serum Ca, P, vitamin D, and fibroblast growth factor 23 levels. Moreover, phytase increased the gene expression related to reabsorption of Ca in the kidney, whereas LA-treated cereals decreased the expression of genes for osteoclastogenesis in bones, indicating an unbalanced systemic availability of minerals. In conclusion, high intestinal availability of dietary P may impair Ca homeostasis and bone integrity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) Extract Prevents Dyslipidemia and Hepatic Steatosis in Ovariectomized Rats
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1541; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051541 - 25 May 2020
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Abstract
Estrogen is involved in lipid metabolism. Menopausal women with low estrogen secretion usually gain weight and develop steatosis associated with abnormal lipid metabolism. A previous study showed that blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) extract (BCE) had phytoestrogen activity. In this study, we examined [...] Read more.
Estrogen is involved in lipid metabolism. Menopausal women with low estrogen secretion usually gain weight and develop steatosis associated with abnormal lipid metabolism. A previous study showed that blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) extract (BCE) had phytoestrogen activity. In this study, we examined whether BCE improved lipid metabolism abnormalities and reduced liver steatosis in ovariectomized rats, as a menopausal animal model. Twelve-week-old ovariectomized (OVX) rats were fed a regular diet (Ctrl) or a 3% BCE supplemented diet while sham rats were fed a regular diet for three months. Body weight, visceral fat weight, levels of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol decreased in the BCE-treated OVX and sham rats, but not in OVX Ctrl rats. The results of hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed that BCE decreased the diameters of adipocytes and the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score. Furthermore, quantitative RT-PCR indicated a decreased expression of hepatitis-related genes, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in OVX rats after BCE treatment. This is the first study that reported improvement of lipid metabolism abnormalities in OVX rats by BCE administration. These results suggest that the intake of BCE alleviated dyslipidemia and prevented nonalcoholic steatohepatitis during menopause in this animal model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diets, Foods and Food Components Effect on Dyslipidemia)
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Open AccessArticle
Taurine Supplementation Increases Post-Exercise Lipid Oxidation at Moderate Intensity in Fasted Healthy Males
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1540; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051540 - 25 May 2020
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Abstract
Based on the fact that taurine can increase lipid metabolism, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different doses of acute taurine supplementation on lipid oxidation levels in healthy young men after a single bout of fasting aerobic [...] Read more.
Based on the fact that taurine can increase lipid metabolism, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different doses of acute taurine supplementation on lipid oxidation levels in healthy young men after a single bout of fasting aerobic exercise. A double-blind, acute, and crossover study design was conducted. Seventeen men (age 24.8 ± 4.07y; BMI: 23.9 ± 2.57 kg/m²) participated in the present study. Different doses of taurine (TAU) (3 g or 6 g) or placebo were supplemented 90 min before a single bout of fasting aerobic exercise (on a treadmill at 60% of VO2 max). The subjects performed three trials, and each one was separated by seven days. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after the exercise protocol of each test to analyze plasma levels of glycerol and taurine. Lipid and carbohydrate oxidation were determined immediately after exercise for 15 min by indirect calorimetry. We observed that TAU supplementation (6 g) increased lipid oxidation (38%) and reduced the respiratory coefficient (4%) when compared to the placebo (p < 0.05). However, no differences in lipid oxidation were observed between the different doses of taurine (3 g and 6 g). For glycerol concentrations, there were no differences between trials. Six grams of TAU supplementation 90 min before a single bout of aerobic exercise in a fasted state was sufficient to increase the lipid oxidation post-exercise in healthy young men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Deglycosylated Rutin by Acid Hydrolysis on Obesity and Hyperlipidemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1539; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051539 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 259
Abstract
The present study evaluated the effects of acid-treated rutin on hyperlipidemia and obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. The mice consumed a HFD with or without acid-treated rutin for 7 weeks. Body weight gain considerably decreased, by approximately 33%, in the acid-treated [...] Read more.
The present study evaluated the effects of acid-treated rutin on hyperlipidemia and obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. The mice consumed a HFD with or without acid-treated rutin for 7 weeks. Body weight gain considerably decreased, by approximately 33%, in the acid-treated rutin (AR) and quercetin (Q) groups compared to that in the HFD group. The adipocytes’ size in epididymal fat in AR and Q groups was significantly reduced compared to that in the HFD group (p < 0.05). Treatment with AR decreased the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to the HFD group. In particular, administration of AR significantly decreased serum triglyceride (36.82 mg/dL) by 46% compared to HFD (69.30 mg/dL). The AR group also showed significantly decreased atherogenic indices and cardiac risk factors. These results suggest that deglycosylated rutin generated by acid treatment enhances the anti-obesity and hypolipidemic effects in obese mice, and provides valuable information for improving the functional properties of glycosidic flavonoids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Lifestyle and Progression to Type 2 Diabetes in a Cohort of Workers with Prediabetes
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1538; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051538 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 317
Abstract
Background: People with prediabetes have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). Few studies have evaluated the influence of lifestyle factors on the risk of progression to diabetes and reversion to normoglycemia. The aim of this study was to determine the [...] Read more.
Background: People with prediabetes have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). Few studies have evaluated the influence of lifestyle factors on the risk of progression to diabetes and reversion to normoglycemia. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of T2D in a large cohort of workers with prediabetes, and to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic, clinical, metabolic, and lifestyle factors that affect the persistence of prediabetes and the progression to T2D. Methods: A cohort study of 27,844 adult workers (aged 20 to 65 years) from Spain who had prediabetes based on an occupational medical examination from 2012 to 2013. Prediabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) between 100 and 125 mg/dL. At the baseline evaluation, sociodemographic, anthropometric, metabolic, and lifestyle data were collected. At the 5-year follow-up, incident T2D was defined as an FPG of at least 126 mg/dL or initiation of an antidiabetic medication. Results: Among 235,995 initially screened workers, the prevalence of T2D was 14.19% (95% confidence interval (CI) 14.05 to 14.33) and the prevalence of prediabetes was 11.85% (95% CI 11.71 to 11.99). Follow-up data were available for 23,293 individuals with prediabetes. Among them, 36.08% (95% CI 35.46 to 36.70) returned to normoglycemia, 40.92% (95% CI 40.29 to 41.55) had persistent prediabetes, and 23.00% (95% CI 22.46 to 23.54) progressed to T2D. The risk for persistence of prediabetes and for progression to T2D increased with age, body mass index (BMI), triglyceride level, and less than 150 min/week of physical activity. An HbA1c level of 6% or greater was the strongest individual predictor of progression to T2D. Conclusions: Physical activity, diet, smoking, and BMI are modifiable factors that are associated with the persistence of prediabetes and the progression to T2D. The workplace is a feasible setting for the early detection of prediabetes and the promotion of lifestyles that can prevent progression to T2D. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Salt Taste, Nutrition, and Health
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1537; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051537 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 340
Abstract
The sodium ion (Na+) is essential for life [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salt Taste, Nutrition, and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Nutraceutical Effects of Lycopene in Experimental Varicocele: An “In Vivo” Model to Study Male Infertility
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1536; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051536 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 268
Abstract
Varicocele is one of the main causes of infertility in men. Oxidative stress and consequently apoptosis activation contribute to varicocele pathogenesis, worsening its prognosis. Natural products, such as lycopene, showed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in several experimental models, also in testes. In this [...] Read more.
Varicocele is one of the main causes of infertility in men. Oxidative stress and consequently apoptosis activation contribute to varicocele pathogenesis, worsening its prognosis. Natural products, such as lycopene, showed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in several experimental models, also in testes. In this study we investigated lycopene effects in an experimental model of varicocele. Male rats (n = 14) underwent sham operations and were administered with vehicle (n = 7) or with lycopene (n = 7; 1 mg/kg i.p., daily). Another group of animals (n = 14) underwent surgical varicocele. After 28 days, the sham and 7 varicocele animals were euthanized, and both operated and contralateral testes were weighted and processed. The remaining rats were treated with lycopene (1 mg/kg i.p., daily) for 30 days. Varicocele rats showed reduced testosterone levels, testes weight, Bcl-2 mRNA expression, changes in testes structure and increased malondialdehyde levels and BAX gene expression. TUNEL (Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay showed an increased number of apoptotic cells. Treatment with lycopene significantly increased testosterone levels, testes weight, and Bcl-2 mRNA expression, improved tubular structure and decreased malondialdehyde levels, BAX mRNA expression and TUNEL-positive cells. The present results show that lycopene exerts beneficial effects in testes, and suggest that supplementation with the tomato-derived carotenoid might be considered a novel nutraceutical strategy for the treatment of varicocele and male infertility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids in Human Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Is Academic Achievement Related to Mediterranean Diet, Substance Use and Social-Cognitive Factors: Findings from Lebanese Adolescents
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1535; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051535 - 25 May 2020
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Abstract
There is substantial evidence that good academic performance significantly enhances the prospects of success for adolescents in terms of employment, social status, quality of life and health. Identifying which factors are correlated to good academic achievement and which factors may need to be [...] Read more.
There is substantial evidence that good academic performance significantly enhances the prospects of success for adolescents in terms of employment, social status, quality of life and health. Identifying which factors are correlated to good academic achievement and which factors may need to be addressed by policies is crucial. Despite its importance, there is insufficient data concerning factors associated with academic achievement in the Middle East, particularly Lebanon. This study assessed the association of lifestyle, socio-demographics and motivational factors with academic achievement of Lebanese adolescents. Grade 10 and 11 Lebanese adolescents aged 15 to 18 years (n = 600), from private and public schools in Beirut and the Mount Lebanon area, completed a multi-component questionnaire assessing health behaviors, socio-demographic characteristics and motivational factors. Height and weight were physically measured and, subsequently, Body Mass Index was calculated. Academic achievement was assessed using self-reported grades and was categorized into high and low. Associations between all factors and academic achievement were tested using logistic regression models. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet, high self-efficacy and intention were positively associated with academic achievement, whereas smoking was associated with poor achievement. Our findings support the need for targeting adolescents with an unhealthier lifestyle and focusing on socio-cognitive determinants interventions aimed at enhancing academic achievement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle
Clinical and Nutritional Effectiveness of a Nutritional Protocol with Oligomeric Enteral Nutrition in Patients with Oncology Treatment-Related Diarrhea
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1534; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051534 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 288
Abstract
(1) Background: Poor nutritional status and diarrhea are common complications in cancer patients. (2) Methods: This multicenter, observational, prospective study evaluated the effectiveness of an oligomeric enteral nutrition (OEN) protocol in the improvement of nutritional status and reduction of diarrhea symptoms. Nutritional status [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Poor nutritional status and diarrhea are common complications in cancer patients. (2) Methods: This multicenter, observational, prospective study evaluated the effectiveness of an oligomeric enteral nutrition (OEN) protocol in the improvement of nutritional status and reduction of diarrhea symptoms. Nutritional status was assessed with the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), Body Mass Index (BMI) and albumin levels. Diarrhea was evaluated by the frequency and consistency of stools (Bristol Stool form scale). (3) Results: After 8 weeks of OEN protocol, the nutritional status improved in 48.3% of patients, with an increased proportion of patients at risk of malnourishment (+27.3%) at the expense of a decrease of moderately (−19.9%) and severely (−7.3%) malnourished patients (p < 0.001). Serum albumin and BMI significantly increased after 8 weeks of OEN treatment (p < 0.005). OEN showed a 71.1% effectiveness in the improvement of stool consistency. The mean number of stools per day significantly decreased from baseline (4.17 stools/day) to week 8 (1.42 stools/day; p = 0.0041). The nutritional status significantly improved even in those patients with persistent diarrhea. (4) Conclusion: The proposed OEN protocol seemed to be effective in improving the nutritional status, frequency and consistency of stools in patients with oncology treatment-related diarrhea even in persistent cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview
Nutritional Strategies to Offset Disuse-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Anabolic Resistance in Older Adults: From Whole-Foods to Isolated Ingredients
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1533; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051533 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 881
Abstract
Preserving skeletal muscle mass and functional capacity is essential for healthy ageing. Transient periods of disuse and/or inactivity in combination with sub-optimal dietary intake have been shown to accelerate the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, predisposing to disability and metabolic disease. [...] Read more.
Preserving skeletal muscle mass and functional capacity is essential for healthy ageing. Transient periods of disuse and/or inactivity in combination with sub-optimal dietary intake have been shown to accelerate the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, predisposing to disability and metabolic disease. Mechanisms underlying disuse and/or inactivity-related muscle deterioration in the older adults, whilst multifaceted, ultimately manifest in an imbalance between rates of muscle protein synthesis and breakdown, resulting in net muscle loss. To date, the most potent intervention to mitigate disuse-induced muscle deterioration is mechanical loading in the form of resistance exercise. However, the feasibility of older individuals performing resistance exercise during disuse and inactivity has been questioned, particularly as illness and injury may affect adherence and safety, as well as accessibility to appropriate equipment and physical therapists. Therefore, optimising nutritional intake during disuse events, through the introduction of protein-rich whole-foods, isolated proteins and nutrient compounds with purported pro-anabolic and anti-catabolic properties could offset impairments in muscle protein turnover and, ultimately, the degree of muscle atrophy and recovery upon re-ambulation. The current review therefore aims to provide an overview of nutritional countermeasures to disuse atrophy and anabolic resistance in older individuals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Human Milk Oligosaccharide Supplementation Affects Intestinal Barrier Function and Microbial Composition in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Young Sprague Dawley Rats
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1532; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051532 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 490
Abstract
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are chief maternal milk constituents that feed the intestinal microbiota and drive maturation of the infant gut. Our objective was to determine whether supplementing individual HMOs to a weanling diet alters growth and gut health in rats. Healthy three-week-old [...] Read more.
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are chief maternal milk constituents that feed the intestinal microbiota and drive maturation of the infant gut. Our objective was to determine whether supplementing individual HMOs to a weanling diet alters growth and gut health in rats. Healthy three-week-old Sprague Dawley rat pups were randomized to control, 2′-O-fucosyllactose (2′FL)- and 3′sialyllactose (3′SL)-fortified diets alone or in combination at physiological doses for eight weeks. Body composition, intestinal permeability, serum cytokines, fecal microbiota composition, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in the gastrointestinal tract were assessed. Males fed a control diet were 10% heavier and displayed elevated interleukin (IL-18) (p = 0.01) in serum compared to all HMO-fortified groups at week 11. No differences in body composition were detected between groups. In females, HMOs did not affect body weight but 2′FL + 3′SL significantly increased cecum weight. All female HMO-fortified groups displayed significant reductions in intestinal permeability compared to controls (p = 0.02). All HMO-fortified diets altered gut microbiota composition and mRNA expression in the gastrointestinal tract, albeit differently according to sex. Supplementation with a fraction of the HMOs found in breast milk has a complex sex-dependent risk/benefit profile. Further long-term investigation of gut microbial profiles and supplementation with other HMOs during early development is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Open AccessArticle
The Presence of Caffeic Acid in Cerebrospinal Fluid: Evidence That Dietary Polyphenols Can Cross the Blood-Brain Barrier in Humans
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1531; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051531 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 255
Abstract
Epidemiological data indicate that a diet rich in plant polyphenols has a positive effect on brain functions, improving memory and cognition in humans. Direct activity of ingested phenolics on brain neurons may be one of plausible mechanisms explaining these data. This also suggests [...] Read more.
Epidemiological data indicate that a diet rich in plant polyphenols has a positive effect on brain functions, improving memory and cognition in humans. Direct activity of ingested phenolics on brain neurons may be one of plausible mechanisms explaining these data. This also suggests that some phenolics can cross the blood-brain barrier and be present in the brain or cerebrospinal fluid. We measured 12 phenolics (a combination of the solid-phase extraction technique with high-performance liquid chromatography) in cerebrospinal fluid and matched plasma samples from 28 patients undergoing diagnostic lumbar puncture due to neurological disorders. Homovanillic acid, 3-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid and caffeic acid were detectable in cerebrospinal fluid reaching concentrations (median; interquartile range) 0.18; 0.14 µmol/L, 4.35; 7.36 µmol/L and 0.02; 0.01 µmol/L, respectively. Plasma concentrations of caffeic acid (0.03; 0.01 µmol/L) did not correlate with those in cerebrospinal fluid (ρ = −0.109, p = 0.58). Because food (fruits and vegetables) is the only source of caffeic acid in human body fluids, our results indicate that the same dietary phenolics can cross blood-brain barrier in humans, and that transportation of caffeic acid through this barrier is not the result of simple or facilitated diffusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Socio-Cultural and Economic Drivers of Plant and Animal Protein Consumption in Malaysia: The SCRiPT Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1530; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051530 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 325
Abstract
Countries in South East Asia are undergoing a nutrition transition, which typically involves a dietary shift from plant to animal proteins. To explore the main drivers of protein consumption, the SCRiPT (Socio Cultural Research in Protein Transition) study recruited a population sample in [...] Read more.
Countries in South East Asia are undergoing a nutrition transition, which typically involves a dietary shift from plant to animal proteins. To explore the main drivers of protein consumption, the SCRiPT (Socio Cultural Research in Protein Transition) study recruited a population sample in Malaysia (N = 1604). Participants completed in-person 24 h dietary recalls and socio-demographic surveys. Energy and nutrient intakes were estimated using Nutritionist Pro. A novel recipe-based frequency count coded protein sources as meat (chicken, beef, pork, and mutton), fish, eggs, dairy, and plants (cereals, pulses, tubers). Dietary intakes and frequencies were examined by gender, age, income, education, ethnicity, religion, and family status, using ANOVAs and general linear models. Energy intakes were 1869 kcal/d for men and 1699 kcal/d for women. Protein intakes were 78.5 g/d for men and 72.5 g/d for women. Higher energy and protein intakes were associated with Chinese ethnicity, higher education and incomes. Frequency counts identified plant proteins in 50% of foods, followed by meat (19%), fish (12%), eggs (12%), and dairy (7%). Most frequent source of meat was chicken (16%) rather than pork or beef (1.5% each). In bivariate analyses, animal protein counts were associated with younger age, higher education and incomes. In mutually adjusted multivariate regression models, animal proteins were associated with education and ethnicity; plant proteins were associated with ethnicity and religion. Protein choices in Malaysia involve socio-cultural as well as economic variables. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Shedding Light on the Effects of Calorie Restriction and Its Mimetics on Skin Biology
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1529; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051529 - 24 May 2020
Viewed by 567
Abstract
During the aging process of an organism, the skin gradually loses its structural and functional characteristics. The skin becomes more fragile and vulnerable to damage, which may contribute to age-related diseases and even death. Skin aging is aggravated by the fact that the [...] Read more.
During the aging process of an organism, the skin gradually loses its structural and functional characteristics. The skin becomes more fragile and vulnerable to damage, which may contribute to age-related diseases and even death. Skin aging is aggravated by the fact that the skin is in direct contact with extrinsic factors, such as ultraviolet irradiation. While calorie restriction (CR) is the most effective intervention to extend the lifespan of organisms and prevent age-related disorders, its effects on cutaneous aging and disorders are poorly understood. This review discusses the effects of CR and its alternative dietary intake on skin biology, with a focus on skin aging. CR structurally and functionally affects most of the skin and has been reported to rescue both age-related and photo-induced changes. The anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, stem cell maintenance, and metabolic activities of CR contribute to its beneficial effects on the skin. To the best of the author’s knowledge, the effects of fasting or a specific nutrient-restricted diet on skin aging have not been evaluated; these strategies offer benefits in wound healing and inflammatory skin diseases. In addition, well-known CR mimetics, including resveratrol, metformin, rapamycin, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists, show CR-like prevention against skin aging. An overview of the role of CR in skin biology will provide valuable insights that would eventually lead to improvements in skin health. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Meat Consumption, Cognitive Function and Disorders: A Systematic Review with Narrative Synthesis and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1528; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051528 - 24 May 2020
Viewed by 409
Abstract
Cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease, and other forms of dementia are increasing in prevalence worldwide, while global dietary patterns are transitioning to a ‘western type’ with increasing meat consumption. Studies which have explored the associations between cognitive function and meat intakes have produced inconsistent [...] Read more.
Cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease, and other forms of dementia are increasing in prevalence worldwide, while global dietary patterns are transitioning to a ‘western type’ with increasing meat consumption. Studies which have explored the associations between cognitive function and meat intakes have produced inconsistent findings. The aim of this systematic review was to explore the evidence linking meat intake with cognitive disorders. Twenty-nine studies were retrieved, including twelve cohort, three case-control, thirteen cross-sectional studies, and one intervention study. The majority (21/29) showed that meat consumption was not significantly associated with cognitive function or disorders. Meta-analysis of five studies showed no significant differences in meat consumption between cases with cognitive disorders and controls (standardized mean difference = −0.32, 95% CI: −1.01, 0.36); however, there was considerable heterogeneity. In contrast, a meta-analysis of five studies showed reduced odds of cognitive disorders by consuming meat weekly or more (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.57, 0.88); however, potential publication bias was noted in relation to this finding. Overall, there was no strong association between meat intake and cognitive disorders. However, the evidence base was limited, requiring more studies of high quality to isolate the specific effect of meat consumption from dietary patterns to confirm these associations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Vertebral Bone Marrow Fat Is independently Associated to VAT but Not to SAT: KORA FF4—Whole-Body MR Imaging in a Population-Based Cohort
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1527; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051527 - 24 May 2020
Viewed by 328
Abstract
The objective of the current study was to assess the relationship of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) content to abdominal fat depots, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), as well as cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) beyond physical activity in [...] Read more.
The objective of the current study was to assess the relationship of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) content to abdominal fat depots, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), as well as cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) beyond physical activity in a population-based cohort study undergoing whole-body magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Subjects of the Cooperative Health Research in the Augsburg Region (KORA) FF4 study without known cardiovascular disease underwent fat fraction quantification in vertebrae (BMATL1/L2) via a 2-point T1-weighted volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) Dixon sequence. The same MR sequence was applied to quantify VAT and SAT volume. Subjects’ characteristics, including physical activity, were determined through standardized exams and self-assessment questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate linear regression were applied. In the cohort of 378 subjects (56 ± 9.1years; 42.1% female), BMATL1/L2 was 54.3 ± 10.1%, VAT was 4.54 ± 2.71 L, and SAT was 8.10 ± 3.68 L. VAT differed significantly across BMATL1/L2 tertiles (3.60 ± 2.76 vs. 4.92 ± 2.66 vs. 5.11 ± 2.48; p < 0.001), there was no significant differences for SAT (p = 0.39). In the fully adjusted model, VAT remained positively associated with BMATL1/L2 (β = 0.53, p = 0.03). Furthermore, BMATL1/L2 was associated with age (β = 5.40 per 10-years, p < 0.001), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c; β = 1.55 per 1%, p = 0.04), lipids (β = 0.20 per 10 mg/dL triglycerides; β = 0.40 per 10 mg/dL low-density lipoprotein (LDL); β =−3.21 lipid-lowering medication; all p < 0.05), and less physical activity (β = 3.7 “no or nearly no exercise” as compared to “≥2 h per week, regularly”, p = 0.003); gender was not significantly different (p = 0.57). In the population-based cohort, VAT but not SAT were associated with higher BMATL1/L2 independently of physical activity and other cardiovascular risk factors. Further, BMATL1/L2 increased with older age, less physical activity, higher HbA1c, and increased lipids but decreased with lipid-lowering medication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Metabolic Status, and Body Composition)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Oral Choline Alfoscerate on Patients with Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1526; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051526 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 352
Abstract
Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) or dry eye is a disease characterized by ocular surface symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of oral choline alfoscerate (CA) administration as a treatment for KCS. The medical records of dry eye patients who were refractory to [...] Read more.
Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) or dry eye is a disease characterized by ocular surface symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of oral choline alfoscerate (CA) administration as a treatment for KCS. The medical records of dry eye patients who were refractory to topical eyedrops and then took oral CA were reviewed. Results of tear break-up time (TBUT), fluorescein ocular surface staining score (FSS), and tear secretion by the Schirmer test (STT) were analyzed. The results of the ocular surface disease index (OSDI), visual analog pain score (VAS), reporting of the severity and frequency of symptoms, and the modified Standardized Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness (SPEED) questionnaire were also analyzed. The records of 47 patients were analyzed for this study. The mean age was 62.8 ± 9.3 years, and the patients included 9 males and 38 females. TBUT, OSDI, and VAS significantly improved after CA administration compared to before (p < 0.05, paired t-test). After CA administration, symptom frequency and impact on life improved (p < 0.05, paired t-test). No significant change in photophobia or FSS was identified. In conclusion, oral CA administration was effective in improving tear stability and alleviating symptoms of KCS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Temporal Relation between Body Mass Index and Corticosteroid Metabolite Excretion in Childhood
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1525; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051525 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 357
Abstract
Childhood obesity is associated with alterations in hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity. However, it is unknown whether these alterations are a cause or a consequence of obesity. This study aimed to explore the temporal relationship between cortisol production and metabolism, and body mass index [...] Read more.
Childhood obesity is associated with alterations in hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity. However, it is unknown whether these alterations are a cause or a consequence of obesity. This study aimed to explore the temporal relationship between cortisol production and metabolism, and body mass index (BMI). This prospective follow-up study included 218 children (of whom 50% were male), born between 1995 and 1996, who were assessed at the ages of 9, 12 and 17 years. Morning urine samples were collected for assessment of cortisol metabolites by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, enabling the calculation of cortisol metabolite excretion rate and cortisol metabolic pathways. A cross-lagged regression model was used to determine whether BMI at various ages during childhood predicted later cortisol production and metabolism parameters, or vice versa. The cross-lagged regression coefficients showed that BMI positively predicted cortisol metabolite excretion (p = 0.03), and not vice versa (p = 0.33). In addition, BMI predicted the later balance of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) activities (p = 0.07), and not vice versa (p = 0.55). Finally, cytochrome P450 3A4 activity positively predicted later BMI (p = 0.01). Our study suggests that changes in BMI across the normal range predict alterations in HPA axis activity. Therefore, the alterations in HPA axis activity as observed in earlier studies among children with obesity may be a consequence rather than a cause of increased BMI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Food Addiction in a Group of Italian Adolescents Diagnosed for Eating Disorder
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1524; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051524 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 475
Abstract
Research in patients with Eating Disorders (EDs) showed high rates of Food Addiction (FA) even in restrictive subtypes. The majority of studies were conducted on adult population. The present work aimed to describe and compared FA in adolescents diagnosed for different EDs and [...] Read more.
Research in patients with Eating Disorders (EDs) showed high rates of Food Addiction (FA) even in restrictive subtypes. The majority of studies were conducted on adult population. The present work aimed to describe and compared FA in adolescents diagnosed for different EDs and to evaluate its association with patients’ psychopathology. Patients aged 12–18 y were included in the analysis. FA was assessed using the Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0. The rate of FA was of 49.4% in the whole sample (n = 87, F = 90.8%) and of 53.7% in patients diagnosed with restrictive anorexia nervosa. No difference in FA frequency was detected between EDs. A worse psychopathological picture was found in patients diagnosed with FA. Higher age, higher score to the Eating Attitudes Test–26 and to the Eating Disorder Inventory-3′s Interoceptive Deficits scale have been detected as the major predictors of FA in our sample. FA may be considered a transnosographic construct, not linked to the subtype of ED but to patients’ personal characteristics and, in particular, to age and interoceptive deficits. A worse psychopathology might be considered a risk factor for the presence of FA in EDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview
Supplementation with the Leucine Metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) does not Improve Resistance Exercise-Induced Changes in Body Composition or Strength in Young Subjects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1523; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051523 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 1380
Abstract
β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a leucine metabolite that is purported to increase fat-free mass (FFM) gain and performance in response to resistance exercise training (RET). The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the efficacy of HMB supplementation in augmenting FFM [...] Read more.
β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a leucine metabolite that is purported to increase fat-free mass (FFM) gain and performance in response to resistance exercise training (RET). The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the efficacy of HMB supplementation in augmenting FFM and strength gains during RET in young adults. Outcomes investigated were: total body mass (TBM), FFM, fat mass (FM), total single repetition maximum (1RM), bench press (BP) 1RM, and lower body (LwB) 1RM. Databases consulted were: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline), Excerpta Medica database (Embase), The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and SportDiscus. Fourteen studies fit the inclusion criteria; however, 11 were analyzed after data extraction and funnel plot analysis exclusion. A total of 302 participants (18–45 y) were included in body mass and composition analysis, and 248 were included in the strength analysis. A significant effect was found on TBM. However, there were no significant effects for FFM, FM, or strength outcomes. We conclude that HMB produces a small effect on TBM gain, but this effect does not translate into significantly greater increases in FFM, strength or decreases in FM during periods of RET. Our findings do not support the use of HMB aiming at improvement of body composition or strength with RET. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Tocotrienol-Rich Vitamin E (Tocovid) on Diabetic Neuropathy: A Phase II Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1522; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051522 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 520
Abstract
Chronic hyperglycemia increases oxidative stress, activates inflammatory pathways and reduces nerve growth factor (NGF) among diabetic patients, which contribute to development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Tocotrienol-Rich Vitamin E (Tocovid) possesses potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties which are postulated to target these pathogeneses [...] Read more.
Chronic hyperglycemia increases oxidative stress, activates inflammatory pathways and reduces nerve growth factor (NGF) among diabetic patients, which contribute to development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Tocotrienol-Rich Vitamin E (Tocovid) possesses potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties which are postulated to target these pathogeneses in order to ameliorate DPN. This study aims to evaluate the effects of Tocovid on nerve conduction parameters and serum biomarkers among diabetic patients. This multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 80 eligible participants. The intervention group (n = 39) was randomly allocated to receive 200 mg of Tocovid twice a day, and the control group (n = 41) received placebo twice a day. At the end of eight weeks, the nerve conduction parameters, as assessed by nerve conduction study, as well as serum biomarkers (NGF, malondialdehyde, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 and thromboxane B2) were compared between the two groups. Compared to placebo, Tocovid significantly improves the nerve conduction velocities of all nerves (+1.25 m/s, interquartile range [IQR] 3.35, p < 0.001, median nerve; +1.60 m/s, IQR 1.80, p < 0.001, sural nerve; +0.75 m/s, IQR 2.25, p < 0.001, tibial nerve). Meanwhile, the levels of serum NGF were significantly higher in the Tocovid group as compared to placebo at eight weeks post-intervention. Participants receiving Tocovid illustrated highly significant improvement in terms of nerve conduction velocities for all nerves tested after eight weeks of supplementation. In addition, Tocovid supplementation elevated the levels of serum NGF, in which its increase is postulated to reflect enhanced neuronal functions. This novel finding suggests that Tocovid could be a disease-modifying agent targeting serum NGF to improve nerve conduction velocities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Habits in Children with Respiratory Allergies: A Single-Center Polish Pilot Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1521; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051521 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 329
Abstract
Background: The rising trend in allergic diseases has developed in parallel with the increasing prevalence of obesity, suggesting a possible association. The links between eating habits and allergies have not been sufficiently clarified. Aim: To evaluate the nutritional status, eating habits, and risk [...] Read more.
Background: The rising trend in allergic diseases has developed in parallel with the increasing prevalence of obesity, suggesting a possible association. The links between eating habits and allergies have not been sufficiently clarified. Aim: To evaluate the nutritional status, eating habits, and risk factors of obesity and pulmonary function in children with allergic rhinitis. Materials and methods: We evaluated 106 children with allergic rhinitis (mean age 12.1 ± 3.4 years; M/F 60/46) from the Department of Allergology. Clinical data were collected regarding allergies, physical activity, nutritional status (Bodystat), dietary habits (Food Frequency Questionnaire validated for the Polish population), skin prick test with aeroallergens (Allergopharma), and spirometry (Jaeger). Results: All children suffered from allergic rhinitis; among them, 43 (40.6%) presented symptoms of asthma. There were differences between children with only allergic rhinitis (AR group) and children with both rhinitis and asthma (AA group) in pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 100 ± 11 vs. 92.1 ± 15.0; p < 0.05). A total of 84 children (79%) presented a normal body mass index (BMI) (10–97 percentile), 8 (7.5%) were underweight, and 14 (13.5%) were overweight or obese. There were no differences in body composition between the AR and AA groups. Incorrect eating habits were demonstrated by most of the children, e.g., consumption of three or fewer meals in a day (38%), sweets every day (44%), snacking between meals every day (80%), and eating meals less than 1 h before bedtime (47%). Compared to the AR group, the AA group was more likely to eat more meals a day (p = 0.04), snack more often (p = 0.04), and eat before sleeping (p = 0.005). Multiple regression analysis showed a significant association between high BMI and snacking between meals and low physical activity (adjusted R2 = 0.97; p < 0.05). Conclusions: The risk factors for obesity in children with allergies include snacking and low physical activity. Most children with respiratory allergies, especially those with asthma, reported incorrect eating habits such as snacking and eating before bedtime. A correlation between pulmonary function and body composition or dietary habits was not found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Obesity and Nutrition Promotion Intervention)
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Open AccessArticle
Withdrawal from Extended, Intermittent Access to A Highly Palatable Diet Impairs Hippocampal Memory Function and Neurogenesis: Effects of Memantine
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1520; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051520 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 339
Abstract
Background: Compulsive eating can be promoted by intermittent access to palatable food and is often accompanied by cognitive deficits and reduction in hippocampal plasticity. Here, we investigated the effects of intermittent access to palatable food on hippocampal function and neurogenesis. Methods: Male Wistar [...] Read more.
Background: Compulsive eating can be promoted by intermittent access to palatable food and is often accompanied by cognitive deficits and reduction in hippocampal plasticity. Here, we investigated the effects of intermittent access to palatable food on hippocampal function and neurogenesis. Methods: Male Wistar rats were either fed chow for 7 days/week (Chow/Chow group), or fed chow intermittently for 5 days/week followed by a palatable diet for 2 days/week (Chow/Palatable group). Hippocampal function and neurogenesis were assessed either during withdrawal or following renewed access to palatable food. Furthermore, the ability of the uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist memantine to prevent the diet-induced memory deficits and block the maladaptive feeding was tested. Results: Palatable food withdrawn Chow/Palatable rats showed both a weakened ability for contextual spatial processing and a bias in their preference for a “novel cue” over a “novel place,” compared to controls. They also showed reduced expression of immature neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus as well as a withdrawal-dependent decrease of proliferating cells. Memantine treatment was able both to reverse the memory deficits and to reduce the excessive intake of palatable diet and the withdrawal-induced hypophagia in food cycling rats. Conclusions: In summary, our results provide evidence that withdrawal from highly palatable food produces NMDAR-dependent deficits in hippocampal function and a reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake, Brain Development and Learning)
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Open AccessArticle
A Dose-Dependent Effect of Carnipure® Tartrate Supplementation on Endurance Capacity, Recovery, and Body Composition in an Exercise Rat Model
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1519; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051519 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 379
Abstract
The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of Carnipure® Tartrate (CT) supplementation with or without exercise on endurance capacity, recovery, and fatigue by assessing time to exhaustion as well as body weight and composition in rats. In addition, antioxidant [...] Read more.
The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of Carnipure® Tartrate (CT) supplementation with or without exercise on endurance capacity, recovery, and fatigue by assessing time to exhaustion as well as body weight and composition in rats. In addition, antioxidant capacity has been evaluated by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathioneperoxidase; GSHPx) activities. Fifty-six male Wistar rats were divided into eight groups including seven rats each. A control group did not receive CT nor exercise. Another control group received 200 mg/kg CT without exercise. The other six groups of rats went through an exercise regimen consisting of a 5-day training period with incremental exercise capacity, which was followed by 6 weeks of the run at 25 m/min for 45 min every day. CT was supplemented at 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg per day during the 6 weeks. Rats submitted to exercise and supplemented with CT had a significant and dose-dependent increase in time to exhaustion and this effect seems to be independent of exercise (p < 0.05). Additionally, recovery and fatigue were improved, as shown by a significant and dose-dependent decrease in myoglobin and lactic acid plasma levels, which are two markers of muscle recovery. CT supplementation led to a dose-response decrease in body weight and visceral fat. These effects become significant at 200 and 400 mg/kg doses (p < 0.05). Additionally, the antioxidant capacity was improved, as shown by a significant and dose-dependent increase in SOD, CAT, and GSHPx. Serum MDA concentrations decreased in exercising rats with CT supplementation. CT supplementation led to a decrease in serum glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol concentrations with the lowest levels observed at 400 mg/kg dose (p < 0.05). These effects correlated with a significant dose-dependent increase in serum total L-carnitine, free L-carnitine, and acetyl-carnitine, which linked the observed efficacy to CT supplementation. These results demonstrate that CT supplementation during exercise provides benefits on exercise performance, recovery, and fatigue as well as improved the lipid profile and antioxidant capacity. The lowest dose leads to some of these effects seen in rats where 25 mg/kg corresponds to 250 mg/day as a human equivalent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Interplay of Dietary Fatty Acids and Cholesterol Impacts Brain Mitochondria and Insulin Action
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1518; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051518 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 490
Abstract
Overconsumption of high-fat and cholesterol-containing diets is detrimental for metabolism and mitochondrial function, causes inflammatory responses and impairs insulin action in peripheral tissues. Dietary fatty acids can enter the brain to mediate the nutritional status, but also to influence neuronal homeostasis. Yet, it [...] Read more.
Overconsumption of high-fat and cholesterol-containing diets is detrimental for metabolism and mitochondrial function, causes inflammatory responses and impairs insulin action in peripheral tissues. Dietary fatty acids can enter the brain to mediate the nutritional status, but also to influence neuronal homeostasis. Yet, it is unclear whether cholesterol-containing high-fat diets (HFDs) with different combinations of fatty acids exert metabolic stress and impact mitochondrial function in the brain. To investigate whether cholesterol in combination with different fatty acids impacts neuronal metabolism and mitochondrial function, C57BL/6J mice received different cholesterol-containing diets with either high concentrations of long-chain saturated fatty acids or soybean oil-derived poly-unsaturated fatty acids. In addition, CLU183 neurons were stimulated with combinations of palmitate, linoleic acid and cholesterol to assess their effects on metabolic stress, mitochondrial function and insulin action. The dietary interventions resulted in a molecular signature of metabolic stress in the hypothalamus with decreased expression of occludin and subunits of mitochondrial electron chain complexes, elevated protein carbonylation, as well as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. Palmitate caused mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) resistance, while cholesterol and linoleic acid did not cause functional alterations. Finally, we defined insulin receptor as a novel negative regulator of metabolically stress-induced JNK activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Fat High-Saturated Diet)
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Open AccessArticle
Household Food Insecurity and the Association with Cumulative Biological Risk among Lower-Income Adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2007–2010
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1517; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051517 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 307
Abstract
Household food insecurity has been associated with adverse health outcomes; however, the mechanisms underlying these associations are not well-defined. Using data from 5005 adults from the 2007–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), we examined associations between household food insecurity and cumulative [...] Read more.
Household food insecurity has been associated with adverse health outcomes; however, the mechanisms underlying these associations are not well-defined. Using data from 5005 adults from the 2007–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), we examined associations between household food insecurity and cumulative biological risk, a measure of the body’s physiological response to chronic stress. Household food security was assessed using the 18-item Household Food Security Survey Module. Marginal food security refers to 1–2 positive responses, and food insecurity refers to ≥3 positive responses. The cumulative biological risk scores were calculated based on the distributions of ten biomarkers from the cardiovascular, metabolic, and immune systems. Elevated biological risk was defined as a risk score of ≥3. Multivariable regression models were used to examine associations between food security and cumulative biological risk scores, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. After multivariable adjustment, food insecurity was associated with a 0.14-unit higher cumulative biological risk score (95% CI 0.05–0.22, p-trend = 0.003) and higher odds of elevated biological risk (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.05–1.37, p-trend = 0.003). These associations differed by gender. Among women, food insecurity was associated with 0.30-unit higher cumulative biological risk score (95% CI 0.14–0.45, p-trend = 0.0004) and higher odds of elevated biological risk (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.29–2.00, p-trend < 0.0001). These associations were not observed in men. Women experiencing food insecurity demonstrated elevated levels of biological risk. These findings support the hypothesis that food insecurity may be associated with women’s chronic health outcomes through the pathway of chronic stress. Further research is needed to understand why these associations were not observed in men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition among Vulnerable Populations)
Open AccessArticle
Punicalagin Protects Diabetic Nephropathy by Inhibiting Pyroptosis Based on TXNIP/NLRP3 Pathway
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1516; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051516 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 392
Abstract
Diabetic nephropathy is a diabetic complication caused by chronic inflammation. As the primary polyphenol in pomegranate, punicalagin is believed to have significant anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we established a mice model for diabetes induced by high-fat diet (HFD)/ streptozotocin (STZ) to verify [...] Read more.
Diabetic nephropathy is a diabetic complication caused by chronic inflammation. As the primary polyphenol in pomegranate, punicalagin is believed to have significant anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we established a mice model for diabetes induced by high-fat diet (HFD)/ streptozotocin (STZ) to verify the protective effect of punicalagin in vivo. The results show that the blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (CREA), and the urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) were significantly decreased in diabetic mice after punicalagin intervention, and the symptoms of glomerular interstitial hyperplasia and glomerular hypertrophy were alleviated. Pyroptosis is an essential manner of programmed cell death in the inflammatory response; the expression of pyroptosis-related proteins such as interleukin-1 (IL-1β), cysteinyl aspartate-specific protease-1 (caspase-1), gasdermin D (GSDMD), and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain containing protein 3 (NLRP3) was decreased in our study, which proved that the administration of punicalagin for eight weeks can significantly inhibit pyroptosis in mice. In addition, punicalagin reduced high glucose-mediated protein expressions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 4 (NOX4) and alleviated mitochondria damage. Low expression of NOX4 inhibits the dissociation of thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and the suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. To summarize, our study provided evidence that punicalagin can alleviate diabetic nephropathy, and the effect is associated with downregulating the expression of NOX4, inhibiting TXNIP/NLRP3 pathway-mediated pyroptosis, suggesting its therapeutic implications for complications of diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effects of Phytochemicals on Health Benefit)
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Open AccessArticle
The Action of JAK/STAT3 and BMP/HJV/SMAD Signaling Pathways on Hepcidin Suppression by Tucum-do-Cerrado in a Normal and Iron-Enriched Diets
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1515; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051515 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 349
Abstract
The Brazilian savanna fruit, tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart.) reduces hepatic hepcidin levels. Therefore, we investigated the effect of tucum-do-cerrado on the TfR/HFE and/or BMP/HJV/SMAD and JAK/STAT pathways, in normal and excess iron conditions. Rats were treated with: control diet (CT); control diet [...] Read more.
The Brazilian savanna fruit, tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart.) reduces hepatic hepcidin levels. Therefore, we investigated the effect of tucum-do-cerrado on the TfR/HFE and/or BMP/HJV/SMAD and JAK/STAT pathways, in normal and excess iron conditions. Rats were treated with: control diet (CT); control diet +15% tucum-do-cerrado (Tuc); iron-enriched diet (+Fe); or iron-enriched diet +15% tucum-do-cerrado (Tuc+Fe). Tucum-do-cerrado (Tuc) decreased hepatic Hamp and Hjv mRNA levels but did not alter Bmp6, Smad7, Tfr1, and Hfe mRNA levels; pSMAD1/5/8 and pSTAT3 protein levels; labile iron pool (LIP); and inflammatory biomarkers, compared to the CT group. The iron-enriched diet increased Hamp mRNA levels, as well as pSMAD1/5/8 and pSTAT3 protein levels, while no difference was observed in Hjv, Bmp6, Smad7, Tfr1, and Hfe mRNA levels and LIP compared to the CT group. The association of tucum-do-cerrado with the iron-enriched diet (Tuc+Fe) decreased Hamp, Hjv, Bmp6, and Hfe mRNA levels and pSTAT3 protein content compared to the +Fe group, while increased Hamp and decreased Hfe mRNA levels compared to the Tuc group. Therefore, the inhibition of hepatic hepcidin by tucum-do-cerrado consumption may involve the downregulation of intestinal Dmt1 and hepatic Hjv expression and deacetylation mediated by SIRT1 by a mechanism that is independent of tissue iron content. However, in excess iron conditions, the modulation of hepatic hepcidin expression by tucum-do-cerrado seems to be partially mediated by the inflammatory signaling pathway, as well as involves the chelating activity of tucum-do-cerrado. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Diet and Nutrition Status of Mongolian Adults
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1514; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051514 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 498
Abstract
(1) Background: Aspects of the Mongolian food supply, including high availability of animal-source foods and few plant foods, are plausibly associated with disease in the population. Data on Mongolian diets are lacking, and these risks are poorly quantified. The purpose of this study [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Aspects of the Mongolian food supply, including high availability of animal-source foods and few plant foods, are plausibly associated with disease in the population. Data on Mongolian diets are lacking, and these risks are poorly quantified. The purpose of this study was to provide a multifaceted nutritional analysis of the modern Mongolian diet. (2) Methods: The study population consisted of 167 male and 167 female healthy non-pregnant urban and nomadic adults (22–55 years) randomly selected from lists of residents in 8 regions. From 2011–2016, 3-day weighed diet records and serum were collected twice from each participant in summer and winter; anthropometry was collected once from each participant. Serum was analyzed for biomarkers, and nutrient intake computed using purpose-built food composition data and adjusted for within-person variation. Exploratory dietary patterns were derived and analyzed for associations with diet and nutrition measurements. (3) Results: We collected 1838 of an expected 1986 diet records (92.5%), 610/658 serum samples (92.7%), and 315/334 height and weight measurements (94.3%). Sixty-one percent of men and 51% of women were overweight or obese. Consumption of red meat, refined grains, and whole-fat dairy was high, while that of fruits, non-tuberous vegetables, eggs, nuts and seeds, fish and poultry, and whole grains was low. Dairy and red meat were more consumed in summer and winter, respectively. Dietary inadequacy of 10 of 21 assessed nutrients, including fiber, folate, and vitamin D were >50% prevalent, while protein, zinc, and vitamin B12 inadequacy were low. Biochemical evidence of iron and vitamin A deficiency was also low. Three dietary patterns (Urban, Transitional, Nomadic) explained 41% of variation in food consumption. The Urban pattern was positively associated with BMI in multivariate analysis. (4) Conclusions: Results indicate a high prevalence of key dietary inadequacies and overweight among Mongolian adults. Prior studies by our group have suggested that expanded supplementation and food fortification would be effective in addressing micronutrient inadequacies; these strategies should be coupled with measures to mitigate the growing burden of chronic disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Population-Based Nutrition Epidemiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence of Product Claims and Marketing Buzzwords Found on Health Food Snack Products Does Not Relate to Nutrient Profile
Nutrients 2020, 12(5), 1513; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051513 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 473
Abstract
Growth in the consumer health and wellness industry has led to an increase of packaged foods marketed as health food (HF) products. In consequence, a ‘health halo’ around packaged HF has arisen that influences consumers at point-of-purchase. This study compared product claims (nutrient [...] Read more.
Growth in the consumer health and wellness industry has led to an increase of packaged foods marketed as health food (HF) products. In consequence, a ‘health halo’ around packaged HF has arisen that influences consumers at point-of-purchase. This study compared product claims (nutrient content claims (NCC), health claims and marketing ‘buzzwords’) displayed on packaged HF snack products sold in HF stores and HF aisles in supermarkets to equivalent products sold in regular aisles (RA) of supermarkets. Product Health Star Rating (HSR), nutrient profile and price were also compared. Data were collected for 2361 products from three supermarket chains, two HF chains and one independent HF store in Sydney, Australia. Mann-Whitney U tests compared the product claims, HSR, nutrient composition and unit ($) price. HF snacks displayed significantly more product claims per product compared to RA foods (HSR ≤ 2.5), median (IQR) 5.0(4.0) versus 1.0(2) and (HSR > 2.5) 4.0(4.0) versus 3.0(4), respectively (p < 0.001). A significantly different HSR was evident between HF and RA snack products, median 2.5(0) versus 2.0(1.5), respectively (p < 0.001). HF snacks cost significantly more than RA snack foods, irrespective of product HSR (p < 0.001). These findings support the recommendation for revised labelling regulations and increased education regarding consumers food label interpretation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Labeling: Analysis, Understanding, and Perception)
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